John Muir

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
She yn najooree Albinagh-Americaanagh bun-chooish y duillag shoh. My ta sym ayd ayns keeall elley yn 'ockle shoh, lhaih fir elley as yn ennym cheddin oc.
John Muir
Muir portrait 1872.jpg
Ruggit 21 Averil, 1838
Dùn Barra, Lodainn Hiar, Nalbin
Hooar baase 24 Mee ny Nollick, 1914
Los Angeles, California, SUA
Bun baaish Niumoan
Sheshey poost ny ben phoost Louisa Wanda Strentzel (p. 1880–1905)
Sheshey fys er sheshey elley
Paitçhyn Wanda Muir Hanna (25 Mee Vayrnt 1881 – 29 Jerrey Souree 1942) as Helen Muir Funk (23 Jerrey Geuree 1886 – 7 Mean Souree 1964)
Credjueyn Freayltys
Ashoonaght Albinagh-Americaanagh
Daltyn
Mie er enney son Cur er bun y Sierra Club
Keirdyn Jeshaghteyr, najooragh, lus-oayllee, screeudeyr
Cooishyn Freayltys Ghlioon Yosemite as Sierra Nevada
Oikyn as sheshaghtyn
Reiltagh y Sierra Club 1892-1914
Sheshaghtyn Y Sierra Club


Va John Muir (21 Averil 1838 – 24 Mee ny Nollick 1914) ny najooree, screeudeyr, as greinneyder son freayltys eaynee ny Steatyn Unnaneysit. Screeu eh lettyryn, artyn as lioaryn er e chontoyrtyssyn 'syn 'aasagh, ayns Sierra Nevada er lheh, as adsyn er nyn lhiah ec millioonyn dy 'leih. Va laue echey ayns bun y Sierra Club, as eshyn mastey sheshaghtyn freayltys smoo scanshoil ny Steatyn Unnaneysit jiu. Va cummaght mooar ec ny screeu eh er y ghleashaght 'reayltys jeianagh.

Aegid[reagh]

Rug John Muir ayns Dùn Barra, Lodainn Hiar, Nalbin. She Daniel Muir as Ann Gilrye e ayr as e voir. Va shiaght paitçhyn elley oc: Margaret, Sarah, David, Daniel, Ann as Mary (lannoonyn), as Joanna (ruggit ayns America). Screeu eh 'sy hene-veashnys echey er ny keirdyn v'echey ayns eash y ghuilley, goaill stiagh caggey (aayannoo caggee vooar ass shennaghys ny h-Albey, ny caggey er y voayl cloie) as shirrey idd ean.[1]

Entreilys da Fountain Lake Farm faggys da Portage, Wisconsin

Ayns 1849, darree lught-thie Vuir da ny Steatyn Unnaneysit, as hug ad bun er gowaltys faggys da Portage, Wisconsin. She Fountain Lake Farm v'ayn, as eshyn ny Boayl Shennaghyssagh Ashoonagh nish.[2] Dooyrt Stephen Fox nagh row credjue ny claightey yn Agglish Albinagh jeeragh dy liooar er lesh ayr Vuir, as shen y fa darree ad as hie ad stiagh ayns cohionnal y Ghleashaght Aachroo Champbellagh. Rere y choontys echey, lesh 11 vlein d'eash, foddee Muir aaloayrt y lane Conaant Noa as y chooid smoo jeh'n Çhenn Chonaant "er çhengey as ec pian foalley".[3] Agh rish eash ghooinney, cha row cair-chredjue cur er ve fud y cheilley. Ayns screeuyn da e charrey veen Emily Pelton, er 23 Mee Vayrnt 1865, screeu eh, "Cha ren mee eab erbee dy ‘aagail magh credjue ny cliaghtaghyn ard-veenid; hie ad ersooyl er nyn goontey hene... gyn faagail nyn yei ennaghtyn yuail erbee." Ayns screeuyn elley, dooyrt eh er Crooder rere'n eie cadjin: "nhee cho laue-jeant as babban cloie erbee ayns thie-cloie lheng".[4] Ny yei shen, she dooinney crauee dy liooar v'ayn, as screeu eh: "Ta shin ooilley stroo jeh un 'arrane: Annym. Ta cagh ny vess yn un ghraih. Cha nel Jaa çheet rish, as stroo magh, jeh scaanyn keyley as mysh çhibbraghyn towlit ayns shoh as ayns shen ayns reih vuill, agh t'Eh thooilley ayns strooghyn mooar gyn scarrey, gyn traie, gyn cagliagh harrish credjueyn as cummaghyn as dagh sorçh dy chultoor as sleih as baagh, lhienney as farranaghey y clane."[5]

Ec 22 vlein d'eash, hie Muir stiagh ayns Ollooscoill Wisconsin-Madison er yn argid b’lesh hene. Dynsee eh e chied lessoon lus-oayllee fo billey locust doo ard faggys da North Hall. Hayrn studeyr elley blaa jeh'n villey, as ren eh ymmyd jeh son dy hoilshaghey magh dy row y locust ard mastey kynney pishyragh, as mooinjer y pishyr trudlagh. Daeed blein jeih ny s'anmey, screeu Muir er y laa ayns eh hene-veashnys: "Hug y lessoon braew shoh eunys orrym as hug eh orrym roie da ny keylljyn as lheeannee lesh ard-jeeanid."[6] Ren Muir briwnys quaagh mastey ny brastylyn, as cha daink eh rieau ass kied cheim ny studeyryn er y choontey shen. Ta ny recortyssyn cur stayd "fer neuchinjagh" er, agh ga nagh ghow eh keim erbee, dynsee eh creg-oaylleeaght as lus-oaylleeaght dy liooar dy chur baght er rouail e vea s'anmey.[7]

Ayns 1864, daag eh yn ollooscoill as hie eh dys yn Chanadey, raad cheau eh arrey, sourey as fouyr lesh wandrail ayns ny keylljyn as curree er çheu Logh Huron as çhaglym lossreeyn. Lesh yn argid echey goan dy liooar as geurey çheet er, hie eh da Ontario, as dobbyr eh marish e vraar Daniel ayns mwyllin saauederagh, derrey sourey 1865. Ta Roderick Nash er ngra dy row Muir jannoo troailtys ‘syn Chanadey myr troailtys ‘syn ‘aasagh son dy haghney sidooraght, agh rere screeuyn Linnie Marsh Wolfe, ren Muir briwnys, mannagh ragh eh er reih ‘sy gherrym caggee (as cha jagh), beagh eh wandrail rish tammylt ayns faasee yn Chanadey.[8][9]

Dobbyr eh ‘sy wyllin derrey Mee Vayrnt 1866, as eisht hie eh erash da ny Steatyn Unnaneysit dy obbraghey myr jeshaghteyr ayns Indianapolis. Ayns Mee Vayrnt 1867, darree drogh-haghyrt bollagh e vea. Ren slieeuan geyre thiolley e hooill yesh, as v’eh doal dy shallidagh. As eshyn smooinaghtyn dy row eh doal dy beayn, as soo y tooill sheeley dys e laue, dooyrt eh ny s’anmey: “Beign er varroo raad hass mee, dy arryltagh.” Lurg da kiare shiaghteeyn ayns shamyr dorraghey, slanee y tooill son y chooid smoo, as hie eh er cosheeaght veg. Ec çheet erash, v’eh soit er lhiantyn rish e yeearree e hene, as ronsaghey as studeyrys er lossreeyn y yannoo.[10]

Ayns Mee Houney 1867, hooill Muir mysh 1000 meeilley roish Indiana dys Florida (screeu eh coontys jeh ‘sy lioar A Thousand-Mile Walk to the Gulf). Cha row coorse erbee reiht echey, agh dy gholl “rish y raad s’fadanee, s’duillagee as sloo er ny ghaaghey dod mee feddyn.”. Rish roshtyn Florida, v’eh fosyn lhuingys er baatey y ghoaill dys America Yiass, as wandrail ny smoo ayns shen. Agh huitt eh fo malaarey er Slyst yn Eearvooiar, as myr shen daag eh ny shalee v’echey bentyn rish America Jiass. Ayns ynnyd jeh shen, hiauill eh dys York Noa as ghow eh lhuingys dys California.[7]

California[reagh]

Lurg da roshtyn ayns San Francisco ayns Mee Vayrnt 1868, daag Muir er y chooyl dys boayl nagh row eh agh lhaih myechione: Yosemite. Lesh y chied shilley er Glion Yosemite, hug ee druiaght er, as screeu eh: “Cha nel çhiamble erbee jeant lesh laueyn cosoylaghey rish Yosemite... Smoo jeh ooilley sur-hiamblyn Najoor.”.[11] Lurg keayrt hoght laghyn, haink eh erash dys cruink veggey y Sierra Nevada as dobbyr eh myr fer assaig, bochilley as brisheyder cabbil. Ayns Mee ny Boaldys 1869, hug ransheyr enmyssit Pat Delaney obbyr souree da Muir, freayll arrey er kirree as bochilley Ghelaney. Ghow eh rish dy jeean, as cheau eh y tourey myrane lesh ny kirree ayns slyst Yosemite. Ghrapp eh Cathedral Peak as Mount Dana, as hooill eh shenn raad ny h-Injinee sheese Bloody Canyon dys Mono Lake.

Va'n traa soccar echey currit da oaylleeaght, creg-oaylleeaght er lheh, as haink eh dy ve shickyr dy nee awinyn rioee v'er nyannoo y ghlion as yn ard mygeayrt eck. Va'n eie shen shassoo noi yn eie cadjin v'ayn, liorish Josiah Whitney (kione y California Geological Survey), as shen gra dy nee craa-hallooin ard-vooar v'er groo y ghlion. Lesh skeaylley eieyn Vuir, ren Whitney eab anghoo er y chur lesh gra dy nee ancheirdagh as meehustagh v'ayn. Agh er lesh ard-chreg-oayllee y laa, Louis Agassiz, va eieyn Vuir feeu, as dooyrt eh dy nee "y chied dooinney ta mee er ngeddyn as toiggalys dy liooar echey er obbyr awin rioee." [12] Ayns 1871, hoor Muir awin rioee bio fo Merced Peak, as hug shen cooney da ny eieyn v'eh cur roish. 'sy vlein cheddin, haink feniagh Vuir, Ralph Waldo Emerson, dys Yosemite as haink eh lesh shilley er Muir. Va shenn olloo Vuir ec Ollooscoill Wisconsin, Ezra Carr, as y ven echey dy ghreinnaghey ny h-eieyn echey y chur magh. Haink ad lhieu Muir dys quaiyl fir ennymoil, goaill stiagh Louis Agassiz, John Tyndall, John Torrey, Clinton Hart Merriam, as Joseph LeConte.

Haghyr craa-hallooin mooar faggys da Lone Pine, California ayns Glion Owens ayns Mee Vayrnt, 1872, as v'eh ry-ennaghtyn ayns Glion Yosemite. Ghooisht eh Muir leah 'sy voghrey as roie eh magh y bwaane echey, "boggey as aggle er", as eh fockley magh "craa-hallooin oasle!" Fir elley 'sy ghlion, as adsyn credjal eieyn Whitney foast, va aggle orroo dy beagh y craa-hallooin cowraghey duinaghey craghoil y ghlion. Cha row lheid yn aggle er Muir, as ren eh towshan ass laue jeh carnaneyn creoilagh noa jeant ec skyrraghyn thallooin liorish y chraa-hallooin.[13]

Chammah's yn obbyr creg-oaylleeagh, ren Muir studeyrys er lossreeyn yn ard Yosemite. Ayns 1873 as 1874, ren eh obbyr 'sy vagher er boayn sheear y Sierra, bentyn rish scaalhean as eggoaylleeaght keylljyn Sequoia Vooar. Ayns 1880, phoos Muir as Louisa Wanda Strentzel. Va ransh mooar lesh yn ayr as moir eck, ayns Martinez, California, as rish y jeig bleeantyn ny yei, hug eh eh hene da reirey y ransh. V'eh speeideilagh dy liooar. Rish y traa shoh, rug ny h-inneenyn oc, Wanda as Helen.

Ec e vaase, daag eh ny yei cooid seihlt SU$250,000. Ta'n thie as rheynn jeh'n ransh y Boayl Shennaghyssagh Ashoonagh John Muir jiu.[14]

Troailtys 'sy heear-hwoaie[reagh]

Rish shiaght bleeantyn reirey y ransh, haink drogh-laynt er. Lesh brod e ven, hie eh erash da ny cruink dy aagheddyn e hene. Ghrapp eh Mount Rainier as screeu eh Ascent of Mount Rainier myechione. Hie eh marish possan dys Wrangel Island er y USS Corwin, as daggyr ad yn ellan son ny Steatyn Unnaneysit ayns 1881.[15] Screeu eh er y chooish 'sy lioar The Cruise of the Corwin.

Obbraghyn freayltys[reagh]

Hug Muir laue mooar ayns freayltys. V'eh fakin Yosemite as y Sierra as roie-thallooyn nagh lhisagh goll er sooilley.[16] Er lesh dy nee sthock, kirree er lheh, va baggyrt smoo da'n ard, as hug eh "kellee-rennee chrubbagh" orroo. Ayns Mean Souree 1889, champ co-reagheyder yn earishlioar Century, Robert Underwood Johnson, marish Muir ayns Tuolumne Meadows as honnick eh feanish bunneydagh jeh'n jeeyl va shioltane dy chirree er nyaoo da'n vanjagh. Choard eh dy hoilshaghey magh art erbee screeuys Muir er dooney magh sthock jeh'n Sierra. Choard eh myrgeddin dy yannoo ymmyd jeh'n chummaght echey son dy chur stiagh billey ayns Congress son dy yannoo pairk ashoonagh jeh Yosemite, rere cummey Yellowstone National Park. Er 30 Mean Fouyir 1890, slattyssee Congress ny SU slattys, rere treealtys Vuir ayns daa art ayns Century son y chooid smoo: The Treasure of the Yosemite as Features of the Proposed National Park, er nyn soilshaghey magh ayns 1890. Agh b'treih lesh clashtyn dy daag y slattys Glion Yosemite fo stiurey y steat.

Sierra Club[reagh]

Ard-art: Sierra Club

Leah ayns 1892, haink yn Olloo Henry Senger, ny 'ockle-oayllee ec Ollooscoill Chalifornia, Berkeley da quaiyl Vuir as eh fo possan alphagh y chroo son sleih slieauagh. Hug magh Senger as Warren Olney cuirraghyn "ry-hoi croo 'Sierra Club'. Bee John Muir yn eaghtyrane." Er 28 Mee ny Boaldyn, 1892, chumm ad çhaglym bunnee y Sierra Club son dy screeu banglaneyn cochorpaghey. Shiaghtin ny yei shen, denmys ad Muir myr eaghtyrane, Olney myr fo-eaghtyrane, as boayrd ny stiureyderyn ghow stiagh David Starr Jordan, as eshyn eaghtyrane Ollooscoill Stanford. Hannee Muir ny eaghtyrane derrey hooar eh baase, 22 vlein ny s'anmey.[17][18]

Ghow y Sierra Club toshiaght çhelleeragh dy hassoo noi shaleeyn Yosemite National Park y liehaghey, as chumm ad çhaglymyn ynsee as oayllee. Ec fer jeu, ayns fouyr 1895, resoon ad er cur er bun 'buill cheylley er lheh'; harragh y lheid y ve Keylljyn Ashoonagh ny s'anmey. Va laue mooar ec y Tierra Club 'sy troddan rahoil Pairk Ashoonagh Yosemite dy astreeaghey ass stiurey y steat dys stiurey conastagh, ayns 1906. Ghow ad orroo hene y chaggey Glion Hetch Hetchy y hauail, ga dy row shiartanse dy olteyryn scanshoil ayns San Francisco noi shen. Fy yerrey, ren ad teiy as chowree eh dy row mooar-chooid y phossan son shassoo noi Doour Hetch Hetchy. [18]

Tashtey noi freayltys[reagh]

Ayns Jerrey Souree 1896, haink Muir dy cho-obbraghey marish Gifford Pinchot, ny 'er scanshoil 'sy ghleashaght 'reayltys. She kied ard-chione Shirveish Keylley ny Steatyn Unnaneysit v'ayn, as eh ny loayrtagh son ymmyd yn-ymmyrkey chooid najooragh son vondeish ny sleih. Fy-yerrey, va meechoardailys eddyr y ghaa, as shen taishbyney daa varel er ymmyd chooid najooragh ny çheerey. Va Pinchot fakin freayltys myr saase cooid najooragh yn ashoon y reirey son ymmyd traghtee yn-ymmyrkey foddey. Myr keylljeyder keirdee, er lesh: "she eirinys eh obbyr keylley", gyn stroie yn-veaghey foddey ny keylljyn.[19] Er lesh Muir, va feeu najoor ny troyn anmey as tarcheimneeoil. Ayns art er ny Pairkyn Ashoonagh, hug eh orroo "buill son fea, breeaghys, as padjeryn." V'eh cliaghtey greinnaghey ard-valjee dy 'akin najoor son beaghey ny h-anmey. Va'n daa 'er shassoo noi doo-heyrey chooid najooragh, goaill stiagh lane-lhieggey keylljyn. Va eer Muir goaill rish dy row feme ain er aamaid as ny keylljyn er-e-hon, agh va barel feer ny smoo lhome-ymmydoil ec Pinochet er reirey faasee..[19]

Vrish y caarjys eddyr oc anmagh 'sy tourey 1897, liorish Pinchot cur magh art ayns pabyr-naight Seattle son fassaghey kirree ayns thalloo freaylt keylley. Hass Muir eddin ry eddin rish Pinchot as daggyr eh soilsheydys jeh. Lesh Pinchot g'aa-raa y barel, dinsh Muir da: "Cha mel nee son bentyn rhyt reesht." Daase y meechoardailys shoh as rheynn eh y ghleashaght 'reayltys ayns daa phossan: freaylleyderyn, fo Muir, as possan Phinochet ghow toshiaght "tashteyderyn" y chur orroo hene. Resoon ad ayns earishlioaryn, myr sampleyr, Outlook, Harper's Weekly, Atlantic Monthly, World's Work, as Century. Va'n daa varel ry-akin reesht lesh briwnys ny Steatyn Unnaneysit er cur doour er Glion Hetch Hetchy ny dyn. Va Pinchot son dooar urree y chur: "ymmyd s'ardjey oddagh oo jannoo j'ee". Er y laue elley, dooyrt Muir: "Doour er Hetch Hetchy y chur! Cho mie doee ushtey y yannoo jeh kialteenyn as ard-çhiambleyn ny sleih, son nagh row çhiamble s'nooey er ny chasherickey rieau ec creeghyn deiney.""[19]

Roosevelt as Muir

Ayns 1903, hie yn Eaghtyrane Theodore Roosevelt marish Muir er turrys dys Yosemite. Loayrt Muir da'n eaghtyrane er meestiurey steat y ghlion, as doo-seyrey rank jeh cooid y ghlion. Eer roish daue roshtyn y phairk, v'eh er shickyraghey Roosevelt dy beagh yn aght share y phairk y choadey ish y chur fo stiurey conastagh. Erreish da goll stiagh 'sy phairk as fakin aalid y ghlion, hirr eh er Muir eshyn y hoilshaghey da y "feer" Yosemite. Hie ad ersooyl, nyn lomarcan agh son coagragh as fer ymmyrkee, as champ ad 'sy çheer feie. Loayr ad anmagh 'syn oie, as ren ad cadley mooie fo'n speyr. Huitt sniaghtey oor orroo 'sy voghrey. Ayns 1905, hug Congress Mariposa Grove as Glion Yosemite fo stiurey conastagh.[20]

Hooar ben Vuir, Louise, baase er 6 Mee Luanistyn 1905.

Hetch Hetchy[reagh]

Daase mian doour y chur er yn Awin Tuolumne, son dy yannoo tasht ushtey son San Francisco. Va Muir slane noi y doour, as er lesh dy row Hetch Hetchy ny s'aaley na eer Glion Yosemite. Chagg Muir as y Sierra Club noi rish feed blein, goaill stiagh screeu dys Roosevelt hene. Fy-yerrey, hug eiyrtyssagh Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson kied da'n slattys er 19 Mee ny Nollick, 1913. She juail mooar da Muir v'ayn, as y caggey sjerree mooar echey.

Baase[reagh]

Hooar John Muir baase jeh niumoan ec thie-lheeys California (California Hospital Medical Center jiu) er 24 Mee ny Nollick, 1914.[21][22]

Eiyrtys as aundyryn[reagh]

Ta enmyn ny buill fo er son Muir:

Ta caslys jeh John Muir ry-akin er kerroo-dollar steat Chalifornia 2005. Ta aaraa echey er y Indianapolis Prize Lilly Medal son frealtys. Er 6 Mee ny Nollick 2006, ren Arnold Schwarzenegger gynshellooaghey John Muir stiagh 'sy California Hall of Fame ec The California Museum for History, Women, and the Arts.

Jeeagh er reesht[reagh]

Imraaghyn[reagh]

  1. Muir, John (1916). The Story of My Boyhood and Youth. Houghton Mifflin Co., 25, 37.
  2. Fountain Lake Farm (Wisconsin Farm Home of John Muir). National Historic Landmarks Program. Feddynit er 2009-01-04.
  3. Fox, Stephen R. (1985). The American conservation movement : John Muir and his legacy. Univ of Wisconsin Press, 30. ISBN 9780299106348.
  4. Wolfe, Linnie Marsh (1945). Son of the Wilderness: The Life of John Muir (Baarle). Alfred A. Knopf.
  5. Screeuyn da Miss Catharine Merrill, jeh New Sentinel Hotel, Yosemite Valley (9 Mean Sourey 1872); Ayns Life and Letters of John Muir, Badè'
  6. Muir, John (1916). The Story of My Boyhood and Youth. Houghton Mifflin Co..
  7. 7.0 7.1 Miller, Rod (2005). John Muir: Magnificent Tramp. Macmillan. ISBN 9780765310712.
  8. Nash, Roderick (1989). The Rights of Nature. Univ of Wisconsin Press, 38–39. ISBN 9780299118440.
  9. Marsh Wolfe, Linnie (2003). Son of the Wilderness: The Life of John Muir. Univ of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 9780299186340.
  10. Marsh Wolfe, Linnie (2003). Son of the Wilderness: The Life of John Muir. Univ of Wisconsin Press, 97–105. ISBN 9780299186340.
  11. http://www.pbs.org/nationalparks/people/historical/muir/
  12. Terry Gifford (re.). "Trees and Travel", John Muir : his life and letters and other writings (Baarle). The Mountaineers Books, 322. ISBN 9780898864632. “...The reply to this letter was written by Mrs. Agassiz, in which she told me that, when Agassiz read my letter, he said excitedly "Here is the first man I have ever found who has any adequate conception of glacial action."... (Screeuyn da Robert Underwood Johnson; Martinez, 3 Mee Vayrnt, 1895)”
  13. John Muir (1901). Our National Parks (Baarle). Cambridge (SUA): Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 262.
  14. John Muir National Historic Site (Baarle). Feddynit er 2009-10-10.
  15. John Muir (1917). The Cruise of the Corwin. Houghton Mifflin Company. Feddynit er 2008-09-05.
  16. John Muir (Mean Fouyir 1890). "Features of the Proposed Yosemite National Park". The Century Magazine XL (5). Feddynit er 2007-04-08. 
  17. Fox, Stephen R. (1985). The American Conservation Movement: John Muir and His Legacy. Univ of Wisconsin Press, 107–108. ISBN 9780299106348.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Colby, William (December, 1967). The Story of the Sierra Club. Sierra Club.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Meyer, John M. (Winter, 1997). "Gifford Pinchot, John Muir, and the Boundaries of Politics in American Thought". Polity 30 (2): 267–284. Palgrave MacMillan. doi:10.2307/3235219. Feddynit er 2008-12-14. 
  20. Encylopaedia Britannica (Baarle). Feddynit er 2009-10-12.
  21. Obituary: John Muir.
  22. On this Day. Obituary: John Muir. Feddynit er 2007-04-23.
  23. Sierra Club. Peak List of the Lower Peaks Section of the Angeles Chapter of the Sierra Club.

Ard-vinn[reagh]

Binn elley[reagh]

  • Austin, Richard C. (1991). Baptized into wilderness: A Christian perspective on John Muir. Creekside Press.
  • Cronon, William, ed. (1997). John Muir: Nature Writings: The Story of My Boyhood and Youth; My kied Summer in the Sierra; The Mountains of California; Stickeen; Essays. Library of America. ISBN 978-1-88301124-6.
  • Ehrlich, Gretel (2000). John Muir: Nature's Visionary. National Geographic. ISBN 0-7922-7954-9.
  • Fox, Stephen (1981). The American Conservation Movement: John Muir And His Legacy. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-29110-2.
  • Meyer, John M. (1997). "Gifford Pinchot, John Muir, and the Boundaries of Politics in American Thought". Polity 30 (2): 267–284. doi:10.2307/3235219. ISSN 0032-3497. 
  • Miller, Char (2001). Gifford Pinchot and the Making of Modern Environmentalism. Island Press. ISBN 1-55963-822-2.
  • O'Casey, Terrence (24 September 2006). "John Muir: God's Preacher of Creation". Christian Standard. 
  • Smith, Michael B. (Mean Souree 1998). "The Value of a Tree: Public Debates of John Muir and Gifford Pinchot". The Historian 60 (4): 757–778. ISSN 0018-2370.  | doi = 10.1111/j.1540-6563.1998.tb01414.x}}
  • Turner, Fredrick (1985). Rediscovering America, John Muir in His Time and Ours. Viking Press. ISBN 0-87156-704-0.
  • Williams, Dennis (2002). God's Wilds: John Muir's Vision of Nature. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 1-58544-143-0.
  • Wolfe, Linnie Marsh (1945). Son of the Wilderness: The Life of John Muir. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-18634-2. ( Pulitzer Prize son beashnys, 1946)
  • Worster, Donald (Jerrey Geuree 2005). "John Muir and the Modern Passion for hey Nature". Environmental History 10(1): 8–19. 
  • Worster, Donald (2008). A Passion for Nature: The Life of John Muir. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195166828.
  • Wuerthner, George (1994). Yosemite: A Visitor's Companion. Stackpole Books, 25–37. ISBN 0-8117-2598-7.

Lioaryn elley[reagh]

  • Sachs, Aaron (2006). The Humboldt Current: Nineteenth-Century Exploration and the Roots of American Environmentalism. Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-03775-3.

Kianglaghyn mooie[reagh]

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