Caslys-earishlioar

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She cummey caslys-skeeal Americaanagh caslys-earishlioar, as skeeal(yn) goll er harrish straih, cabdil ny ghaa ayns dagh ym-lioar jeh. Son y chooid smoo ta’n slane daahit (neychosoylagh rish manga Shapaanagh) as jannoo ymmyd jeh scadooyn (neuchosoylagh rish ymmodee bandes dessiné Europagh). Ta’n chummey shoh mie er enney son y skeeal ard-feniagh.

Toshiaght[reagh]

Va sleih çhaglym scheimyn aitt myr lioaryn cho leah as 1833, as ayns 1842 va The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck (çhyndaa jeh “Histoire de M. Vieux Bois”) y chied hie er soilshaghey magh ‘sy Vaarle.[1] Cha row ad rere’n aght caslys-skeeal jeianagh, lesh bolganyn glare, agh caslyssyn as meer screeuyn foue.

Y chied lioar chaslys-skeealyn slane jeant ayns ny Steaytyn Unnaneysit, she The Yellow Kid in McFadden's Flats ve ayns 1897, as eshyn jannoo y chied ymmyd jeh’n fockle comic book (“lioar caslys-skeealyn”)[2]. Agh cha daink caslys-earishlioaryn dy ve nyn cummey ym-fysseraght derrey ny 1930yn, lesh Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics,[3]. Er lesh screeudeyryn shennaghys, shen y chied feer chaslys-earishlioar Americaanagh; myr sampleyr, ta Goulart gra dy row eh "clagh chorneilagh da nane jeh ny banglaneyn smoo vondeishagh ayns çhymskylagh soilshaghey magh earishlioaryn". [4]

Tra va’n tasht jeh scheimyn aitt v’ayn hannah lheie ersooyl, ghow toshiaght ny earishlioaryn leah goaill stiagh beggan obbyr noa. Ren yn çhaglym New Fun #1 (Toshiaght Arree. 1935) mestey obbraghyn aitt, myr "Pelion and Ossa" as "Jigger and Ginger", marish obbraghyn dramadagh myr skeealyn Heear (m.s. "Jack Woods") as contoyryssyn "gaue bwee".

Superman as ard-feniee[reagh]

Action Comics #1 (June 1938). Toshiaght Superman. Ellyn liorish Joe Shuster.

Ayns 1938, haink rish Superman er coodagh Action Comics #1 (Mean Souree 1938). Er chroo liorish Siegel & Shuster, v’eh ny ard-chaslys da ny "ard-feniee" haink lurg. Roish daa vlein lurg shen, va possan dy straihyn ard-feniagh ec y chooid smoo jeh soilsheyderyn chaslys-earishlioaryn. T’ad cur “Eash Airhey chaslys-earishlioaryn” ec yn eash shoh.

Lurg y chaggey, leodee ennoilid chaslys-skeealyn ard-feniagh. Mysh 1945, ‘syn ynnyd oc, haink stiagh skeealyn aitt, scheimyn aitt rere’n aght Disney, far-skeealaght sheanse, Heearyn, skeealyn graih, as grinderys. Er lhimmey jeh Superman, Batman, as Wonder Woman, cha row monney bree ec ard-feniee rish 1952.

Yn “Comics Code”[reagh]

Anmagh ayns ny 1940yn as car ny 1950yn, shimmey caslys-skeeal scoagh as feer loght v'ayn, as ram raghlid as fuilltaght ayndaue. Va’n fer lhee aigney Fredric Wertham boirit mychione blass sadee as homocheintys v’oc caslys-skeealyn scoagh as ard-feniagh, er lesh, as hug magh eh y lioar Seduction of the Innocent myechione. Kyndagh rish shen, va croshaid moralagh ayn, goaill stiagh tastey y Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency, as kyndagh rish shen, leodee y çhynskyl dy trome. Yn eiyrtys, she’n Comics Code v’eh, ayns 1954, jeant liorish y çhynskyl hene. Hug y coad shoh lhiettalyssyn lajer er cooishyn, skeealyn as ny foddee ad tayrn. Lurg tammylt beg, va seal lowallys y Comic Code er dagh ooilley caslys-earishlioar v’ayn, faggys.

Yn Eash Argid[reagh]

Yn Eash Argid, shen y traa haink ard-feniee erash da caslys-earishlioaryn ny ard-soilsheyderyn Marvel as DC, er y fa dy row claareyn çhellveeish myr The Adventures of Superman ennoil.

Ayns 1961, ren screeudeyr Stan Lee as ellyneyr Jack Kirby croo y Fantastic Four da Marvel Comics, as adsyn nyn glagh veilley. Ren y straih shoh croo sorçh dy ard-feniee cadjin as dooghyssagh, as failleilys, aggle as hene-ourys oc myr ec sleih cadjin. V’ad boirey mychione doilleeidyn cadjin as jannoo arganey rish cheilley.

Earishlioaryn folliaghtagh[reagh]

Rish ny 1960yn as 1970yn, haink rish earishlioaryn folliaghtagh. V’ad goll er soilshaghey magh gyn soilsheyderyn mooar, as va blass noi-chultoor aegid as cultoor druggey oc. Va aght neulhiettrimit as neuammyssagh oc.

Ga dy vel kuse dy ellyneryn myr shen gobbraghey foast, er lesh y chooid smoo jeh screeudeyryn shennaghys, haink jerrey y ghleashaght shoh roish 1980. Ayns yn ynnyd oc haink ny smoo earishlioaryn neuchrogheydagh nagh row rere y Comics Code, as haink sleih dy ve cliaghtit rish earishlioaryn da sleih aasit.

Yn Eash Ooha[reagh]

Yn Eash Ooha, ghow eh toshiaght mysh 1970 as va ymmodee caghlaaghyn da caslys-earishlioaryn Americaanagh, ga nagh row dagh earishlioar nyn jannoo ec y traa cheddin.[5] Ren ny caghlaaghyn goaill stiagh:

Yn Eash Yeianagh[reagh]

Ayns ny 1970yn, foslee shappyn currit da caslys-earishlioaryn, harrish America Hwoaie. V’ad feer ymmydoil son ard-jeeaneyderyn as earishlioaryn oirragh; agh hug ad er y theay yn eie dy row caslys-earishlioaryn nyn geau traa da possan beg, ayns ynnyd jeh farrail cadjin. Haink skeealyn y ve ny s’lhiurey as ny smoo co-chast, as v’eh er lhaihderyn ny smoo ym-lioaryn y chionnaghey son çheet dys jerrey y skeeal.

Ayns mean ny 1980yn, soilshee magh DC Comics daa straih beagh jannoo er y çhynskyl dy trome, Batman: The Dark Knight Returns as Watchmen. V’ad ennoil as ghow ad ram tastey veih ny ym-fysseree cadjin; ry-cheilley marish caghlaaghyn sheshoil, haink blass ny s’appee, ny s’dorree er caslys-earishlioaryn. Myr sampleyr, haink noi-feniee myr Wolverine y ve ennoil, as va blass s’dorree er kuse dy soilsheyderyn neuchroghey myr First Comics as Dark Horse Comics. Va’n dorraghys as neunheeys ry-akin ayns skeealyn DC hie er fograghey dy trome, myr "A Death in the Family" ayns y straih Batman (as ayn, ta cooneyder Batman Robin goll er marroo liorish The Joker). Marvel, as y straih X-Men oc ennoil dy liooar, v’ad cur magh skeealyn mychione kynney-ghunverys jeh “caghlaaderyn” as ard-pooaryn oc, cosoylaghey tranlaase crauee ny kynneeagh.

Leodee creck chaslys-earishlioaryn dy tappee ayns mean ny 1990yn, as hooar ymmodee shappyn baase. Ga dy vel ad loayrt er soilsheyderyn ard-feniagh myr Marvel as DC myr caslys-skeealyn “cadjin”, cha nel ad nyn gummey ym-fysseree myr dy row ad roish.

Ga nagh row ny earishlioaryn hene cho cadjin as dy row ad, ta ymmodee karracteyryn ny smoo ennoil as ard-ghooagh na rieau, er coontey lhiggey as cooid hraghtee. Ta filmyn as gammanyn co-earrooder ayn mychione karracteyryn earishlioaryn, as hug ny ym-fysseree ram tastey er taghyrtyn myr poosey Spider-Man, baase Superman as baase Captain America.

Aundyryn[reagh]

Ta kuse dy ellyneyryn chaslys-earishlioaryn er ngeddyn aundyr çheumooie jeh’n chummey hene. Myr sampleyr, Maus liorish Art Spiegelman ( Pulitzer Prize) as The Sandman liorish Neil Gaiman ( World Fantasy Award myr "Best Short Story").

Nodyn[reagh]

Lioaryn[reagh]

Kianglaghyn mooie[reagh]