Mynvioagh

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
Lorryia formosa - sorçh dy vyn-veeyllag

She bioag do-akin da'n tooill eh mynvioagh (ny mynorgaanagh). Hooar magh Anton van Leeuwenhoek dy row ad ayn ayns 1675. She myn-vioagh-oaylleeaght y studeyrys er lheid ny bioagyn, lesh mynreayrtan son adsyn y 'akin.

Ta ymmodee sorçhyn dy vyn-vioagh ayn; t'ad goaill stiagh bacteyryn, fungyssyn, archaea, protista, algaghyn glassey as kuse dy veiyn beggey, myr sampleyr, plankton. Ta kuse dy vyn-vioagh-oayllee cur veeryssyn nyn mast'oc, agh fir elley, er lhieusyn nagh vel ad bio.[1][2] Ta’n chooid smoo jeu nyn mioagyn un-chillagagh, agh cha nel dagh ooilley fer; ta kuse dy vioagyn yl-chillagagh mynreayrtagh, as kuse dy phrotistyn as bacteyryn macroreayrtagh, dy ghra myr shen, ry-akin da’n tooill (myr sampleyr, Thiomargarita namibiensis).[3]

Ta mynvioee cummal er feie ny cruinney, ayns dagh rheynn ny bea-chruinney raad ta ushtey fliugh, goaill stiagh thalloo, çhibbraghyn çhehey, er grunt ny marrey, ard ‘syn aeraght, as duinid ayns bleayst ny cruinney. Ta feme orroo er son aa-choorsal beaghey ayns eggochoryssyn. Ta jargaght tashtey nitrageen ec kuse dy vyn-vioee, as myr shen, ta laue scanshoil oc ‘sy chorys nitrageen. Foddee dy vel laue oc ayns frassaghey as emshir myrgeddin.[4]

Ta ymmyd jeant jeh mynvioee ayns bea-haghnoaylleeaght chammah, ayns gyle as braghey tradishoonagh, as ayns çhaghnoaylleeaght jeianagh ta jannoo ymmyd jeh jeshaghteyrys gienntagagh. Er y laue elley, ta mynvioee ghorlagh lane assee; t'ad goll stiagh bioagyn elley as gaase ayndaue, as shen bun aslayntyn ta marroo millioonyn dy 'leih, beiyn as lossreeyn.[5]

Shennaghys[reagh]

Aafilley[reagh]

She mynvioee un-chillagagh haink rish s'leaie er y chruinney, mysh 3-4 billioon blein er dy henney.[6][7][8] B’voal eh aafilley ny lurg shen,[9] as rish 3 billioon blein ‘syn Eash Roie-Chambriagh va dagh ooilley bioag mynreayrtagh.[10] Myr shen, car y chooid smoo jeh shennaghys ny seihill, cha row agh mynvioee ayn.[11] Ta oayllee er chur enney er bacteyryn, algaghyn as fungyssyn ayns ombyr 220 millioon blein d’eash, as ta’n feanish shoh taishbyney nagh vel jalloo-oaylleeaght vyn-vioee er gaghlaa monney derrey’n Eash Triassagh.[12]

Ta’n chooid smoo dy vyn-vioee geddyn sliught dy tappee, as foddee lheid as bacteyryn co-cheaghley gienntagyn eddyr dooghyssyn anchasley rish y cheilley, liorish co-whingaghey bacteyragh, goaill stiagh gienntag as cur stiagh gienntag.[13] Ta’n co-cheaghley co-chruinnagh ghienyn shoh, as myrane lesh reat ard arraghey as saaseyn caghlaa gienntag elley, lhiggey da mynvioee aafilley dy tappee (trooid reih najooragh) son dy hannaghtyn bio ayns çhymbylaghtyn noa as freggyrt da preays çhymbylagh. Ta’n aafilley tappee shoh scanshoil ayns lheeys, er y fa dy vel ard-vunniagyn çheet rish. Ta ny bacteyryn gorlagh shoh lieh-yeenagh noi noi-veiyn jeianagh.[14]

Roish myn-vioagh-oaylleeaght[reagh]

Va resoonaght ayn er my row myn-vioee ayn ny dyn rish keeadyn roish my hie ad er feddyn 'sy 17oo Eash. Screeu scoillar Romangh Marcus Terentius Varro er cretooryn mynreayrtagh 'sy lioar liorish, De Re Rustica ("Er Eirinaght"), 'sy 1d Eash. V'eh cur coyrle noi soiaghey thie balley faggys da curree:

Ta feme er roie-arrey faggys da curree, er coontey ny h-oyryn heose, as er y fa dy vel ad skeaylley shiartanse dy vyn-veiyn, do-akin da'n tooill, as t'adsyn snaue 'syn aer stiagh 'sy chorp trooid y veeal as y troyn, as gientyn doghanyn trome.[15]

Ayns Kitab Al Qanûn fi Al-Tibb (كتب ا لقا نون في ا لطب‎, "Leigh Lheeys") (1025), screeu Abū Alī ibn Sīnā dy vel taalyn y chorp goll er sollaghey liorish corpyn seihlltagh joarree roish my jig çhingys er.[16] Hug roish eh y sheiltynys dy nod gorley shymlee as çhingyssyn elley skeaylley eddyr sleih, dy ghra myr shen, dy row ad nyn ngorlaghyn gowaltagh. Ren eh ymmyd jeh quaranteen son dy lhiettal ad.[17]

Rish y Gorley Doo (phlaih fairaigagh) roshtyn al-Andalus ‘sy Spaainey ‘sy 14oo eash, screeu Ibn Khatima dy row “myn-chorpyn” gowaltagh bun ghorley gowaltagh lesh adsyn çheet stiagh ‘sy chorp.[16] Ayns 1546, hug roish Girolamo Fracastoro dy row bun çhingyssyn theayagh nheeghyn rassagh yn-astreeaghey nod ymmyrkey gorley liorish coventyn jeeragh ny neuyeearagh, as eer gyn coventyn harrish foddeeaght mooar.

She eieyn barelagh v’ayn er myn-vioee, gyn fysseree ny oaylleeaght erbee. Cha row feanish, taishbyney ny soilshaghey kiart mynyngione derrey’n 17oo eash. Shen er y fa nagh row mynreayrtanyn ry-gheddyn oc.

Shennaghys ‘eddyn magh myn-vioee[reagh]

Son ny smoo fys jeeagh-shiu er: Shennaghys vea-oaylleeaght
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, y chied myn-vea-oayllee as y chied dy ‘akin myn-vioagyn liorish mynreayrtan.

Va Anton van Leeuwenhoek mastey ny kied sleih dy ‘akin myn-vioagyn, liorish mynreayrtan rere’n chiaddey echey hene. Va’n cohortys hug eh da bea-oaylleeaght mastey ny smoo scanshoil rieau.[18] By Robert Hooke eh y chied ren scrutaghey er bioagyn liorish mynreayrtan; screeu eh er killagyn losseree ‘sy lioar 1665 echey, Micrographia.

Roish my hooar magh Leeuwenhoek myn-vioee ayns 1675, cha hoig ad cre’n fa dod oo jannoo feeyn jeh smeïr-feeyney, caashey jeh bainney, ny cre’n fa va bee loauaghey. Cha ren Leeuwenhoek kiangley ny h-obbraghyn shoh as myn-vioee, agh phrow eh dy row bioagyn ayn nagh row ry-akin da’n tooill.[19][20] Obbyr Leeuwenhoek, myrane lesh tastaghyn Lazzaro Spallanzani as Louis Pasteur, hug ad jerrey er y çhenn eie dy row bea hene-ghientyn ass stoo neuvio trooid loauaghey. Hooar magh Lazzaro Spallanzani dy dod eh jannoo awree shiast liorish broie, as marroo myn-vioee erbee v'aynjee. Hooar eh magh myrgeddin nagh nod myn-vioee noa soiaghey urree mannagh beagh eh goll er anchoodaghey da'n aer. Dobbyr Louis Pasteur ny smoo er y chooish, lesh anchoodaghey awree broit da'n aer ayns saaghyn as shollane oc, son dy lhiettal breneenyn jeh goll ny hrooid da'n awree, as ayns saaghyn gyn shollane. Haink stiagh yn aer trooid feddan cruillagh nagh lhig da joan bentyn rish yn awree. Lesh broie yn awree 'sy toshiaght, v'eh shickyr nagh row myn-vioee bio erbee 'syn awree ec y toshiaght. Cha daase red erbee 'syn awree car prowaltys Phasteur. Haishbynee shen dy row bioee erbee daase ayns lheid yn awree çheet stiagh jeh çheumooie, myr sporragyn er joan, as cha jagh ad er hene-gheintyn 'syn awree. Hug shen builley baaish da'n çheiltynys hene-ghientyn, as hug eh feanish da'n çheiltynys bunniag

Ayns 1876, phrow Robert Koch dy row myn-vioee nyn mun çhingys. Hooar eh magh dy row ram Bacillus anthracis ayns fuill ollee as antraks orroo, dagh keayrt. Dod eh ymmyrkey antaks jeh un vaagh da fer elley, liorish goaill beggan dy 'uill jeh'n vaagh çhing as ish y hilgey stiagh ayns fer sunt, as hug shen çhingys er y vaagh sunt. Hooar eh magh myrgeddin dy dod eh aase y bacteyr ayns awree beaghee, as eshyn y hilgey stiagh ayns baagh sunt, as verragh shen çhingys er. Er bun ny prowaltyssyn shoh, ren eh slatjyn howse er son prowal kiangley oyragh eddyr myn-vioagh as çhingys: eabbaghyn Choch.[21] Ga nagh vel ad bentyn da dagh cooish, ta scansh shennaghyssagh oc bentyn rish aase smooinaght oaylleeagh, as ta ymmyd jeant jeu foast.[22]

Rang-oardraghey[reagh]

Shoh billey aafilleydagh son dy haishbyney shennayraght chadjin tree reamyn vea.[23] Ta bacteyryn ayns gorrym, eukaryoteyn ayns jiarg, as archaea ayns geayney. Ta ynnydyn kuse dy phyla ayns cosoylaght rish y cheilley ry-akin mygeayrt-y-mysh.

Ma myn-vioee ry-akin er feie rheam vea ny cruinney. Ta bacteyryn as archaea mynreayrtagh dy kinjagh, bunnys, as ta shiartanse dy eukaryoteyn mynreayrtagh myrgeddin. T'adsyn goaill stiagh protistyn, fyngyssyn, as shiartanse dy myn-vaaghyn as lossreeyn. Cha nel ad goaill rish dy cadjin dy vel veerysyn bio, as myr shen, cha nee myn-vioee t'ayn, ga dy vel myn-vioagh-oaylleeaght goaill stiagh studeyrys orroo.

Prokaryota[reagh]

Ard-art: Prokaryota

She possan dy bioagyn prokaryota, as adsyn gyn çheshvean ny mynoltyn far-chrackanagh elley. Myr shen t'ad anchasley rish ny eukaryota as çheshvean ocsyn. Ta'n chooid smoo jeu lane un-chillagagh, agh beggan beg dy phrokaryota (myr sampleyr, mycsobacteria), ta eashyn yl-chillagagh ayns nyn mea.[24]

Ta daa ream ec ny prokaryoteyn, bacteyryn as archaea. She possan dy vioagyn smoo anchasley as lhieenar ny cruinney t'ayn, as adsyn cummal raad erbee ta ushtey fliugh ry-gheddyn as ta'n çhiassid fo +140 °C. T'ad cummal ayns sailley, thalloo, aer, cassanyn collaneagh-gastragh veiyn, çhibbraghyn çhehey, as foddey fo bleayst ny cruinney ayns cregyn.[25] Ta prokaryoteyn er dagh eaghtyr nagh vel er ny hiastey er lheh, faggys. T'ad credjal dy vel mysh qeuig millioon trillioon trillioon jeu ayn, dy ghra myr shen 5×1030.[26]

Bacteyryn[reagh]

Ard-art: Bacteyr
Bacteyryn Staphylococcus aureus er nyn mooadaghey 10,000x

Ta faggys dagh bacteyr do-akin da'n tooill, er lhimmey jeh fir ghoan, myr sampleyr, Thiomargarita namibiensis.[27] She un-chillagee t'ayn, gyn myn-organeyn far-chrackanagh. Ta'n genome oc un loob dy GDN, ga dy nod rheynn beg dy GDN, plasmaidyn, ve ayndaue. T'ad goll er skeaylley eddyr killagyn liorish co-whingaghey bacteyragh. Ta boaylley killag oc, as eshyn cur lajer as neulhoobid daue. T'ad geddyn sliught liorish scoltey jeesoil ny cur magh buinney, agh cha nel ad jannoo gientyn keintyssagh. Ta kuse dy ghooie jannoo endosporragyn feer aalhiemmagh, agh she aase dy hannaghtyn bio t'ayn son bacteyryn, cha nel aase ghientyn. Ayns çhymbylaght share daue, foddee bacteyryn dooblaghey ad hene cho mennick as dagh 10 minnidyn.[28]

Archaea[reagh]

Ard-art: Archaea

Ta archaea nyn un-chillagee gyn çheshvean, gollrish bacteyryn. 'sy traa t'er ngoll shaghey, cha dug ad tastey da ny h-anchaslyssyn eddyr oc, as v'ad cliaghtey cur bacteyryn myrane lesh archaea 'sy reeriaght Monera. Ayns 1990, hug roish y myn-vioagh-oayllee Carl Woese y corys tree reamyn, as eshyn eddyrscarrey bioagyn ayns bacteyryn, archaea as nd eukaryoteyn.[29] Ta anchaslyssyn eddyr bacteyryn as archaea bentyn rish gien-oaylleeaght as bea-chemmig. Myr sampleyr, ta far-chrackanyn ec y ghaa; agh ta'n far-chrackan killag bacteyragh ass fosfaar-glisreed lesh kianglaghyn esteragh, as ta'n far-chrackan archaeagh ass lipaidyn eethyr.[30]

Hie archaea er nyn soilshaghey magh ayns sur-hymbylaghtyn ec y toshiaght, myr sampleyr, çhibbraghyn çhehey, agh t'ad er nyn veddyn ayns dagh ooilley oayll neayr's shen.[31] T'ad fakin dy ve feer chadjin; she crenarchaeota cummey s'cadjiney vea 'sy varrey, as eshyn s'eearrooagh ayns eggochoryssyn ny s'diuney na 150m.[32][33] T'ad cadjin 'sy thalloo neesht, as ta laue scanshoil oc ayns ocsaidaghey ammoiney.[34]

Eukaryoteyn[reagh]

Ard-art: Eukaryote

Ta ymmodee eukaryoteyn mynreayrtagh ayn. Anchasley rish bacteyryn as archaea, ta mynoltyn ec eukaryoteyn, myr sampleyr, çheshvean killag, farrys Golgi as mitochondria. Foddee eukaryoteyn ve haploid ny diploid, as ta ymmodee çheshveanyn killag ec kuse jeu (jeeagh er coenocyte). Cha nel dagh myn-vioagh ny un-chillagagh; ta eukaryoteyn mynreayrtagh yl-chillagagh ayn.

Protistyn[reagh]

Ard-art: Protista

Mastey ny eukaryota, she ny protista ny fir smoo un-chillagagh as mynreayrtagh. She possan feer anchasley rish y cheilley t'ayn.[35][36] Ta kuse dy algaghyn nyn brotistyn yl-chillagagh, as ta corys bea er lheh ec lheeahid glooie lesh caghlaa eddyr cummaghyn un-chillagagh, yl-chillagagh as coloinagh.[37] Cha s'ain quoid dy phrotisyn t'ayn; foddee nagh vel shin er chur enney agh er beggan jeu.[38][39]

Beiyn[reagh]

Meeyllag mynreayrtagh Lorryia formosa.
Ard-art: Myn-veiyn

Ta beiyn yl-chillagagh son y chooid smoo, agh ta fir jeu do-akin da'n tooill ny yei shen. Ta arthropodyn mynreayrtagh goaill stiagh meeyllagyn joaney as meeyllagyn partan. Ta crustee vynreayrtagh goaill stiagh copepodyn as cladocera, as ta ymmodee nematodeyn ro veg son adsyn y 'akin lesh y tooill myrgeddin. Ta rotiferyn feer chadjin myrgeddin; she eederyn-sheeley t'ayn, as adsyn cummal ayns ushtey millish. Foddee myn-veiyn geddyn sliught dy keintyssagh ny neucheintyssagh, as ta kuse jeu skeaylley da oayllyn noa myr oohyn oddys tannaghtyn bio raad nagh nod y baagh aasit. Foddee shiartanse dy veiyn bunneydagh, myr sampleyr, rotiferyn as nematodeyn, çhirmaghey dy slane as tannaghtyn nyn gadley rish tammylt liauyr.[40]

Fungyssyn[reagh]

Ard-art: Fungys

Ta ymmodee dooieyn fungys unchillagagh, myr sampleyr, jastee fuinnee (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Foddee shiartanse jeu, myr sampleyr, Candida albicans, caghlaa phenohorçh as aase myr un-chillagee ayns shiartanse dy hymbyllaghtyn.[41] T'ad geddyn sliught dy keintyssagh (liorish cur buinney magh ny scoltey jeesoil). Foddee ad jannoo sporragyn myrgeddin; she conidia neucheintyssagh t'ayn, ny basidosporragyn keintyssagh.

Lossreeyn[reagh]

Ard-art: Lus

Ta algaghyn glassey goaill stiagh ymmodee bioagyn mynreayrtagh. Ta kuse jeu er nyn rang-oardraghey myr protistyn, as fir elley myr embryophyteyn (lossreeyn cadjin). Foddee algaghyn aase dy un-chillagagh ny myr driaght liauyr dy chillagyn. Ta scuitçheyderyn un-chillagagh as coloinagh nyn mast'oc, chammah's cummaghyn coloinagh, runt as snaieagh.[42]

Bea[reagh]

Ta myn-vioee ry-akin er feie ny cruinney, ayns dagh sorçh dy oayll, bunnys, as shen goaill stiagh ardjyn y Twoaie as y Jiass, faasee, geeseryn, cregyn as y marrey mooar. Ta kuse jeu er gormal rish ny feer-staydjyn shoh as er droggal coloinyn; she graihderyn barbaght t'ayn. T'adsyn er nyn ngeddyn ass cregyn wheesh as 7km fo eaghtyr ny cruinney.[43] Ta kuse dy 'leih credjal dy vel wheesh dy vea fo eaghtyr ny cruinney as ersyn.[25] Ta feanish ain daue tannaghtyn bio rish tammylt ayns folmid, as t'ad shassoo noi goulraght erskyn-ghorrym; myr shen, foddee ny nod ad tannaghtyn bio ayns spoar.[44]

Ta kianglaghyn shimboshagh eddyr ymmodee myn-vioee as bioagyn smoo. Ta kuse jeusyn co-vondeishagh, agh ta fir elley jeeyllagh da'n olteyr (sheadanys). My t'ad nyn munyn çhingys, ta oayllee cur myn-vioee ghorlagh orroo.

Graihderyn barbaght[reagh]

She myn-vioagh eh graihder barbaght, as eshyn er gormal rish staydyn beagh marrooagh da bioagyn elley. Myr sampleyr, ta lheid ny myn-vioee er nyn veddyn ayns ny çhymbyllaghtyn heese:

Ta scansh ec graihderyn barbaght. T'ad lhiggey da bea thallooinagh lheanaghey ayns cooid mooir jeh ushtey ny cruinney, bleayst ny cruinney as yn aeraght. T'ad er n'aafilley troyn noi çhymbyllaghtyn varbagh, as fodmayd ymmyd jeu y yannoo ayns bea-haghnoaylleeaght. Chammah's shen, er y fa dy vel ad ayn dyn y wooise da lheid y varbaght, t'eh ny smoo cosoylagh dy beagh bea neuhallooinagh ayn myrgeddin.[55]

Mynvioee thallooin[reagh]

Ta'n corys neetragien thallooin croghey er tashtey neetragien ass yn aeraght. Un aght dy vel shen taghyrt, she liorish obbyr bacteyryn shimboshagh (genera Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, ny Azorhizobium) ta cummal ayns uddanyn ayns fraueyn lossreeyn poanragh.[56]

Mynvioee himboshagh[reagh]

Ta mynvioee himbosagh, myr sampleyr, fungyssyn as algaghyn, kiangley rish y chielley ayns scryss ny greg. Ta kuse dy fungyssyn jannoo shimbosh mycorhissagh myrane lesh biljyn; ta shen cur ny smoo beaghey da'n villey as shugyr da'n fungys.

Scansh[reagh]

Ta feme ec deiney as y çhymbyllaght er mynvioee. Ta laue oc ayns coryssyn bunstoo ny cruinney, myr sampleyr, y corys carboan as y corys nitrageen. Ta ny paartyn elley oc goaill stiagh aa-choorsal fooillagh as kirp vioagyn elley liorish loaughey, as jannoo shimbosh myrane lesh bioagyn yl-chillagagh.[57]

Ymmyd ayns bee[reagh]

Ard-artyn: Braghey as Gyle

Ta sleih jannoo ymmyd jeh mynvioee ayns imbyl, jannoo feeyn, fuinney, piggylaghey as obbraghyn jannoo bee elley. Ta ymmyd elley jeant jeu dys gurneil gyle tra t'ad jannoo troar vainney, myr sampleyr caashey as binjean. Ta ny h-aaseyn shen cur blass da'n troar myrgeddin, as lhiettal bioagyn neuyesh jeh aase.[58]

Ymmyd ayns obbyr glennee ushtey[reagh]

Ta ymmyd jeant jeh mynvioee sheelrit er lheh er son obbraghey bea-oaylleeagh er sorniagys as jeeyl çhynskylagh.[59]

Ymmyd dys gientyn bree[reagh]

T'ad jannoo ymmyd jeh mynvioee ayns gyle dys jannoo ethanol, as ayns frasseeaghyn bea-ghas er so dy yannoo meetane.[60][61] Ta oayllee jannoo studeyrys er ymmyd algaghyn dys jannoo conney, as ymmyd vacteyryn dys jannoo ethanol kellaloyshagh ass jeeyll eirinagh as baljagh.[62][63]

Ymmyd ayns oaylleeaght[reagh]

Ta mynvioee nyn ngreieyn femoil ayns bea-haghnoaylleeaght, bea-chemmig, gien-oaylleeaght, as bea-oaylleeaght cho-vreneenagh. Ta ny jasteeghyn (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) nyn mioagyn sampleyragh ayns oaylleeaght, er y fa dy nee eukaryoteyn bunneydagh t'ayn, agh foddee ad goll er aase dy tappee as goll er caghlaa dy aashagh.[64] T'ad feeu er lheh ayns gien-oaylleeaght, gienoam-oaylleeaght as proteeoam-oaylleeaght.[65][66] Ta ymmyd jeant jeu son dy chroo steroidyn as ayns lheeys ghorlaghyn crackanagh. Ta studeyryssyn elley jeeaghyn er jannoo ymmyd jeu myr killagyn conney bioey, ny noi sollaghar.[67][68]

Ymmyd caggee[reagh]

Ayns ny Mean Eashyn, v'ad ceau kirp ghorlagh stiagh ayns cashtallyn lesh clagh-vow ny jeshaghtyn cruinnee elley son dy skeaylley çhingyssyn.[69]

Scansh er son slaynt deiney[reagh]

Lheie deiney[reagh]

Son ny smoo fys jeeagh-shiu er: Biota deiney#Biota bacteyragh deiney as slaynt deiney

Foddee mynvioee jannoo endohimbosh myrane lesh bioagyn smoo. Myr sampleyr, ta bacteyryn 'sy chorys lheieagh deiney cooney y chorys ym-yeenaght, jannoo biomaneyn (geayr folagh, bioteen as fir elley), as lheie carbey-hydraadyn neulheieagh dooin.[70]

Çhingyssyn as jeen-oaylleeaght[reagh]

Ta mynvioee nyn minn ymmodee gorlaghyn gowaltagh. Ny bioagyn hene, t'adsyn goaill stiagh bacteyryn gowaltagh (bun y phlaih fairaigagh, gorley shymlee as antraks); protosoa (bun malaarey, çhingys chadlee as tocsaplasmosh); as fungyssyn (bun meeyl chrackan, candeyjaash as histoplasmosh). Ta çhingyssyn elley, myr sampleyr floo as yn çhiassagh buigh, obbyr veeryssyn, as cha nel adsyn nyn mioagyn rere rang-oardraghey oaylleeagh cadjin. Rere obbyr derrey 2007, cha nel feanish baghtal er archaea gorlagh, agh ta sheiltynys ayn dy vel laue oc ayns çhingys ym-eeacklagh.[71][72]

Scansh ayns eggoaylleeaght[reagh]

Son ny smoo fys jeeagh-shiu er: louaghey

Ta laue mooar ec mynvioee ayns obbraghyn louaghey, as shen aa-choorsal nitrageen as bunstooghyn elley da'n eggochorys.

Slaynt-oayllys[reagh]

She shaghney doghanyn liorish scryssey jeh mynvioee ee slaynt-oayllys. Er y fa dy vel mynvioee ry-akin ayns dagh ooilley boayl, faggys, t'ee çheet er adsyn y injillaghey da keim beg, son y chooid smoo. Ny yei shen, ny keayrtyn, ta feme ayn dy vel nhee ny stoo ennagh lane amrid (dy ghra myr shen, gyn bioagyn ny veeryssyn erbee), myr sampleyr, spooytag.

Er son aarlaghey bee, t'ad ginjillaghey mynvioee liorish freayll (myr sampleyr, cur stiagh feeyn geayr), liorish jannoo ymmyd jeh greieyn glenney, liorish nagh tashtey agh rish tammylt beg, as liorish feayrid. My ta feme ayn er lane amrid, ta goulraghey ny ymmyd autoclave cadjin dy liooar.

Imraaghyn[reagh]

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