Killag

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
Caslys jeh troggal eairkey ass Micrographia, bun y fockle killag as y keeayll bea-oaylleeagh echey.

She unnid troggal as obbragh dagh ooilley bioag ee killag. She rheynn sloo jeh organe bioag dy nod oo cur bio er t'ayn.[1]

Ta kuse dy organeyn bioag un-chillagagh (cha nel agh un killag oc). Fir elley, goaill stiagh deiney, t'ad yl-chillagagh.

Ayns 1837, ren bea-oayllee Sheckagh Jan Evangelista Purkyne fakin "grineenyn" beggey tra v'eh jeeagh er stoo lus trooid mynreayrtan. Hie y sheiltynys killag er cur er bun ayns 1839, liorish Matthias Jakob Schleiden as Theodor Schwann. Ta'n sheiltynys gra dy vel organeyn bioag erbee jeant jeh killag (ny killagyn). Ta dagh ooilley killag çheet jeh killag t'ayn hannah. Ta obbraghyn bea goll er jannoo sthie killagyn. Ec dagh killag, ta'n fys gien-oaylleeagh son reaghey obbyraghyn y chillag, as son dy cur da'n sheeloghe noa.

Ta bun yn 'ockle killag Ladjyn: cellula, dy ghra myr shen, “shamyr beg”. Ren Robert Hooke goaill toshiaght ymmydey y fockle ayns 1665. V'eh jeeaghyn er killagyn eairkey trooid mynreayrtan, as nyn gosoylaghey rish ny shamyryn raad va monnee cummal[2].

... V’eh ry-akin aym, baghtal ass towse, dy row eh thiollit as doralagh, gollrish kere volley, agh cha row ny doralyn nyn soie ayns buill reiltagh [...] ny doralyn, ny killagyn shoh [...] v’ad y chied doralyn mynreayrtagh vaik mee rieau. Foddee dy row ad y chied hie er fakin rieau; cha row mee er jeet da quaiyl Screeudeyr ny Peiagh erbee v’er loayrt orroosyn roish shoh...

Troyn cadjin[reagh]

Killagyn lugh er nyn aase ayns jyst troarey. Ga dy vel gloutyn mooar ayn, cha nel killag erbee jeu agh 10 µm er lheead.

Ta killagyn cummal seose ad hene, er shlee: t'ad goaill stiagh beaghey, jannoo bree jeh beaghey, jannoo sur-obbraghyn, as jannoo coipyn jeu hene. Ec dagh ooilley killag, faggys, ta tasht saraghyn son ny obbraghyn shoh.

Ta troyn cadjin killaghyn goaill stiagh:[3]

  • Jannoo killagyn noa liorish rheynn killagyn: (mitosis ny meiosis).
  • Jannoo ymmyd jeh ensymeyn as proteenyn elley. Ta coad son croo ny proteenyn shoh ayns GDN, as t'ad goll er jannoo liorish GRN çhaghter as ribbosoomyn.
  • soe, goaill stiagh stoo, troggal co-oltyn killag, çhyndaa bree as co-vreneenyn, as cur magh fo-hroaryn. Shegin da killag goaill as ymmydey bree kemmigagh t'er ny hashtey ayns co-vreneenyn orgaanagh. T'ad feasley er y vree shoh, as dy ymmydey ayns obbyr soe.
  • Freggyrt da brodyn sthie as mooie, myr sampleyr, caghlaa çhiassid, pH ny çhiuaghyn beaghey.
  • Ta far-chrackan mygeayrt y chillag, jeant jeh daa-vrat lipaidagh as proteenyn ayn.

Ta co-oltyn scanshoil ayns far-chrackanyn kuse dy chillagyn prokaryotagh,[4], as killagyn eukartoyagh, ta rheynnyn far-chrackanagh sthie er lheh oc.

Troggal chillagyn[reagh]

Ta daa horçh jeh killag ayn: eukaryotagh as prokaryotagh. Son y chooid smoo, ta killagyn prokaryotagh nyn organeyn bioag un-chillagagh, agh ta killagyn eukaryotagh ayns organeyn bioag yl-chillagagh.

Er y fa dy vel killagyn anchasley rish y cheilley, she taishbyney troyn cadjin t'ayn, agh cha nel dagh ooilley red 'syn art bentyn rish dagh ooilley killag er lheh.

Killagyn prokaryotagh[reagh]

Ard-art: Prokaryota
Caslys jeh killag prokaryotagh cadjin
(1) Pili
(2) Plasmaid
(3) Ribbosoomyn
(4) Plasmey killag
(5) Far-chrackan killag
(6) Boalley killag
(7) Kishtag
(8) Far-heshvean
(9) Flagellum bacteyragh

Ta killagyn prokaryotagh anchasley rish killagyn eukaryotagh, er y fa nagh vel coodagh çheshveanagh ny çheshvean oc. Kuse dy mynoltyn as troggalyn t'ec chillag eukaryotagh, cha nel adsyn ec killagyn prokaryotagh. Obbyr ta jeant ec mynoltyn ayns killag eukaryotagh, myr sampleyr, mitochondria, t'eh jeant ec y far-chrackan plasmagh ayns killag prokaryotagh. Ta tree rheynnyn 'sy chillag: proteenyn er y far-chrackan killag; y coodagh killag; as y plasmey killag. Er y far-chrackan, ta proteenyn myr flagella as pili, as ad gobbraghey bentyn rish arraghey, goaill greim er reddyn, ny kiangley killagyn rish y cheilley. Ayns y coodagh killag, ta'n boalley killag, kishtag, as far-chrackan plasmagh. Ta GDN, ribbosoomyn as troggalyn elley cummal 'syn phlasmey killag.

  • Ta boalley killag ec y chooid smoo jeh killagyn prokaryota. Ec bacteyryn, t'eh jeant jeh peptidoglycan. Ta'n boalley coadey y killag noi egin mooie, as noi mooadaghey as bleastey trooid çhionnid trooid-heelagh, as shen cur er y chillag soo stiagh ushtey. Ga dy vel boalley killag ec kuse dy eukaryota, cha nel y troggal cheddin echey.
  • Ta kroymasoom prokaryotagh ny co-vreneen kiarkylagh son y chooid smoo. Ga nagh vel feer heshvean ec y chillag, ta'n GDN er ny chohiughey myr far-heshvean. Ny keayrtyn, ta troggalyn GDN neu-chroymasoomagh (plasmaidyn), as adsyn kiarkylagh chammah dy mennick. Ta tooilley troyn ec ny plasmaidyn, myr sampleyr, shassoo noi noi-vaagh.

Killagyn eukaryotagh[reagh]

Ard-art: Eukaryota
Caslys jeh killag baaghagh eukaryotagh cadjin as ny co-oltyn ayn.
Mynoltyn:
(1) Myn-heshvean
(2) Çheshvean
(3) Ribbosoom
(4) Bolgan
(5) Moggyl endoplasmagh garroo
(6) Farrys Golgi
(7) Ushylagh killag
(8) Moggyl endoplasmagh reajagh
(9) Mitochondria
(10) Folmid killag
(11) Plasmey killag
(12) Leesosoom
(13) kentreen ayns kentrosoom

Ta killag eukaryotagh cadjin mysh 10 keayrt ny smoo na killag prokaryotagh cadjin, as ta kuse jeu eer ny smoo. Yn anchaslys smoo eddyr y ghaa, shen dy vel rheynnyn far-chrackanagh ec killagyn eukaryotagh, as obbyr soe er lheh taghyrt ayndaue. Ta'n fer cho scanshoil y çheshvean, raad ta GDN y chillag ny hoie çheusthie jeh far-chrackan. Ta GDN eukaryotagh er ny reaghey ayns co-vreneenyn linnagh (kroymasoomyn) as proteenyn histone oc. Chammah's shen, ta GDN elley ec kuse dy vynoltyn, myr sampleyr, mitochondria.

Taabyl: Cosoylaghey killagyn vaaghyn as lossreeyn
Killag cadjin vaagh Killag cadjin lus
Mynoltyn
Troggalyn elley

Co-oltyn y chillag[reagh]

Ta far-chrackan killag ec dagh ooilley killagh. Ta'n far-chrackan shoh rheynn y killag hene jeh'n çhymbyllaght echey; reaghey ny ta çheet stiagh ny goll magh; as freayll cummys lectragh y chillag. Çheusthie jeh'n far-chrackan, ta'n chooid smoo jeh'n killag lane dy phlasmey killag. Ta GDN as GRN ec killagyn chammah, son dy hroggal proteenyn, ensymeyn er lheh.

Far-chrackan killag[reagh]

Ta far-chrackan killag mygeayrt y phlasmey killag; ayns lossreeyn as prokaryotee, ta'n far-chrackan fo boalley killag dy cadjin. Ta'n far-chrackan eddyrscarrey y killag hene as y çhymbyllaght veih my cheilley, as coadey y killag. T'eh jeant jeh daa-vrat lipaidagh (co-vreneen sahllagh as feoh ushtey orroo) as co-vreneenyn fosfaar (as ad currit da ushtey); myr shen, ny keayrtyn t’ad cur er daa-vrat lipaid-fosfaar.

Ta proteenyn nyn soie ayns y far-chrackan, as t'ad gobbraghey myr feddanyn as pumpyn, reaghey arraghey co-vreneenyn stiagh as magh ass y chillag. Myr shen, t’ad gra dy vel y far-chrackan lieh-neuyeen: foddee eh lhiggey da co-vreneen ny eeane goll ny hrooid gyn scuirr; lhiggey da kuse jeu goll ny hrooid; ny lhiettal da goll ny hrooid er chor erbee. Chammah’s shen, ta proteenyn glackey ec y far-chrackan killag, as ad lhiggey da’n chillag cronnaghey co-vreneenyn cowree jeh çheumooie, myr sampleyr, broddagyn.

Imraaghyn[reagh]

  1. (2002) "Cell Movements and the Shaping of the Vertebrate Body, ayns cabdil 21", ayns Alberts, Bruce: Molecular biology of the cell, 4oo, Garland Science.
  2. Hooke, Robert (1665). "Observation XVIII", Micrographia.
  3. The Universal Features of Cells on Earth in Chapter 1 of the Alberts textbook (reference #1, above).
  4. L.M., Mashburn-Warren; Whiteley, M. (2006). "Special delivery: vesicle trafficking in prokaryotes.". Molecular Microbiology 61 (4): 839-46. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2006.05272.x. PMID 16879642.