Arrishaght Bates

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
Plait sollysh[noa] (photographic plate) Bates ta taishbyney arrishaght Bates eddyr dooieyn Dismorphia (kied as treeoo 'traihyn) as dooieyn Ithomiini (Nymphalidae) (nah as kerroo 'traih).

She arrishaght noichraghagh ee Arrishaght Bates, as dooie meenieunagh er n'aafilley dy yannoo arrish er dooie nieunagh dys cur grayn er co-chragheyderyn y ghaa ghooie. Ta'n ennym eck er son y najooree Hostnagh Henry Walter Bates ren obbyr er arrishaght ayns keyljyn fliaghee[noa] (rainforests) ny Brasseel.

She saase smoo cadjin as share er fys arrishaght t'ayn; myr shen, ta sleih toiggal "arrishaght" myr "arrishaght Bates" dy cadjin, agh ta saaseyn elley ayn, goaill stiagh arrishaght Müller as arrishaght chraghagh.

T'ad cur bun-hampleyr er y dooie nieunagh, arrishee er dooieyn elley ta jannoo arrish er, as moylleydee er dooieyn ta cur tastey da'n chowraghey oc as goll er moylley ec ny h-arrishee. Ta'n bun-hampleyr ceau bree as cooid er saaseyn coadee, myr sampleyr, nieu. Liorish jannoo ymmyd sheadaneagh jeh cowraghyn y dooie nieunagh, ta'n arrishagh cosney vondeish coadee ta cur grayn er cragheyderyn, gyn eeck y leagh coadee. Ta'n bun-hampleyr, chammah's y moylleydagh, surranse neuvondeish y volteyrys shen. Ta bree coadee ny nieu croghey er keeayll çhionnit y chragheyder: my t'eh soaieaghey er bun-hampleyr, ta drogh-vlass ny eiyrtys nieu cur er shaghney beiyn elley as y cowraghey cheddin oc 'sy traa ry-heet.

Ta feme er aaniartaghey y beoyn shen nish as reesht liorish prowal. My ta ram arrishee ayn, s'cosoylagh eh dy nee cragheyderyn soiaghey orroosyn ny keayrtyn gyn drogh-eiyrtys; t'ad gynsaghey nagh vel beiyn as y cummey shen oc gaueagh, as nee ad soiaghey er bun-hampleyryn chammah's arrishee. Chammah's shen, my ta menkid ny h-arrishee feer ard, ta trimmid mooar reihyssagh najooragh er cragheyderyn dy eddyraghey y ghaa ghooie, er y fa dy vel ram bee ry-gheddyn liorish shen. Myr shen, ta vondeish ny h-arrishee goll er mooghey dy tappee. Er ny binn shen, ta arrishee ny s'genney na bun-hampleyryn son y chooid smoo. Ta kuse jeu er n'aafilley caghlaaghyn cummey dys jannoo arrish er caghlaaghyn bun-hampleyr. Ta shen cur coadey s'troshey oc liorish reih fo venkid[noa] (frequency-dependent selection).

She cragheyderyn ta bun y reih najooragh shoh ta caghlaa cummey ny h-arrishee dys cummey bun-hampleyr ennagh. Erreish daue blastyn cragh meevlasstal keayrt ny ghaa, nee ad shaghney ny ta gollrish my foddee eh. Nee eh shaghey y dooie nieunagh, as unnanee jeh dooieyn elley my t'ad gollrish; agh ta unnanee elley nagh vel gollrish goll er ee. Myr shen, ta unnanee y dooie blasstal ta gollrish y dooie nieunagh geddyn sliught as bishaghey.

Cha nee arrishaght hooilley t'ayn ayns dagh ooilley chooish, agh moylley keeayll erbee. Ta kuse dy lhemeenyn jannoo arrish er cowraghyn rauee feer-heeanagh ta lhemeenyn meevlasstal cur dys craitnagyn.

Shennaghys sheiltynagh[reagh]

Henry Walter Bates

Va Henry Walter Bates (1825–1892) ny ronseyder as najooragh ren towshaney keyll liaghee ny h-Amason marish Alfred Russel Wallace ayns 1848. Hannee Bates rish ny smoo na jeig bleeantyn. Ren eh çhaglym mysh keead dooie dy 'oillycan ass ny kynneeyn Ithomiinae as Heliconiinae, mastey thousaneyn dy hey-chassee elley. Liorish ad y eddyr-scarrey, hug my eh ner dy row fir jeu wheesh gollrish fir elley nagh dod Bates cur ennym orroo er bun y chummey v'oc. Ny yei shen, tra ren eh scrutaghey troyn jalloo-oaylleeagh elley nagh row cho cronnal, er lesh nagh row eer faggys-mooinjerys eddyr oc. Erreish da goll erash da Sostyn, lhaih eh er ard traaght er sheiltynys arrishagh ec çhaglym Linnean Society of London er 21ed Mee Houney 1861. Ayns 1862 hie y traaght er soilshaghey magh myr Contributions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazon Valley ayns Transactions of the Linnaean Society.[1] 'Sy lioar liorish, The Naturalist on the River Amazons, hug eh coontey smoo jeh'n chooish.[2] Va'n sheiltynys noa ny vun arganeys as resoonaght 'oddey.

Hug roish Bates barel dy row y chosoylaght shen eddyr dooieyn gyn mooinjerys ny saase noichraghagh. Ren eh taishbyney dy row daaghey feer taishbynagh ec kuse dy ghooie, as jettyl adsyn dy aashagh myr nagh row aggle oc er cragheyderyn. Hug eh feanish dy row lheid ny foillycanyn meevlasstal, as myr shen ren ushagyn as cragheyderyn elley ad y haghney tra t'ad jeeaghyn y daaghey raauee orroo. Rere shen, va'n vondeish cheddin ry-gheddyn ec dooieyn elley (arrishee) va gollrish ny dooieyn coadit shen, as ren ymmyd jeh'n daaghey cheddin gyn eeck tailley ny nieu. "Tro smoo anaasoil shennaghys najooragh ny Heliconidae, shen yn arrishaght ta jeant er ymmodee dooieyn jeu... ta cooid mooar jeh ny dooieyn co-chummal ard marish dooieyn elley ta jannoo arrish orroo rere y choontey hug mee. Ta ny h-arrishee ass ny possanyn heese: Papilio, Pieris, Euterpe and Leptalis (fam. Papilonidea), Protogonius (Nymphalidae), Ithomeis (Erycinidae), Castnia (Castniadae), Dioptis, Pericopis, Hyelosia, as genera elley (lhemeenyn Bombycidae). Ta mee er nyannoo briwnys dy nee Heliconidae bun ny h-arrishaght, er y fa dy vel co-hroyn kynney eddyr oc. Ny dooieyn ta jannoo arrish orroo, cha nel ad gollrish y vooinjer oc - ta dagh fer er ny chassey veih cummey cadjin y ghenus ny kynney t'eh aynjee."[3]

Arrishaght Brower[reagh]

Ta arrishaght Brower çheet er arrishaght Bates mastey un ghooie.[4] Ta'n ennym shoh rere Lincoln P. Brower and Jane Van Zandt Brower.[5][6]). She hene-arrishaght t'ayn; ta'n bun-hampleyr y dooie cheddin as yn arrishagh. T'eh ry-akin raad ta spectrum blassagh mastey pobble cragh. Myr sampleyr, ta braddagyn Danaus plexippus gee lossreeyn 'sy ghenus Asclepias. Ta fir jeu gee dooieyn nieunagh as tashtey y nieu ayndauesyn; ta fir elley gee lossreeyn as ny sloo nieu ayndaue, ny dooieyn gyn nieu. Myr shen, ta scansh eddyr nieunaght ny braddagyn. Ny yei shen, ta cragheyderyn gynsaghey dyn shaghey er bun ny fir nieunagh, as myr shen ta ny braddagyn gyn nieu geddyn vondeish jeusyn ta gee ram nieu.[5]

Arrishaght Mates as Müller[reagh]

She foillycanyn Heliconius ad sampleyree chlassicagh arrishaght Müller.[7]

Ta arrishaght Bates çheet er dooie meenieunagh janno arrishaght er dooie nieunagh. Ta cooishyn elley ayn bentyn rish dooieyn nieunagh as cowraghyn raauee oc ta gollrish dooieyn nieunagh elley. Ren Bates boirey er lheid ny cooishyn nagh dod eh feddyn bun oc. My ta coadey er dooie hannah, cre’n vondeish ec jannoo arrish er dooie elley?[8] Ayns 1878, ren Fritz Müller feaysley y chooish. Cha nel obbyr sheadaneagh t’ayn myr arrishaght Bates. ‘Sy chooish shoh, she co-vondeish[noa] (mutualism) t'ayn. Ta'n daa ghooie geddyn vondeish my t'ad gollrish y cheilley, liorish rheynn leagh soilshaghey da cragheyderyn dy vel ad meevlasstal. My ta cragheyderyn er nynsaghey gyn ee un dooie, cha n'ee eh y dooie elley noadyr. Ta vondeish ec y cragheyderyn myrgeddin gyn ee yn derrey dooie ny'n dooie elley, as cha nel leagh echey, er y fa nagh vel eh shaghney bee sauçhey myr t'eh ayns arrishaght Bates. 'Sy chooish shoh, cha nel bun-hampleyr ny arrishagh ayn, er y fa dy nee daa ghooie nieunagh ta çheet dy ve gollrish y cheilley. She co-arrishee t'ayn.

Arrishaght heeanoil[reagh]

Ga dy nee caslys eh saase arrishagh share er enney, ta arrishaght heeanoil ayn myrgeddin. Ta cragheyderyn feddyn cragh lioarish clashtyn chammah's jeeaghyn, as ta arrishee ayn ta moylley clashtyn.

Ta craitnagyn jannoo ymmyd jeh feddyn mactullagh[noa] (echolocation) dys shirrey cragh. Ta kuse dy lhemeenyn meevlasstal, as t'ad cur magh cowrey feer-heeanagh myr raaue da craitnagyn. Liorish keeayl chionnit t'ad shaghney ny lhemeenyn meevlasstal, agh t'ad shaghney dooieyn elley blasstal chammah er y fa dy vel eh cur magh feear-heeanyn cosoylagh roo.[9]

Imraaghyn[reagh]

  1. "Contributions to an insect fauna of the Amazon valley. Lepidoptera: Heliconidae" (1861). Transactions of the Linnean Society 23. ; Reprint: "Contributions to an insect fauna of the Amazon valley (Lepidoptera: Heliconidae)" (1981). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 16 (1). doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1981.tb01842.x. 
  2. Bates H. W. 1863.
  3. Henry Walter Bates (1862). "Mr. H. W. Bates on the Lepidoptera of the Amazon Valley" (Baarle). The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 23 (3): 502-4. Feddynit er 2011-12-17. “The most interesting part of the natural history of the Heliconidae is the mimetic analogies of which a great many species are the objects... A large number of the species are accompanied in the districts they inhabit by other species which counterfeit them in the way described. The imitators belong to the following groups: Papilio, Pieris, Euterpe and Leptalis (fam. Papilonidea), Protogonius (Nymphalidae), Ithomeis (Erycinidae), Castnia (Castniadae), Dioptis, Pericopis, Hyelosia, and other genera (Bombycidae moths). I conclude that the Heliconidae are the objects imitated, because they all have the same family facies, whilst the anologous species are dissimilar to their nearest allies - perverted, as it were, to produce the resemblence, from the normal facies of the genus or family to which they severally belong.” 
  4. Pasteur, Georges (1982). "A classificatory review of mimicry systems". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13. doi:10.1146/annurev.es.13.110182.001125. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Brower, L. P. (1970). "Plant poisons in a terrestrial food chain and implications for mimicry theory", ayns K. L. Chambers: Biochemical Coevolution (Baarle). Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University, 69-82.
  6. "Plant poisons in a terrestrial food chain" (1967). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 57 (4). doi:10.1073/pnas.57.4.893. PMID 5231352. Bibcode1967PNAS...57..893B. 
  7. "Repeating Patterns of Mimicry" (2006). PLoS Biol 4 (10): e341. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0040341. PMID 17048984. 
  8. Henry Walter Bates (1862). "Mr. H. W. Bates on the Lepidoptera of the Amazon Valley" (Baarle). The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 23 (3): 495-566. Feddynit er 2011-12-17. 
  9. "Acoustic mimicry in a predator prey interaction" (2007). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (22). doi:10.1073/pnas.0703627104. PMID 17517637. 

Lioaryn[reagh]