Manga

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
Ny kanji son "manga" veih Troailtee yn Imbagh (Shiki no Yukikai), 1798, liorish Santō Kyōden and Kitao Shigemasa.
Jalloo karracteyr cliaghtagh manga jeianagh. Ta sooillyn mooar echey as blass paitçhey
Rheynn manga ayns shapp lioaryn, ‘syn Çhapaan

She cummey caslys-skeealyn Shapaanagh Manga (漫画; myr kanji; まんが myr hiragana; マンガ myr katakana ?).[1][2][3] Haink rish y chummey shoh trooid cur ry-cheilley cummaghyn ellyn ukiyo-e as aghtyn jallooaghey har mooir. Haink manga dys y chummey jeianagh beggan lurg y Chaggey Mooar II[4], agh ta shennaghys liauyr oc ayns ellyn Shapaanagh shinney.[5][6] [7]

Ayns Yn Çhapaan, ta sleih dy dagh eash lhaih manga,[2]. Er y fa shen, ta rheaym cooishyn mooar ec manga, goaill stiagh contoyrtys, graih, spoyrt as gammanyn, drama shendeeagh, aitt, far-skeealaght sheanse, sheiltynys, folliaght, scoagh, çhibbag as dellal. [2] Neayr’s ny 1950yn, ta manga er jeet dy ve ny rheynn scanshoil jeh’n çhynskyl soilshaghey magh Shapaanagh,[4][8] as margey jeh mysh 481 billioon yen ec ayns yn Çhapaan ayns 2006[9] (mysh £2.3 billioon).

Nish, ta manga çheet dy ve ny smoo ennoil harrish y teihll.[10][11]

Diagram ynseydagh son lhaih manga

Er y fa dy nee cummey Shapaanagh eh, ta manga goll er lhaih veih jesh dys toshtal, dagh duillag as dagh kerrin. Ec y toshiaght, tra v’ad aahoilshaghey manga ayns America as çheeraghyn Europagh, ren soilsheyderyn caghlaa shen dys yn aght cliaghtagh y Sheear. Agh cha row shen mie lesh ard-jeeaneyderyn manga, as nish ta ymmodee soilsheyderyn freaylley yn aght Shapaanagh. [12] Son y chooid smoo, plaiyntyn bentyn rish daa chooish. Y chied, shen dy vel çhyndaa myr shen tarmestey kiarail yn ellyneyr. Myr sampleyr, caghlaa peiagh veih jeshagh dys toshtalagh; ny keayrtyn foddee shen tarmestey cosoyley ‘sy skeeal (ayns Adolf (アドルフに告ぐ Adorufu ni Tsugu?), ta sleih jannoo curteish Nazi lesh ny armyn toshtal). Y cooish elley, shen dy vel çhyndaa jannoo reddyn quaagh. Myr sampleyr, beagh claare-ogheragh ny focklyn dreeym er oaie.

Bun-ocklaght[reagh]

Bun y fockle manga, she jalloo teaymagh. Ghow sleih toshiaght jannoo ymmyd cadjin jeh’n ‘ockle shoh anmagh ‘sy 18oo eash, bentyn rish obbraghyn Santō Kyōden (my sampleyr, Shiji no yukikai ayns 1798), Manga hyakujo liorish Aikawa Minwa (1814). Ayns y Hokusai manga ennoil va ymmodee caslyssyn veih lioar-obbyr yn ellyneyr ennoil ukiyo-e Hokusai.[13] Ymmyd jeianagh jeh’n ‘ockle, ta’n kied recortys jeh liorish Rakuten Kitazawa.[14]

Shennaghys[reagh]

Toshiaght[reagh]

Bun shinney manga as fys er ayn, she caslyssyn veih anmagh ‘sy 8oo eash. Hie ad er feddyn ayns 1935 ayns y Çhiamble Hōryū ayns Nara, er cooyl caabyryn y mullagh.

Ren monnaghyn Buddagh tayrn caslyssyn er scrollaghyn pabyr foddey er dy henney. Yn obbyr as enney share er, she’n chied jeh kiare Chōjūgiga (鳥獣戯画, Fer-jallooyn jeh ein as beiyn) liorish monnee Sōjō Toba. She skit eh, ta soilshaghey beiyn gymmyrkey myr monnee. [15]. 'Syn 13oo eash, ghow ad toshiaght boallyn y yesheenaghey lesh jallooyn jeh beiyn as bea lurg baase. 'Sy 16oo eash cur hug ad grainney foiee da’n chummey shoh.

Daa ghuillag ayns y Hokusai-Manga – sleih as beiyn goaill thummey (1816)

Veih y 17oo eash, ren grainnaghyn foiee goaill stiagh cooishyn veih bea aashagh dys an-ghraaghys, as va lhaihderaght cadjin oc. Ta’n hokusai manga gyn skeeal resoonagh, agh t’ad cur dooin skell jeh sheshaght as cultoor Shapaan anmagh ‘syn Eash Edo.

Y 20oo eash[reagh]

Earishlioar Japan Punch ayns Averil 1883 liorish Charles Wirgman.
Earishlioar Tôbaé, earroo 6, 1887 liorish Georges Ferdinand Bigot.

Lurg jerrey y reill sakoku (obbal sleih çheet stiagh ny goll magh ass yn Çhapaan), haink cummaght soilshaghey magh Heear er yn Çhapaan. Chammah’s saaseyn clou noa as ny share, haink stiagh cartoonyn craidoilagh Heear, goaill stiagh Punch as Tôbaé liorish Georges Ferdinand Bigot, chammah as scheimyn aitt Americanagh myr obbyr Richard Outcault as Rudolph Dirks. Ayns 1905 hug er bun Kitazawa Rakuten yn earishlioar Tokyo Puck, as ayns 1932 hug er bug eh y chied scoill cartoonyn ‘syn Çhapaan.

Hug y reiltys lhiettalyssyn er, agh hie er manga myr shen derrey y Chaggey Mooar II. Er y chaggey, hug er bun y reiltys y sheshaght manga Shin Nippon mangaka Kyōkai, son ymmyd manga myr propaganda.

Er lesh screeudeyryn shennaghyn, hug daa obbyr cummaght er manga jeianagh: shennaghys ellyn as cultoor yn Eash Meiji, as taghyrtyn car as lurg y tannaghtyn ayns yn Çhapaan yn SUA. Ta arganeys ayn mychione trimmid y daa obbyr ‘sy chooish.

Ren sidooryn Americanagh cur lhieu claaraghey çhellveeish, scheimyn aitt, cartoonyn as filmyn bio-chaslyssagh (er lhieh adsyn liorish Disney)[4][7], agh myr ta screeudeyryn elley[7][8][16] [17] cur trimmid er, va shennaghys ellynagh lajer ec yn Çhapaan hannah. Haink manga magh ass mestey y ghaa.

Beggan lurg y chaggey, ec y traa dy row yn Çhapaan aahroggal y sthie-hroggalys eck, haink rish ymmodee soilsheyderyn beggey. Va ram crootaght ellynagh liorish ellyneyr manga myr Osamu Tezuka as Machiko Hasegawa (Sazae-san) [7][18]. Y fer smoo cummaghtagh, she Osamu Tezuka (1928-1989) v’eh. Va cummaght er liorish cartoonyn Disney leah as filmyn expressionist Germaanagh as Frangagh. Ren eh croo bun manga jeianagh, chammah as y çhymskyl anime. Yn ard-obbyr echey, she Tetsuwan Atomu, Breneen Niartal, ga dy hug ad yn ennym Guilley Astro er ayns ny Steaytyn Unnaneysit. Ta ard-jeeaneyderyn Shapaanagh cur Manga no Kami Sama da, dy ghra myr shen, “Jee Manga”.

Eddyr 1950 as 1969, haink rish lhaihderaght ny smoo as ny smoo ec manga, as daa ghenre mooar echey: manga shōnen kiarit son guillyn, as manga shōjo kiarit son inneenyn. [7][19]

Ayns 1969, ghow toshiaght possan dy h-ellyneyryn manga bwoirrin, as hug sleih Y Possan Blein 24 oc (mychione ennym Shapaanagh 1949, as y chooid smoo jeu ruggyree ‘sy vlein shen). [20][21] V’ad goaill stiagh Hagio Moto, Riyoko Ikeda, Yumiko Oshima, Keiko Takemiya, as Ryoko Yamagishi[2] as va shen taghyrt mooar da ellyneyryn manga bwoirrin. [2][7] Lurg shen, va’n chooid smoo jeh manga shōjo goll er tayrn liorish bwoirrin da inneenyn as mraane aegey.[7][19][22] Neayr’s 1975, ta manga shōjo er daase kuse dy fo-genreyn harrish y cheilley[23] goaill stiagh graih (redisu レディース), ard-veneniagh (redikomi レディコミ) as “caslys-skeealyn vraane” (josei 女性).[2][8]

Manga jeianagh[reagh]

Ayns manga shōjo jeianagh, ta graih ny chooish mooar as skeealyn hene-enney screeut mygeayrt eck.[24] Ta’n genre ard-beneniagh er daase yn eie dy vel possanyn (sentai) dy inneenyn gobbraghey ry-cheilley, myr sampleyr, ayns y straih ennoil Sailor Moon (Bishōjo Senshi Sērā Mūn: "Inneen Caggey Waagh “Shiaulteyr Eayst” ") liorish Naoko Takeuchi. [25][26]

Manga shōnen, chammah as manga son deiney (seinen), t’eh bentyn rish cooishyn myr aitt slapstick, onnor, as ny keayrtyn, keintys.[27][28] Ta cooishyn myr çhaghnoaylleeaght, spoyrt, ellynyn caggoil as contoyryssyn lheihll cadjin. Skeealyn as feinagh ny lomarcan ayn, myr Superman ny Batman, cha row ad cho ennoil as dy row ad ayns yn Heear. [29]

Jannoo[reagh]

Ta ellyneyryn manga (mangaka) cliaghtit rish obbraghey marish cooneyder ny ghaa ayns seyrlan beg, as beagh coardailys eddyr eshyn as reagheyder croo ec sheshaght-ghellal soilshaghey magh traghtee.[4] My ta straih manga ennoil dy lioar, beagh ad jannoo anime jeh chammah, foddee[30]. Ny keayrtyn, ta mangaka jannoo manga mychione fillym cloiet ny bio-chaslyssagh t’ayn hannah [31].

Ayns yn Çhapaan, shimmey caa t'ayn my by vie lhiat ve dty vangaka. Chammah as yeearree startey ta çheet lhiat, foddee oo goaill caa dy obbraghey ayns seyrlan manga myr aundyr ayns co-hirrey tayrn, myr sampleyr. Beagh oo goaill toshiaght myr cooneyder da mangaka toshiaghteyr ayns fwirran vangaka ta rahoil hannah. Lurg tammylt, beagh goll er ardjaghey ayns y ‘wirran, as goaill caa dy yannoo obbyr er dty halee manga hene, foddee.

Soilshaghey magh[reagh]

Son y chooid smoo, ta manga goll er clou myr doo-as-bane, er lhimmey jeh jalloo daahit er y choodagh.[32], ga dy vel manga slane-daahit ayn. [33]. Ayns yn Çhapaan, dy cliaghtey, ta manga goll er cur magh myr earishlioaryn, 100-1000 duillag, as ad neugheyr. T’ad goaill stiagh ymmodee skeealyn ec yn un traa, un episode jeh dagh skeeal ayndaue, as beagh ad goll er ayns y nah ym-lioar. Er y fa dy vel quallid y chlou as y phabyr boght, t’ad ry-cheau ersooyl lurg lhaih, myr pabyr-naight. Ny earishlioaryn smoo ennoil, t’ad goaill stiagh Shōnen Sunday (neayr’s 1959) as Big Comic (neayr’s 1968) liorish soilsheyder Shogakukan, Shōnen Magazine (neayr’s 1959) liorish Kodansha as Shōnen Jump (neayr’s 1968) liorish Shueisha. Ayns sourey 2007, va 266 earishlioaryn manga goll er soilshaghey magh, as mysh 100,000 duillag ec y clane [34]. Ta earishlioaryn manga jannoo mysh 70% jeh margey manga yn Çhapaan.

My beagh skeeal ennagh mie er lheh lesh sleih, beagh ad çhaglym ny cabdillyn clouit hannah, chammah as kuse dy chabdillyn loggyr noa, as clou ad myr lioar coodagh bog. T’ad cur tankōbon dauesyn, as ta quallid feer share oc, son çhaglym as tashtey.[2][7]

Neayr’s mysh 2004, ta manga ry-gheddyn ayns cummey bun-earrooagh, myr sampleyr, er çhellvane laue. Ta costys beg oc (mysh 40-60 Yen, shen mysh 20 ping), as ta ymmodee millioon eam ‘sy vlein hannah[35]. Dy dooghyssagh, ta manga eddyrlhieen ayn foast, jeant liorish ard-jeeaneyderyn ny ellyneyr aeg ta goaill toshiaght.

Dōjinshi[reagh]

Ard-art: Dōjinshi

Ta Dōjinshi ny lioaryn manga ta goll er cur magh liorish soilsheyderyn beg, çheumooie jeh’n vargey traghtee mooar. Ta cruinnaghtyn dōjinshi ayn er-nyn-son, myr sampleyr, Comiket, cruinnaght smoo y teihll as ny smoo na 510,000 sleih çheet harrish 3 laghyn. Ta kuse jeu nyn skeealyn noa, agh ta cooid mooar jeu nyn arrishyn, ny jannoo ymmyd jeh karracteyryn jeh manga ny anime ennoil. Ta kuse dy dōjinshi goll er skeeal straih ennagh, croo skeeal noa as ny karracteyryn jeh ayn. Ayns 2007, va’n margey dōjinshi goaill erskyn 27.73 billioon yen (134 millioon punt).[36]

Manga ayns çheeraghyn elley[reagh]

Ga dy nee cummey Shapaanagh eh, ta manga noa ayn ayns çheeraghyn elley, er lheh ayns y Taiwaan, Yn Çheen as Yn Chorea Yiass. Ta cummaght mooar ec manga er cummaghyn myr manhua Sheenagh as manhwa Koreagh.[37][38][39] Ayns Y Rank, ta la nouvelle manga ayn, as eshyn ny chummey bande dessinée as blass manga echey.[40]

Manga ayns çhengaghyn Frangish[reagh]

Ayns yn Europey, va’n tradishoon Frangagh bande dessinée ayn, as myr shen, v’eh aashagh goaill stiagh manga ‘sy tradishoon ard-ellyn. Ta ellyn Frangagh er ngoaill eieyn veih ellyn Shapaanagh neayr’s yn 19oo eash (Japonisme).[41]

Myr sampleyr, ta ym-lioaryn 6 as 7 jeh Gunslinger Girl liorish Yu Aida mychione inneen cyborg, dy row ny caillin ballay roish, as Petruchka yn ennym v’urree. Ta’n clou magh Asuka goaill stiagh traaghtys mychione y ballay Petruchka liorish Igor Stravinsky, v’er ny cloie son y chied keayrt ayns Paarys ayns 1911.[42] Agh cha nel lhaihderaght Frangagh lhiettit da sleih mullee ellynagh.[43] Ta lhaihderaght cadjin ec manga, as shen jannoo seose mysh 1/3 jeh çreck caslys-skeealyn ayns Yn Rank neayr’s 2004.[43][44][45]

Er lhimmey jeh Budo Magazine Europe[46], earishlioar mychione judo, cha row manga ayns yn Europey roish 1978. Ec y traa shoh, ren Atoss Takemoto soilshaghey magh y fanzine Cri qui tue. Myr cliaghtey, v’eh caghlaait jesh-toshtal son lhaih liorish sleih Europagh. Haink rish kuse dy earishlioaryn elley, agh cha ren ad çheet lhieu.

Ayns 1990, ren Glénat cur magh Akira lurg y fillym çheet lesh. Ayns 1991, ghow toshiaght yn earishlioar Animeland, as haink eh dy ve ny vun kionyssagh Frangish son fys er manga. Lurg shen, haink rish lhiegganyn çhyndaait jeh manga myr Hadashi no Gen (Gen Cass Rooisht (はだしのゲン?)), as Ranma ½ liorish Rumiko Takahashi. Haink lesh Glénat dy mie, as hug magh ad ymmodee manga elley, as ghow toshiaght soilsheyderyn elley jannoo y red cheddin. Ayns 1995, ren y sheshaght Tonkam cur magh y chied manga Frangish rere yn aght lhaih Shapaanagh, as haink dy ve y cummey cadjin.

Ta ellyneyryn Frangish er daase nyn gummaghyn hene manga, myr sampleyr, la nouvelle manga liorish Frédéric Boilet.[47] Ta Boilet co-obbraghey ny keayrtyn marish ellyneyryn Shapaanagh.[48][49] Ta’n possan Frangish Canadagh MUSEBasement tayrn ellyn rere y cummey manga.[50]


Manga ayns yn Europey[reagh]

Chammah as y margey Frangish, ta manga goll er çhyndaa son lhaihderaghtyn ayns y chooid smoo jeh çheeraghyn Yn Europey, goaill stiagh manga Germaanish German,[51][52], Iddaalish[53], Spaainish, [54], Ollanish [55] as Danvargish.[56]

Ayns yn Reeriaght Unnaneyssit, ta soilsheyderyn manga goaill stiagh Orionbooks/Gollancz[57] as Titan Books.[58]

Manga ayns ny SUA[reagh]

Ec y toshiaght, va anime ny s’assey da ard-jeeaneyderyn Americaanagh jannoo ymmyd jeh na manga, [59] Clements, Jonathan (2006). The Anime Encyclopedia: A Guide to Japanese Animation Since 1917, Revised and Expanded Edition (Baarle). Berkeley Steaytyn Unnanyesit: Stone Bridge, 475-476. ISBN 1-933330-10-4.</ref> er y fa dy row eh ny s’assey jannoo coip jeh anima as cur fo-heidlyn da na çhyndaa as cur magh tankōbon.[11][60][61]

Agh ayns 1986, hug er bun Toren Smith Studio Proteus. V’ad gobbraghey myr çhyndaader as obbree da manga Shapaanagh, goaill stiagh Appleseed liorish Masamune Shirow as Oh My Goddess! liorish Kōsuke Fujishima, son soilsheyderyn Dark Horse and Eros Comix. Myr shen, cha row eh er soilsheyderyn feddyn nyn obbreeyn hene ayns yn Çhapaan.[62][63] Ec y traa cheddin, ghow toshiaght y soilsheyder Shapaanagh Shogakukan gobbraghey ‘sy SUA liorish y fo-heshaght dellal oc, Viz. Foddee Viz jannoo ymmyd jeeragh jeh schlei çhyndaa as catalog Shogakukan.[64]

Ayns 1996, hug er bun Mixx Entertainment TokyoPop son dy hoilshaghey magh manga.[65][66] Lurg shen, haink manga dy ve ny smoo ennoil, as haink rish soilsheyderyn manga noa.[67] Ec y traa cheddin, ghow toshiaght ym-ysseraght ny SUA loayrt er manga. Va artyn ry-lhaih ‘sy New York Times,[68] Time,[69] , yWall Street Journal,[70] as Wired.[71]

Ta kuse dy ellyneyryn ny SUA er nyannoo obbyr as cummaght manga orroo. Myr sampleyr, va Vernon Grant tayrn caslys-skeealyn as cummaght manga er tra v’ad ayns yn Çhapaan ayns ny 1960yn. [72] Ta sleih elley goaill stiagh Frank Miller[73] as obbyr 1988 Adam Warren as Toren Smith The Dirty Pair[74].

Rish y 21oo eash, va kuse dy hoilsheyderyn ny SUA cur magh obbyr liorish ellynyryn Americaanagh as ad cur manga da. [75]

Enmys[reagh]

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  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Gravett, Paul (2004). Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics (Baarle). York Noa, Steaytyn Unnaneysit: Harper Design, 8. ISBN 1-85669-391-0.
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  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Kinsella, Sharon (2000). Adult Manga: Culture and Power in Contemporary Japanese Society (Baarle). Honolulu, Hawai’i: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0824823184.
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  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Schodt, Frederik L. (1986). Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics (Baarle). Tokyo, Yn Çhapaan: Kodansha. ISBN 978-0870117527.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Schodt, Frederik L. (1996). Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga (Baarle). Berkeley, Steaytyn Unnaneysit: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1880656235.
  9. Japanese Manga Market Drops Below 500 Billion Yen. ComiPress (2007-03-10). Feddynit er 2008-04-05.
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  15. Caslys aahayrnt jeh’n obbyr
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