Bretnish

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
Bretnish
Cymraeg
Fockley magh [kəmˈrɑ:ɨɡ], [kəmˈrɑ:ɡ]
Goll er loayrt ayns Reeriaght Unnaneyssit, Yn Argenteen, ny Steatyn Unnaneyssit, Yn Chanadey, Yn Austrail, Yn Teelan Noa
Earroo loayreyderyn 750,000
Kynney çhengey Ind-Oarpagh
Staydys oikoil
Çhengey oikoil ayns Bretyn
Fo stiurey ec veg
Coadyn çhengey
ISO 639-1 cy
ISO 639-2 cym
ISO 639-3 cym

She çhengey Vrythonagh Cheltiagh ee yn Vretnish (Cymraeg ny y Gymraeg), ayns y chynney çhengey Ind-Oarpagh. She çhengey ghooghyssagh Vretin t'ayn, as ard-hengey Vretin derrey toshiaght y 20oo eash. T'ee ry-chlastyn chammah ec cochiangle Vretin as Sostyn, as ayns Chubut 'syn Argenteen. Ta Bretneyryn er feie ny cruinney er coontey arraghey magh, ayns Bretin Vooar, ny Steatyn Unnaneysit, y Chanadey as y Teelynn Noa er lheh. Cha nel ee ro-ghoan myr monney çhengaghyn Cheltiagh; t'ee loayrit ec 21-25% jeh'n sleih Bretnagh, as ec mysh 90% jeh'n sleih ta cummal ayns buill myr Caernarfon ayns Bretin Heear Hwoaie. Ta paitçhyn dy ynsaghey eddyr 5 as 16 bleeantyn d'eash, as ta ymmodee scoillyn Bretnish ayn.

Shennaghys[reagh]

Celtiee as Romanee[reagh]

[1] Cha nel sleih shickyr er cuin haink ny Celtiee as y çhengey oc dys Bretin Vooar. Cha row cowraghyn grainnit currit er claghyn cooinaghtyn ec y tra shoh, magh voish screeuyn ny Pictee[2].

Ta sheiltynyssyn ayn gra dy daink ad tra erbee eddyr 2000 RC as 700 RC. Rere'n eie smoo cadjin ec y traa t'ayn, haink cultoor as çhengey Cheltiagh erreish da'n 'leih hene, liorish dellal 'syn Eash Ooha. Foddee dy row ad jannoo ymmyd jeh çhengey Cheltish ennagh myr lingua franca.

Cha nel monney cowrey jeh çhengaghyn roie-Cheltiagh faagit 'sy Vretnish. S'goan ny focklyn roie-Cheltiagh ta ry-akin, er lhimmey jeh beggan beg ayns enmyn buill. Er lesh kuse dy 'leih dy vel ceaghlaghyn ny çhengaghyn Celtiagh nyn vooillee çhengaghyn roie-Cheltiagh, agh cha nel feanish er shen ain.

Ta fys ain dy nee abbyrtyn Brythonagh goll er loayrt er feie Bretin Vooar tra haink ny Romanee 'sy chied eash. Va caghlaaghyn mooarey kyndagh rish shen. Shimmey peiagh va daa-hengagh ayns Bretnish as Ladjyn, ayns Sostyn Yiass er lheh. Va Ladjyn ny çhengey ynsaghey, as Bretnish ny çhengey chadjin. Hie ymmodee focklyn er eeassaghey ass y Ladjyn, agh cha row yn eiyrtys shoh cho lajer as eiyrtys Ladjyn er ny çhengaghyn Celtiagh Mooarheeragh. Tra darree ny Romanee magh ass Bretin Vooar, ren Ladjyn skellal roish maroo myr çhengey loayrit, ga dy hannee ish myr çhengey screeut.

Ec y tra cheddin, va Brythonish caghlaa. Va çhengey mooar elley (Ladjyn) ayn maree, as va cummaght eck er Brythonish. Ayns yn eash shoh, haink Creestiaght dys Bretin Vooar, as ren ee faase pooar y çhenn credjeu; va ny saggyrtyn nyn vir coadee shaghadey Brethonagh, goaill stiagh y çhengey hene, as myr shen ren ee faase y çhengey myrgeddin. Rish tannaghtyn ny Romanee ayns Bretin, ren shenn troggalyn ny Bretnish fioghey as troggalyn elley çheet rish ‘syn ynnyd oc, troggalyn ta cowreydagh ec y Vretnish.

Caghlaa Vrythonish dys Bretnish[reagh]

[3]Er y fa nagh row Brythonish ny çhengey screeut, cha nel feanish jeeragh oc j’ee[4].

Dy lhean, ta çhengoayllee credjal dy ren ennymocklyn as marenmyn ny Bretnish coayl ny jerraghyn as cummaghyn cassidagh, gienneydagh as toyrtagh oc, as adsyn cowreydagh ec çhengaghyn Ind-Oarpagh heear yn eash v’ayn. Ec y Vrythonagh, va cummaghyn unnaneagh, daagh as yl-rey. Cha nel y cummey daagh ayn nish agh ayns cooishyn myr dwylo (daa laue, dy ghra myr shen, laueyn pheiagh ennagh). Va keintyssyn firrinagh, bwoirrinagh as naeear eck, agh hie y cummey naeear er coayl rish shymley ny çhengey. Daase jerraghyn noa ny caghlaaghyn breeocklagh ayns fraue y fockle son dy eddyrscarrey cummaghyn unnaneagh as yl-rey, myr sampleyr bardd/beirdd (bard/bardyn). Haghyr ymmodee caghlaaghyn co-heeanagh, as ta ceaghlaghyn ry-hoiggal myr y lheid, foddee.

Er coontey laccal feanish screeut, cha nod shin gra dy shickyr tra'n caghlaa jeh Brythonish dys Bretnish jeant. Y cowrey grainnit shinney t'er mayrn, v'eh jeant ayns 700 RC. She clagh cooinaghtyn t'ayn, as eshyn ayns keeill Tywyn nish, ayns Gwynedd. T'eh jeeaghyn dy ghow toshiaght eash Vretnish Leah ayns y 6-oo eash.

Aase çhengoaylleeagh ny Bretnish[reagh]

Keimyn ny Bretnish[reagh]

Bretnish Leah[reagh]
Screeuyn grainnit Bretnish jeh’n 8oo eash, ayns Eglwys Sant Cadfan, Tywyn.

[3] T’ad cur "eash Vretnish Leah" er yn eash eddyr toshiaght ny Bretnish ’sy 6-oo eash, as jerrey y 8-oo eash. Cha nel agh beggan beg screeuyn grainnit er mayrn jeh’n eash shoh. T’ad goaill stiagh obbyr Beda, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, (Shennaghys Agglishagh ny Sostnee) screeut ec toshiaght y 8oo eash. Ny screeuyn laue-screeuit s'leaie t'er mayrn, as adsyn ass Llyfr Sant Chad, t'ad goll er tashtey ayns ard-çhiamble Caerlwytgoed (Lichfield). She docamad leaghagh t'ayn, as ad cur er recortys surexit er coontey kied 'ockle y ghocamad. V'eh aascreeut ec jerrey yn 8oo eash jeh docamad y 6oo eash. Shen bun y veggan beg fys t'ain er Bretnish Leah.

Shenn Vretnish[reagh]

T'ad cur eash Henn Vretnish er yn eash eddyr y 9oo as 11oo cheeadyn. Ta feanish er mayrn jeh'n eash shoh, goaill stiagh nodyn Bretnish er docamadyn 'sy Ladjyn. Kuse dy screeuyn jeh'n 12oo eash as ny yei, t'ad nyn goipyn jeh screeuyn ny s'leaie, ny recortyssyn jeh beeal-arrish ny s'leaie, m.s., Llyfr Llandaf, yn Annales Cambriae, as obbraghyn ny Cynfeirdd.

Ta ny screeuyn shoh cur feanish er Bretnish yn eash shen. S'neuchronnal eh foast y feanish shen, dy ghra myr shen, cha s'ain dy nee sheeanyn ny Bretnish t'er gaghlaa t'er screeut orroosyn. T'eh orrin ve thortagh lesh jannoo briwnyssyn er bun ny screeuyn goaney shoh.

Mean Vretnish[reagh]
Bretnish Yeianagh Leah[reagh]
Bretnish Yeianagh Anmagh[reagh]

Stayd as ymmyd jeinagh[reagh]

Stayd[reagh]

Fogrey straid daa-hengagh ayns Bretin

Rere sleih-earroo 2001[5][6], va Bretnish ennagh goll er loayrt ec 582 400 peiagh (20.8% jeh'n phobble), as goll er loayrt, screeu as lhaih ec 457 946 (16.3%). Ayns 1991, cha row ee agh ec 508 100 (18.7%) jeu.

Rere ronsaght 2004[7][8] y Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg, ta 611 000 Bretneyryn ayns Bretin, as ta 62% jeu dy loayrt dagh laa (ny 88% jeusyn as Bretnish flaaoil oc).

Rere'n Arolwg Defnydd Iaith 2004[7], ta 21.7% jeh pobble Vretin nyn Mretneyryn (as 57% jeusyn flaaoil). Shen mooadaghey veih 20.5% 'sy United Kingdom Census 2001, as 18.5% ayns 1991. Rere'n sleih-earroo 2001, ruggyr mysh 25% y phobble çheumooie jeh Bretin. Cha nel monney fys ayn mychione Bretneyryn ayns Bretin Vooar. Ayns 1993, hoilshee magh S4C fysseree jeh ronsaght er y Vretnish v'ec sleih, as rere shen va mysh 133,000 Bretneyryn ayns Sostyn, 50,000 jeu ayns Lunnin as y creeagh Bretnagh[9].

Ayns ny shenn laghyn, cha row agh Bretnish ec ymmodee Bretneyr[10], agh ta'n lheid feer ghoan nish. Ta Baarle ec dy chooilley Bretneyr, faggys, ny Spaainish ec adsyn ayns Yn Argenteen.

Çhengoaylleeaght ny Bretnish[reagh]

Fockle-hasht[reagh]

Ta cooid mooar jeh fockle-hasht Vretnish jeant jeh focklyn Vrythonish (ŵy "ooh", carreg "clagh") as Ladjyn (ffenest "uinnag" (Ladjyn fenestra), gwin "feeyn" (Ladjyn vinum) as Baarle (sicr "shickyr" (Mean Baarle siker), fideo "çhellveeishagh")

Screeu[reagh]

Ta Bretnish goll er screeu ayns abbyrlhit gollrish yn abbyrlhit Romanagh, as 28 lettyryn echey.

a, b, c, ch, d, dd, e, f, ff, g, ng, h, i, (j), l, ll, m, n, o, p, ph, r, rh, s, t, th, u, w, y

Dy mennick, t'ad cur stiagh "j" 'syn abbyrlhit, er y fa dy vel ymmyd jeant jeh ayns ymmodee eeasaghtyn, goaill stiagh yn ennym cadjin "Jones". Ta "k", "q", "v", "x" as "z" ry-akin ayns shiartanse dy 'ocklyn çhaghteragh, agh myr t'eh 'sy Ghaelg, ta lettraghey "Bretnish" elley oc chammah: kilogram > cilogram ; zero > sero. Derrey'n 16oo eash, va "k" ayns yn abbyrlhit chammah, agh tra v'ad soilshaghey magh Yn Conaant Noa 'sy Vretnish, ren ad scryssey magh eh, myr dooyrt William Salesbury: "C ayns ynnyd jeh K, er y fa nagh vel wheesh ec ny clouderyn as ta feme orroo oc son y Vretnish."[11]

Mae shiartanse dy scarreydee ec y Vretnish:

  • y sheeanane liauyr, son taishbyney breeocklyn liauyrey
    • myr sampleyr, Ynys Môn /mo:n/
  • y sheenane ghowin, son taishbyney breeocklyn giarey raad ta breeockle liauyr ry-yerkal
    • myr sampleyr, mwg /mu:ɡ/ (jaagh), mẁg /mʊɡ/ (puss, meddyr)
  • y sheeanane gheyre, son taishbyney trimmid er y shillab s'jerree, ayns ynnyd jeh'n shillab lieh-yerrinagh. Ayns kuse dy 'ocklyn cadjin, cha nel eh screeut (myr sampleyr, Cymraeg)
    • myr sampleyr, gwacáu (folmaghey)
  • y linney vreear son taishbyney dy lhisagh lettyr breeockleagh goll er fockle magh dy lane
    • myr sampleyr, copïo (jannoo coip) /kɔˈpi:ɔ/, cha nel */ˈkɔpjɔ/

Ayns screeuyn cadjin, dy mennick nagh bee ad screeu scarreydee agh y sheeanane liauyr.

Çhengoaylleeaght[reagh]

Sheeanchoryssaghtys[reagh]

Ta ymmodee sheeanyn ec Bretnish dy vel goan ayns çhengaghyn Europagh. T'adsyn neulhiettalyssyn neuchronnaneagh myr y screebagh lhiattagh neuchronnaneagh [ɬ], corocklyn stronnagh neuchronnaneagh [ṃ], [ṇ] as [ŋ̊], as y rotagh neuchronnaneagh [ṛ].

Jalloo-oaylleeaght[reagh]

Shimmey caslys t'ayn eddyr Bretnish as çhengaghyn Celtiagh Ellynagh elley. Ta ny troyn cadjin shoh goaill stiagh:

Ta ymmodee cummaghyn yl-rey ry-gheddyn 'sy Vretnish. Ayns Bretnish loayrit, t'ad cliaghtey jannoo ymmyd jeh breearyn cooney ayns ynnyd jeh yn-filley y breear hene. Ayns Bretnish focklymagh, t'ad yn-filley y breear hene son y chooid smoo.

Troyn grammeydagh elley ny Bretnish[reagh]

Shelloodee myr far-enmyn chass[reagh]

Ta ymmyd jeant jeh cummaghyn shelloodagh ayns raaghyn as far-enmyn cass y raa. Son "ta mee fakin Rhodri", t'ad gra Rydw i'n gweld Rhodri, agh son "ta mee fakin eh", t'ad gra Rydw i'n ei weld o. Ta'n cummey ei...o ny chummey shelloodagh; myr sampleyr, ei llyfr o, ("e lioar eh").

Ta'n cummey shoh gollrish y cummey Gaelgagh "ta mee dy 'akin", agh cha nel y cummey elley ec Bretnish. Ga dy vel ad faagail magh y ayrneen shelloodagh ny keayrtyn, ta'n ceaghley jeant oc ry-chlastyn foast:

Ta mee dy chionnaghey - Rydw i'n ei brynu fo ny Rydw i'n brynu fo
Ta mee kionnaghey eh - *Rydw i'n prynu fo
(Ta'n * cowraghey cummey neughrammeydoil)

Imraaghyn[reagh]

  1. John Davies (1990). Hanes Cymru (Bretnish). The Penguin Press.
  2. Nid oes neb yn siŵr a siaradai'r Pictiaid iaith cyn-Gelteg ynteu Gelteg. Erbyn hyn dadleua mwyafrif yr ysgolheigion mai iaith Gelteg a siaradai'r Pictiaid.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Henry Lewis (1931). Datblygiad yr Iaith Gymraeg (Bretnish). Prifysgol Cymru.
  4. Lewis, 1931: “Yn ystod y 19eg ganrif ail-ddechreuwyd astudio hanes datblygiad ieithoedd a'r perthynas rhyngddynt. Defnyddiwyd y dystiolaeth ysgrifenedig oedd ar gael a'i gymharu ag ieithoedd eraill yn dyddio o'r un adeg hanesyddol a dilyn hynt iaith ar hyd yr oesau. O ddeall patrymau newid ieithyddol mae modd ail-lunio ieithoedd diflanedig. Technegau ieitheg gymharol, yn adeiladu ar dystiolaeth enwau llefydd a phobl Brythonig ac ambell i enw cyffredin a gofnodwyd yn Lladin neu yng Ngroeg, sydd wedi galluogi ieithyddion i ddirnad peth o eirfa a gramadeg y Frythoneg.”
  5. Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg (2001). Cyfrifiad 2001: Prif Ystadegau am y Gymraeg (Bretnish).
  6. Welsh Language Board (2001). 2001 Census - Main Statistics about Welsh (Baarle).
  7. 7.0 7.1 Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg (2004). Arolwg Defnydd Iaith 2004: yr adroddiad (Bretnish).
  8. Welsh Language Board. 2004 Welsh Language Use Survey: the report (Baarle).
  9. Summary of 1993 S4C survey
  10. Davies, Janet (1993). The Welsh Language. Bath: University of Wales Press, 34.
  11. Ass English and Welsh, art liorish J. R. R. Tolkien: "C for K, because the printers have not so many as the Welsh requireth"

Kianglaghyn mooie[reagh]

Mychione ny çhengey[reagh]

Fockleyryn[reagh]


Wikipedia
She bun ta'n art shoh. Cur rish, son foays y yannoo da Wikipedia.