Nama (çhengey)

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Nama
Khoekhoegowab
Goll er loayrt ayns Yn Nameeb, Yn Votswaan, Yn Affrick Yiass
Ard Yn Awin Orange, Yn Mooarheer Nama
Earroo loayreyderyn 250,000
Yn Nameeb: mygeayrt 176,000 (1998)
as 16,000 Haiǁom (1995)
Yn Votswaan: 1,500 (2002)
Yn Affrick Yiass: 56,000 (1989)
Kynney çhengey Kwadi-Khoe
  • Khoe
    • Khoekhoe
      • Khoekhoe Hwoaie
        • Nama
Staydys oikoil
Çhengey oikoil ayns Çhengey ashoonagh ny Nameeb
Fo stiurey ec gyn stiureyder oikoil
Coadyn çhengey
ISO 639-1 gyn coad
ISO 639-2 khi
ISO 639-3 anchasley:
hgm — Haiǁom
kqz — Korana
naq — Nama
xii — Xiri
[[Coadan:
Nama-Damara taalkaartje NL.png
Ardjyn as Nama goll er loayrt ayndaue|300px]]

Ta Nama, enmyssit Khoekhoe ny Khoekhoegowab myrgeddin, (shenn-ennym Hottentot) ny çhengey Khoisan smoo scanshoil as pobbylagh. T'ee ny oltey jeh'n chynney çhengey Khoe, as t'ee loayrit ayns y Nameeb, y Votswaan as yn Affrick Yiass lesh ny Namaqua, Damara as ny Haiǁom. T'eh Khoekhoen ennym loayreyder ny çhengey, ass eh goit magh ass aachoipal as y meer yerree -n dy yannoo taishbynys dy vel eh n'ockle ylrey. Rere Ethnologue va ny smoo na 250,000 loayreyderyn ayns ny 1990yn.

Ta Nama ny çhengey ashoonagh ayns y Nameeb. Ta claareyn radio soilshit magh ayns y Nameeb as yn Affrick Yiass ass Nama.

Rheynn çheeroaylleeagh[reagh | edit source]

Ta 250,000 loayreyderyn ayns y Nameeb, yn Affrick Yiass as y Votswaan.

Abbyrtyn[reagh | edit source]

Sheeanchoryssaghtys[reagh | edit source]

Breeocklyn[reagh | edit source]

Ta 5 foaynooee breeocklagh ta ry-gheddyn myr focklagh /i e a o u/ as stronnagh /ĩ ã ũ/. Foddee orroo ve giare ny foddey, as ta shiartanse oardee ny daaghooaghtyn: focklagh [əi ae əu ao ui oa oe] as stronnagh [ə͠ı ə͠u u͠ı o͠a]. (ta [ə] sheeaney myr /a/.)

Toanyn[reagh | edit source]

Ta tree toanyn 'sy çhengey, /á, ā, à/ as foddee orroo dy ve er breeocklyn as er stadyn stronnagh. Cha nel y toan meanagh screeuit.

Corocklyn[reagh | edit source]

Ta 31 chorockle: 20 smaghyn as giare-phossan neu-smaghyn.

Neu-smaghyn[reagh | edit source]

Meillagh Cooyl-eeacklagh Coghooysagh Sluggidagh
Stroanney m n
Bleaystagh p ~ β t ~ ɾ k kʰ ʔ
Screebagh s x h

Eddyr breeocklyn, ta /p/ focklit magh myr [β] as ta /t/ focklit magh myr [ɾ].

Smaghyn[reagh | edit source]

Ta ny smaghyn nyn gorocklyn t'oltit daa cheayrt. Ta kiare focklaghyn toshee ny "lhieenaghyn" as queig fo-ocklaghyn ny "deayrtaghyn" lesh dagh smagh. Ta 20 sheeanyn lesh cochiangle ny lhieenaghyn as ny deayrtaghyn.

Dy mennick ta ny smaghyn boggit focklit magh myr affricaidyn. T'eh shen, foddee er /kǃˣ/ dy ve focklit magh myr [kǃʰ] dys [kǃx].

T'eh doccar cur cleaysh er ny co-immeeaghtyn stronnagh neughooagh tra nagh vel ad eddyr breeocklyn, as myr shen, foddee dy vel eh focklit magh myr lhieggan scoarnagh y cho-immeeaght boggit da cleayshyn neughooghyssagh.

co-immeeaght smaghyn affricaidagh smaghyn 'geyre' cairscreeu
cadjinit
(lesh "ǃ")
smaghyn
feeacklagh
smaghyn
lhiattagh
smaghyn
cooyleeacklagh
smaghyn
cleaoil
Tenuis <ǃg>
Boggaghys kǀˣ kǁˣ kǃˣ kǂˣ <ǃkh>
Stroanney ŋǀ ŋǁ ŋǃ ŋǂ <ǃn>
Stronnagh neughooagh lesh
boggaghys moal-obbragh
ŋ̊ǀʰ ŋ̊ǁʰ ŋ̊ǃʰ ŋ̊ǂʰ <ǃh>
Tenuis lesh stad sluggidagh kǀʔ kǁʔ kǃʔ kǂʔ <ǃ>

Lhaih neesht[reagh | edit source]

  • Beach, Douglas M. 1938. The phonetics of the Hottentot language. Cambridge: Heffer.
  • Haacke, Wilfrid. 1976. A Nama grammar: the noun-phrase. MA thesis. University of Cape Town.
  • Haacke, Wilfrid H. G. 1977. The so-called "personal pronoun" in Nama. In Traill, Anthony, ed., Khoisan linguistic studies 3, 43-62. Communications 6. Johannesburg: African Studies Institute, University of the Witwatersrand.
  • Haacke, Wilfrid. 1978. Subject deposition in Nama. MA thesis. University of Essex. Colchester (UK).
  • Haacke, Wilfrid. 1992. Compound noun phrases in Nama. In Derek F. Gowlett, ed., African linguistic contributions (Festschrift Ernst Westphal), 189-194. Pretoria: Via Afrika.
  • Haacke, Wilfrid. 1992. Dislocated noun phrases in Khoekhoe (Nama/Damara): further evidence for the sentential hypothesis. Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere, 29, 149-162.
  • Haacke, Wilfrid. 1995. Instances of incorporation and compounding in Khoekhoegowab (Nama/Damara). In Anthony Traill, Rainer Vossen and Marguerite Anne Megan Biesele, eds., The complete linguist: papers in memory of Patrick J. Dickens, 339-361. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
  • Haacke, Wilfrid, Eliphas Eiseb and Levi Namaseb. 1997. Internal and external relations of Khoekhoe dialects: a preliminary survey. In Wilfrid Haacke & Edward D. Elderkin, eds., Namibian languages: reports and papers, 125-209. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag for the University of Namibia.
  • Haacke, Wilfrid. 1999. The tonology of Khoekhoe (Nama/Damara). Quellen zur Khoisan-Forschung/Research in Khoisan studies, Bd 16. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
  • Haacke, Wilfrid H.G. & Eiseb, Eliphas (2002) A Khoekhoegowab dictionary with an English-Khoekhoegowab index. Windhoek : Gamsberg Macmillan. ISBN 99916-0-401-4
  • Hagman, Roy S. 1977. Nama Hottentot grammar. Language science monographs, v 15. Bloomington: Indiana University.
  • Hahn, Theophilus. 1870. Die Sprache der Nama, nebst einem Anhang enthaltend Sprachproben aus dem Munde des Volkes. Redigierte Ausgabe eine Dissertation mit einem Anhang über Mythen der Khoi-khoin nebst Übersetzung und Wörterverzeichnis. Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth.

Kianglaghyn çheumooie[reagh | edit source]