Arrishaght

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
Plait sollysh[noa] (photographic plate) Vates ta taishbyney arrishaght Bates eddyr dooieyn Dismorphia (kied as treeoo 'traihyn) as dooieyn Ithomiini (Nymphalidae) (nah as kerroo 'traih).

Ayns bea-oaylleeaght, ta arrishaght çheet er caslys eddyr daa phossan dy vioagyn ta coadey nane ny'n jees oc. Ta arrishaght chummey, ymmyrkey, heeanagh as hoar ry-akin, as yn arrishagh cummal 'syn ynnyd cheddin as y bun-hampleyr echey.[1][2]

Ta arrishaght ayn tra ta possan dy vioagyn (arrishee) gaafilley co-hroyn marish possan elley (bun-hampleyryn), as ad ry-ennaghtyn ec bioagyn elley. 'Sy cheeayll s'lhea, t'eh goaill stiagh bun-hampleyryn neuvio. Ta'n aafilley shen liorish trimmid reihyssagh bioag moylleydagh ta cronnaghey as toiggal (ny share, mee-hoiggal) y co-hro dy vondeishagh da'n arrishagh.[2] Myr shen, ta ushagyn croghey er keeayll shilley dys feddyn shey-chassee blasstal ny meevlasstal; ta shen cur trimmid er adsyn blasstal dy yeeaghyn gollrish adsyn meevlasstal do nagh jed ad er ee. Cha nel eh casley rish aafilley co-chleaynagh[noa] (convergent evolution), caslys eddyr daa ghooie er bun aafilley neuchroghee da aghtyn baghee ny da çhymbyllaghtyn ta cosoylagh rish y cheilley.

She corys arrishagh ee y chooish. She dooieyn ad ny possanyn son y chooid smoo, agh ny keayrtyn she keintys ny croo er lheh t'ayn. Ny keayrtyn, ta'n arrishagh jannoo arrish er y dooie echey hene (hene-arrishaght). Son y chooid smoo, she bioag eddyr eh y moylleydagh, my sampleyr co-chragheyder y daa ghooie; agh ny keayrtyn she y bun-hampleyr hene t'ayn, myr sampleyr lhemeen ta jannoo arrish er doo-oallee craghagh dys shaghey goll er ee.[3]

Son y chooid smoo, ta arrishaght cur vondeish da'n arrishagh as jannoo jeeyl da'n voylleydagh, agh t'eh croghey er y torçh dy arrishaght t'ayn. Ny keayrtyn, cha nodmayd feddyn bun-hampleyr er lheh da arrishagh; myr sampleyr, keiltynys ny cowrey sooilley[noa] (eyespot). Ayns dagh cooish, ta'n cowrey moylley y moylleydagh do nagh ver eh enney kiart er yn arrishagh. She sorçh dy cho-aafilley t'ayn, as immeeaght eillaghyn aafilleydagh[noa] (evolutionary arms race) son y chooid smoo.[4]

Ny keayrtyn, ta bun-hampleyr er lheh ec dagh amm bea yn arrishagh. Ta kuse dy ghooie yl-chrooagh as ta unnanee jannoo arrish er caghlaaghyn bun-hampleyr. Ny keayrtyn, ta ny smoo na un arrishagh ec bun-hampleyr ennagh, agh ta reih fo venkid[noa] (frequency-dependent selection) cur foayr da corys as ny smoo bioagyn bun-hampleyragh na arrishagh ayn. Dy cadjin, ta faggys-mooinjerys eddyr bun-hampleyr as arrishagh, agh ta cooishyn elley ayn.[5] Ta'n chooid smoo dy arrishee nyn shey-chassee.[1] Ta arrishaght ry-akin mastey lossreeyn as fungyssyn myrgeddin.[6][7][8]

Rang-oardraghey[reagh]

Shimmey sorçh dy arrishaght t'ayn, agh t'ad ry-scarrey dy lheeah rere dean: coadey, craghtys, as geddyn sliught.

Arrishaght choadee[reagh]

Beishteig Macroxiphus jannoo arrish er sniengan.

Ta arrishaght choadee cooney bioag dy haghney cragheyderyn liorish cur orroo credjal dy nee nhee ennagh elley t'ayn.

Arrishaght Bates[reagh]

Ymmodee bioagyn, goaill stiagh crowaltee, jannoo arrish er connspee ghuinnagh.

Ayns arrishaght Bates, ta cowraghyn y vun-hampleyr ec yn arrishagh chammah, agh cha nel y tro oc ta cur er cragheyderyn shaghney y bun-hampleyr (m.s. meevlasstalys ny nieu). T'ad çheet lesh arrishee ny share my s'goan adsyn as s'lhieenar ad bun-hampleyryn (reih fo venkid contraartagh).

Arrishaght Müller[reagh]

She foillycanyn Heliconius ad sampleyr classicagh jeh arrishaght Müller. [9]

Ayns arrishaght Müller, ta troyn noichraghagh ec daa ghooie (m.s. meevlasstalys ny nieu), as ta ny cowraghyn raauee oc gollrish y cheilley. T'eh ny s'assey da cragheyderyn ynsaghey gyn ee yn derrey yeh ny'n jeh elley, as myr shen ta vondeish ec y troor. Myr shen, she sorçh dy cho-vondeish t'ayn. 'Sy chooish shoh, cha aashagh eh cur "arrishagh" ny "bun-hampleyr" er dooie er lheh – she cho-arrishee t'ayn.

Arrishaght Emsley[reagh]

Ardnieu corryl Micrurus tener marrooagh.

Ta arrishaght Emsley çheet er cragh marrooagh ta jannoo arrish er dooie ny sloo gaueagh. Cha cadjin ee y chooish shoh. Ta'n tro marrooagh coadey yn arrishagh, agh my ta cragheyder marroo, cha nod eh ynsaghey gyn soiaghey er y dooie. Myr shen, cha nel vondeish ec bioag marrooagh ayns cowrey raauee er-e-hon hene. Veagh eh ny share shaghney goll er soiaghey er, as shaghney y jargaght dy jed eh er lhott, liorish keiltynys. Agh my ta dooie gaueagh elley ayn nagh vel marrooagh, as cowraghyn raauee echey, ta'n cragheyder gynsaghey gyn ee y dooie shen. Myr shen, ta vondeish ec y dooie marrooagh arrish er y dooie elley y yannoo, my ta eiyrtys shen dy vel ny sloo cragheyderyn soiaghey er na yinnagh as keiltynys echey.

Ta bun elley ayn tra ta beoyn dooghyssagh ec cragheyderyn dy haghney bioagyn ny cowraghyn ennagh. [10] Mannagh vel feme ec y cragheyderyn dy ynsaghey dy vel cowrey ennagh gaueagh, ta vondeish ec dooie erbee jannoo arrish er y chowrey shen, my she dooie marrooagh ny dooie meenieunagh t'ayn.[11]

Ren MG Emsley cur bun er yn eie shoh bentyn rish ardnieughyn corryl[noa] (coral snakes).[12] Ta'n cowrey raauee cheddin ec fo-ghooieyn Lampropeltis triangulum (meenieunagh), ardnieughyn 'sy ghenus Erythrolamprus (nieunagh) as ardnieughyn corryl. Ta crackan jiarg oc, as fainnaghyn dooey as baney (ny buigh-vane) mygeayrt oc. Cha dod bea-oayllee toiggal cre'n fa va ardnieughyn marrooagh arrish er dooieyn ny sloo nieunagh. 'Sy chorys arrishagh shoh, she Erythrolamprus ad ny bun-hampleyryn as ta'n daa ghooie elley nyn arrishee, y fer meenieunagh myr arrishaght Bates as y fer elley myr arrishaght Emsley.

Arrishaght Wasmann[reagh]

Ayns arrishaght Wasmann, ta'n arrishagh cummal mastey ny bun-hampleyryn as edd ny coloin. She inquilinus t’ayn. Son y chooid smoo, she bioagyn sheshoil ad ny bun-hampleyryn: snienganyn, shellanyn as connspee.[13] Ta’n ennym çheet er Erich Wasmann.

Arrishaght Gilbert[reagh]

Ayns arrishaght Gilbert, ta cragh cur er y chragheyder faagail jeh liorish jannoo arrish ersyn. Ta’n ennym rere Lawrence E. Gilbert, ny eggoayllee Americaanagh, as crooit ec Georges Pasteur.[14][15] Myr sampleyr, ta foillycanyn Heliconius breh oohyn er duillagyn lossreeyn 'sy ghenus Passiflora . Ta kuse jeh ny lossreeyn shoh er n’aafilley cowraghyn buighey gollrish oohyn er çhee guirr. Cha mie lesh foillycanyn breh oohyn faggys da oohyn elley (bun co-hirrey neuvondeishagh as cannablaght), as myr shen t’eh coadey ny duillagyn. Er y laue elley, ta ny far-oohyn shoh nyn varaigyn molley ta cleayney cragheyderyn braddag, myr sampleyr snienganyn as connspee. Myr shen, ta’n corys shen cramp dy liooar, as cha nee arrishaght ynrican t’ayn.[5]

Arrishaght Brower[reagh]

Ta nieunaght vraddagyn Danaus plexippus croghey er ny t'ad er dy ee.

Ta arrishaght Brower er ny h-enmys er son Lincoln P. Brower as Jane Van Zandt Brower.[14][16][17] She hene-arrishaght t’ayn, as yn arrishagh jannoo arrish er unnanee elley ‘sy dooie cheddin. She sorçh dy arrishaght Bates t’ayn, tra ta spectrum blasstalys ayn; ta kuse jeh unnanee blasstal as kuse elley meevlasstal. Myr sampleyr, ta braddagyn Danaus plexippus gee lossreeyn 'sy ghenus Asclepias. Ta kuse jeh ny lossreeyn meenieunagh as fir elley nieunagh, as ta nieunaght ny braddagyn rere y vee. Myr shen, ta ny braddagyn meenieunagh croghey er nieunaght adsyn ta nieunagh er son nyn goadey. Ayns cooishyn elley, ta keintys ennagh croghey er fendeilyssyn y cheintys elley.[18]

Arrishaght Vavilov[reagh]

Ayns arrishaght Vavilov, ta sarkyl gaafilley co-hroyn marish troar ennagh liorish reih deiney.[14] Ta'n ennym çheet er Nikolai Vavilov, ny lus-oayllee as gien-oayllee Rooshagh.[19] Ta eirinee jannoo eab sarkyllyn y ghlenney liorish goaill magh lossreeyn 'sy vaghey, ny eddyraghey rassyn ny sarkyl veih rassyn ny troar. Liorish shen, t'ad cur trimmid reihyssagh er ny sarkyllyn, as reih er son sarkyllyn ta ny smoo gollrish y troar ayns dagh sheeloghe.[20] 'Sy chooish shoh, t'ad reih noi y dean oc; cha mie lhieu reih er son sarkyllyn ta gollrish y troar, agh shen eiyrtys glenney.

Ta Pasteur rang-oardraghey arrishaght Vavilov myr saase caggoil ny gientynagh.[14] She saase coadee t'ayn chammah: ta'n tarkyl jannoo arrish er dooie coadit dys shaghney goll er marroo. Ta'n arrishaght shoh faggys da arrishaght Bates: ta troyn ec y troar (t'ee yn-ee) ta dy coadey veih goll er stroie as nagh vel ec yn tarkyl; as liorish jannoo arrish er troar, ta'n tarkyl jannoo assee da'n bun-hampleyr as da'n voylleydagh myrgeddin. Er y laue elley, ta scanshyn eddyr oc. Cha nee kiangley noidagh t'ayn eddyr moylleydagh as bun-hampleyr, agh co-vondeish: ta'n troar goll er skeaylley as coadey ec deiney, as ta deiney geddyn bee jeh'n troar. Cha nel y tarkyl goll er ee, agh er stroie, as shen er y fa ynrican dy vel eh leodaghey troar. Er-jerrey, cha nel y corys arrishagh shoh ry-akin ayns eggochorys gyn laue deiney.

Arrishaght chraghagh[reagh]

Ayns arrishaght chraghagh, ta cragheyder ny sheadane er n'aafilley co-hroyn marish dooie neuskielleydagh ta lhiggey daue shaghey geill ny cragh. Ny keayrtyn, t'ad jannoo arrish er y chragh hene; ny keayrtyn elley, er dooie neuchommeeagh ny coonee.

Arrishaght cheintyssagh[reagh]

Ny keayrtyn, ta fir goll er cleayney cour ben-vioag er reays; 'sy chooish shoh, ta'n bun-hampleyr y dooie cheddin as y moylleydagh. Hoilshee James E. Lloyd dy vel lampragyn Photuris jannoo arrish er cowraghyn colleeys Photinus bwoirrinagh.[21] Hoig eh dy vel lampragyn firrynagh jeh ymmodee genera tayrn er-gerrey da ny "femmes fatales" as goll er ee. Ta lamprag Photuris freggyrt ny fir rere y dooie oc; ta stoyr dy chowraghyn yn-ymmydey eck as ad cosoylagh rish traa as oardagh cowraghyn bwoirrinagh y dooie cheddin.[22]

Ta Chlorobalius leucoviridis ny arrishagh sheeanagh craghagh er cicadas.

Ta Chlorobalius leucoviridis ny h-Austrail cleaynaghey piobeyryn freoaie Cicadettini firrinagh myr bee. T'eh jannoo shen liorish clashtyn rish ny criggyn oc as jannoo arrish er criggyn freggyrtagh mraane er cannoo y dooie. T'ad feer caghlee; t'ad cleaynaghey fir jeh ymmodee dooie, ga dy vel criggyn er lheh ec dagh dooie.[23]

Imraaghyn[reagh]

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  2. 2.0 2.1 Wickler, W. (1965). "Mimicry and the evolution of animal communication". Nature 208 (5010). doi:10.1038/208519a0. Bibcode1965Natur.208..519W. 
  3. A moth in spider's clothing <<Neurophilosophy (2006-12-22). Feddynit er 2008-06-07. (includes video)
  4. G.D. Ruxton; T.N. Sherratt & M.P. Speed (2004). Avoiding attack: the evolutionary ecology of crypsis, warning signals, and mimicry (Baarle), 161.
  5. 5.0 5.1 N. A. Campbell (1996). "50", Biology, 4oo (Baarle), New York: Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 0-8053-1957-3.
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  7. "The effects of pathogen-induced pseudoflowers and buttercups on each other's insect visitation" (1994). Ecology 75 (2). doi:10.2307/1939539. 
  8. Wickler, Wolfgang (1998). "Mimicry", Encyclopædia Britannica, 15oo (Baarle), 144–151.
  9. "Repeating Patterns of Mimicry" (2006). PLoS Biol 4 (10): e341. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040341. PMID 17048984. 
  10. "Innate Recognition of Coral Snake Pattern by a Possible Avian Predator" (1975). Science 187 (4178). doi:10.1126/science.187.4178.759. PMID 17795249. Bibcode1975Sci...187..759S. 
  11. "Coral snake mimicry: Does it occur?" (1981). Science 213 (4513). doi:10.1126/science.213.4513.1207. PMID 17744739. Bibcode1981Sci...213.1207G. 
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  13. Wasmann, E. (1894). Kritisches Verzeichniss der myrmecophilin und termitophilen Arthropoden (Germaanish). Berlin: Felix Dames.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 "A classificatory review of mimicry systems" (1982). Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13. doi:10.1146/annurev.es.13.110182.001125. 
  15. L.E. Gilbert (1975). "Ecological consequences of a coevolved mutualism between butterflies and plants", ayns L. E. Gilbert, P. H. Raven: Coevolution of Animal and Plants. Austin & London: University of Texas Press, 210–40.
  16. Brower, L. P. (1970). "Plant poisons in a terrestrial food chain and implications for mimicry theory", ayns K. L. Chambers: Biochemical Coevolution. Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University, 69–82.
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  18. Bigot L.; Jouventin, P. (1974). "Quelques expériences de comestibilité de Lépidoptères gabonais faites avec le mandrill, le cercocèbe à joues grises et legarde-boeufs" (Frangish). Terre Vie 28. 
  19. Vavilov, N. I. (1951). "The origin, variation, immunity and breeding of cultivated plants. (Translation by K. S. Chester)". Chronica Botanica 13. 
  20. Barrett, kied1 = S. (1983). "Mimicry in Plants" (Baarle). Scientific American 257. 
  21. Lloyd, J. E. (1965). "Aggressive Mimicry in Photuris: Firefly Femmes Fatales". Science 149. 
  22. Lloyd, J. E. (1975). "Aggressive Mimicry in Photuris Fireflies: Signal Repertoires by Femmes Fatales". Science 187 (4175). doi:10.1126/science.187.4175.452. PMID 17835312. Bibcode1975Sci...187..452L. 
  23. "Versatile aggressive mimicry of cicadas by an Australian predatory katydid" (2009). PLoS One 4 (1): e4185. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004185. PMID 19142230. Bibcode2009PLoSO...4.4185M.