Rannag

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
Rannag
Caerulea3 crop.jpg


Rang oaylleeagh
Reeriaght: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Rang: Daa-veaghee
Oardagh: Anura
Fo-oardagh

Archaeobatrachia
Mesobatrachia
Neobatrachia

Ta'n rannag ny daa-veaghee jeh'n oardagh Anura (shen gyn famman ‘sy Ghreagish: an-, gyn + oura, famman).

Ta’n chooid smoo jeh rannagyn yn-enneydagh er coontey lurgaghyn jerree liauyrey, corp giare, cassyn craitnagh as sooillyn deamagh. Cha nel famman ec, dy cadjin. T’ad brey oohyn ayns dubbaghyn, loghanyn ny loghyn; ta ny oohyn gaase dys rannagyn aegey, ta cummal ‘syn ushtey, as grooaneyn oc. Lurg beggan traa, t’ad gaase reesht dys y chummey aasit.

Ta rannagyn ry-gheddyn harrish y teihll, veih ardjyn grianchryssagh dys fo-arctagh.

Rang-oardraghey[reagh]

Rannag Aile-ghaillagh Europagh (Bombina bombina)

Ta mysh 4,810 dooieyn ‘syn oardagh Anura ayns 33 kynneeyn.[1] Ta Leptodactylidae (1100 do.), Hylidae (800 do.) as Ranidae (750 do.) ny smoo. Ta mysh 88% jeh dooieyn daa-veaghee nyn rannagyn.

Cha nel fa oaylleeagh son eddyraghey rannag as beayf rere’n aght cadjin. Dy cadjin, ta sleih cur rannag er fir currit da ushtey as crackan rea oc; as beayf er fir ooirragh as crackan fahnaghtagh oc. Rere rang-oardraghey, ta dagh ooilley olteyr jeh’n oardagh Anura ny rannag, agh cha nel agh olteyryn jeh’n chynney Bufonidae nyn meayfyn. Ny smoo cruinn eer, ta rannag çheet er olteyryn jeh’n chynney Ranidae (“feer rannagyn”) ny lomarcan.[2]

Ta tree fo-oardaghyn lheead ec rannagyn: Archaeobatrachia (kiare kynneeyn jeh rannagyn bunneydagh); Mesobatrachia (queig kynneeyn jeh rannagyn t’er nyn aafilley ny smoo); as Neobatrachia, y possan smoo, goaill stiagh 24 kynneeyn jeh rannagyn “jeianagh”. Ta Neobatrachia eddyrscarrit ayns Hyloidea as Ranoidea.[3] Ta’n rang-oardraghey shoh rere troyn jalloo-oaylleeagh myr earroo vertebra, cummey y chryss chleeauagh, as jalloo-oaylleeaght ny rannagyn aegey. Ta bea-oayllee goaill rish y rang-oardraghey shoh son y chooid smoo, ga dy vel resoonaght ayn mychione mooinjerys eddyr kynneeyn er lheh. Foddee dy beagh studeyrys gien-oaylleeagh soilshaghey y chooish.[4]

Jalloo-oaylleeaght as fyshoaylleeaght[reagh]

Ushylagh Rana

Ta jalloo-oaylleeaght rannagyn gyn cosoylaght mastey daa-veaghee. Cosoylaghey rish ny possanyn elley, salamanderyn as kaikilee, cha nel famman ec rannagyn aasit, as bare lesh ny lurgaghyn oc lheim na shooyl. Ta crackan rannagyn lhiggey da ocsygien çheet ny hrooid, as er y fa shen nod ad gennalaghey trooid yn crackan oc[5]. Ta’n ocsygien goll er lheie ayns brat ushtey er y chrackan, as goll ny hrooid dys yn ‘uill.

Son y chooid smoo, ta lurgaghyn s’jerree liauyr ec rannagyn as craueyn abaneagh sheeynit. Ta craue ghrommey ghiare oc, as cha nel ny smoo na jeig vertebraghyn seyrey eck. Lurg shen ta craue famman cholheit (gimmijey), as er y fa shoh she baagh gyn famman t’ayn son y chooid smoo.

Ta mooadys rannagyn goll veih 10mm (Brachycephalus didactylus, ‘sy Vrasseel as Eleutherodactylus iberia ‘sy Choobey) dys 300mm (y rannag Gholiath, Conraua goliath, ayns Cameroon).

Cassyn as lurgaghyn[reagh]

Ta lheead cummaghyn coshey mastey rannagyn, croghey er dy vel ad cummal ayns biljyn, ayns ushtey ny er yn thalloo.

Ta rannag villagh Hyler (Litoria tyleri) soilshaghey ny cassyn craitnagh as doarnyn mair chass echey.

Ymmodee rannagyn, as adsyn cummal ‘syn ushtey er lheh, ta cassyn craitnagh oc, as rheamyssaght y chraitnys jeu croghey er y traa t’ad ceau ‘syn ushtey. Myr sampleyr, ta cassyn slane chraitnagh ec y rannag veg Affrickagh (Hymenochirus), agh my t’ou jeeaghyn er cassyn y rannag villagh White (Litoria caerulea), ny ghooie biljagh, cha nel agh kerroo craitnagh oc.

Ec rannagyn billagh, ta “doarnyn mair chass” son dy chooney goaill greim er ny biljyn. Cha nee doarnyn sooee t’ayn. T’ad goaill greim liorish feddanaght, as jannoo ymmyd jeh mooarane jeh killaghyn beg oddys greimmey eaghtyryn garroo. Cha nel ad çheet lesh my t’ad ro fliugh[6].

Kuse dy rannagyn ta cummal ard ayns viljyn, ta craitnys mooar oc, eer ny smoo na fir ushtagh. Ta ny craitnys shoh lhiggey dauesyn gooillian eddyr biljyn, ny stiurey traa t’ad lheim eddyr oc[7].

Dy cadjin, cha nel troyn myr shen ec rannagyn ooirragh. Son y chooid smoo ta ny doarnyn mair cass oc ny sloo (my ta’n lheid ayn) as ta beggan craitnys oc. Ta lurgaghyn s’jerree s’troshey ec rannagyn ooirragh na adsyn t’ec fir ushtagh ny biljagh.

Nieu[reagh]

Ta nieu vog ec ymmodee rannagyn, son dy imman ergooyl cragheyderyn. Ny nieughyn oc, t’ad goaill stiagh gienneyder-branlaadys, gienneyder co-leaystey, nieu-nearag as thanneyder-cuishlin. Kuse dy chragheyderyn rannagyn, ta aalhiemmaght mooar oc noi ny nieughyn shoh. Foddee kuse dy ny nieughyn shoh cur drogh-eiyrtys er sleih.

Oophaga pumilio, ny rannag steab nieunagh; ta ymmodee alkaloydyn echey, as t’ad gimman ergooyl cragheyderyn.

Ta kuse dy rannagyn goaill nieughyn ass sniengan as arthropodyn elley dy vel ad gee[8]. Foddee fir elley jannoo nyn nieu hene nagh vel çheet ass y vee oc[9].

Ta kuse dy vun-chummaltee America Yiass sheeley nieu magh ass rannagyn steab nieu, as cur eh er ny steabyn oc son shelgeraght[10], ga dy s’goan ny dooieyn ta nieunagh dy liooar son shen. Ta rannagyn nieunagh cliaghtit rish soilshaghey magh y nieunaght oc liorish daahghyn gial: she raaue-cowrey t’ayn. Ta daa ghooie neunieunagh Americaanagh ec y chooid sloo (Eleutherodactylus gaigei as Lithodytes lineatus) ta jannoo arrish er daahghyn rannagyn steab nieunagh (arrishaght Bates) [11][12].

Er coontey jeh neuchaslid nieu rannagyn, ta anaase mooar orroo ec bea-chemmigee. Ta alkaloyd enmyssit epibatidine ry-gheddyn ayns kuse dy rannagyn steab nieunagh, as she moogheyder guinn eh, ny stroshey na morfeen 200 keayrt. Stoo elley t’er ny sheeley ass crackan rannagyn, foddee dy beagh eh cur aalhiemmaght noi VGYS[13]. Ta oayllee jannoo studeyrys er nieughyn rannagyn son dy yeeaghyn my foddee ad cur dooin stoo lheeys noa [14].

Ta nieu rannagagh ayns taaley crackanagh chuse dy rannagyn, myr sampleyr y rannag awin Colorado as rannag cuirtlagh. Kuse jeu, myr sampleyr bufotenin, ta eiyrtys shicklaagagh oc, as myr shen ta sleih jannoo ymmyd jeu myr druggaghyn-soccar.

Tayrn ennal as kiarkley ny folley[reagh]

Crackan rannagyn, t’eh neuyeenagh da ocsygien as carboan daa-osseed, chammah as ushtey. Ta ymmodee cuishleeyn faggys da eaghtyr y chrackan. Tra ta rannag fo ushtey, ta ocsygien goll er sheeyney hug da’n chorys folley dy jeeragh. Er y thalloo, ta rannagyn aasit jannoo ny scowanyn oc son ennal y hayrn. Ta ny scowanyn oc gollrish adsyn ec deiney, agh cha nel ny muskylyn chleeu gobbraghey ec tayrn ennal, as cha nel asnaghyn ny skairt oc. Son ennal y hayrn, ta rannagyn soo stiagh aer trooid ny tuill stroaney oc, cur er y scoarnagh sheidey seose, as eisht t’ad faastey laare y veeal. Ta shen cur er yn aer goll stiagh ny scowanyn oc. Dy mennick, ta cooylley ayns ny tuill stroaney, as ad dooint tra ta’n rannag goll fo ushtey. Ayns Luanistyn 2007, hooar ad rannag ushtagh ayns boayl fadaneagh ayns Yn Indoneesh. Y rannag Vorneagh kione-rea (Barbourula kalimantanensis), she yn chied rannag gyn scowanyn as fys urree ec oaylleeaght.

Ta cree jeh tree shamyryn ec rannagyn, gollrish y chooilley tetrapod, er lhimmey jeh ushagyn as sheeintee. Ta fuill ocsygienit çheet veih ny stooghyn kirp ennal as goll stiagh ayns unnane shamyr. Ta shamyr elley son fuill jee-ocsygienit dy gholl stiagh ‘sy chree. Eisht, ta cooylley chaslagh stiurey yn fuill da ny cuishleeyn kiart – cuishlin y chree son fuill ocsygienit, as y cuishley scowanagh son fuill ta laccal ocsygien. Ta feme ec rannagyn er y chooylley shoh, son dy yannoo sloo jeh mestey yn daa horçh jeh fuill. Er coontey jeh, foddee rannagyn cummal seose cormid soe ny syrjey, as jannoo ny smoo, na nod ad gyn ee.

Lheie as keckey[reagh]

Ta’n beeal toshiaght corys lheie y rannag. Ta feeacklyn er y cheeill syrjey, as ymmyd jeant jeu son dy veihll bee roish sluggey eh. S’faase ny feeacklyn shoh, as cha nod rannagyn jannoo ymmyd jeu son feer ghreimmey. Ayns ynnyd jeh shen, ta’n rannag jannoo ymmyd jeh’n çhengey ghleiynagh eck son dy ghlackey cragh. Lurg shen, ta’n bee goll trooid yn bolg, as stiagh ‘sy chollane veg, raad ta’n chooid smoo jeh’n lheie taghyrt. Ta soo y phairaig villish, as buighid jeh’n aane, garraghey dys y chollane veg son dy chur cooney da’n lheie. Ta keck faagail magh ass yn arkyn.

Corys nearag[reagh]

Ta corys nearag aasit dy mie ec rannagyn. T’eh goaill stiagh inçhyn, coyrd drommey, as neayragyn. Ta’n smuir oblongata reaghey tayrn ennal, lheie, as obbyr seyr-obbragh elley. Ta’n kerebellum reaghey ny muskylyn. Cosoylaghey rish deiney, ta kerebellum rannagyn feer veg. Cha nel cleayshyn mooie ec rannagyn; ta ny dollanyn cleayshey anchoodit.

Shennaghys vea[reagh]

Gollrish daa-veaghee elley, ta kiare keimyn ayns bea rannag: ooh, rannag aeg, caghlaa cummey as rannag aasit. Er y fa dy vel feme er ushtey ec rannagyn, ta ymmyrkey colleeys goaill stiagh yllaghey colleeys, as shen cleayney rannagyn bwoirrin da’n ushtey raad ta ny fir nyn soie. Myr shen ta boayl mie faggys daue son breh oohyn. Ta kuse dy rannagyn goaill kiarail jeh ny h-oohyn oc, ny eer ny rannagyn aasit.

Ooh[reagh]

Gloagh rannag

Ta toshiaght vea rannag yn ooh. Son y chooid smoo, ta'n rannag woirrin breh gloagh rannag ayns ushtey – mooarane stoo as thousaneyn jeh oohyn ayn. Er y fa dy vel gaue mooar da ny h-oohyn liorish cragheyderyn, ta saaseyn oc son dy yannoo shickyr dy beagh kuse dy chloan ve er mayrn. T'ad breh ec y traa cheddin, as myr shen cha nod ny cragheyderyn gee dagh ooilley ooh; bee cooid mooar jeu goll er gee, agh s'cosoylagh dy bee kuse jeu er mayrn. Saase elley son scapail gaue loghanyn, shen breh oohyn er duillag erksyn y loghan, as coodagh gleiynagh orroo son dy freayll sthie yn ushtey. Erreish daue guirr, ta ny rannagyn aegey tuittym sheese 'syn ushtey. Kuse dy ghooieyn, ta jargaght cronnaghey craa ec ny h-oohyn, myr sampleyr my ta connspeagh ny ardnieu faggys daue, as foddee ad guirr dy leah son dy scapail goll er ee[15]. Dooieyn elley, myr sampleyr, y rannag chuirtlagh (Bufo marinus), t'ad breh oohyn nieunagh son jannoo sloo jeh cragheyderys. Ga dy vel eh croghey er y dooie as y çhymbyllaght, ta oohyn ushtagh guirr roish shiaghtin, dy cadjin. Dooieyn elley, t'ad ceau y clane cheim laarvagh sthie ny h-oohyn ny sthie ny mayrey.

Rannag aeg[reagh]

Rannag aeg jeh Haswell's Froglet (Paracrinia haswelli)

Ta oohyn çheet dy ve rannagyn aegey. Ta corp oochroo as famman liauyr, rea oc. Unnane dooie, ta rannagyn aegey lieh-ooirragh echey, as ad cummal mastey creggyn fliugh[16], agh ta'n chooid smoo jeu slane ushtagh. Cha nel scowan, farvollee, ny lurgaghyn oc. Ta ushylagh lunganeagh oc, corys linnaghyn lhiattagh, sproghanyn son ennal, as fammanyn son snaue[17].

Cha nel feer ‘eeacklyn ec rannagyn aegey, agh ta straihyn liaurey jeh troggalyn keratinagh (keradontyn) oc. Ta’n chooid smoo jeh rannagyn aegey nyn luss-eederyn, as t’ad gee algey dy mennick. Ta kuse dy ghooieyn feill-eeagh, as adsyn gee shey-chassee, rannagyn aegey sloo, as yeeast. Ta mooarane jeh cragheyderyn ec rannagyn aegey, goaill stiagh yeeast, eairkagyn, deyil thummee, as ushagyn ny h-awin. Ta cannablaght er ny fakin mastey rannagyn aegey jeh kuse dy ghooieyn[18]. Ec kuse dy ghooieyn ta rannagyn aegey nieunagh, myr sampleyr, rannagyn cuirtlagh[18].

Ayns kuse dy ghooie, ta rannagyn aegey tannaghtyn harrish y gheurey as caghlaa cummey y nah vlein – myr sampleyr, y rannag reealt (Alytes obstetricans) ny’n rannag chiebbey-chassagh (Pelobates fuscus).

Caghlaa cummey[reagh]

Rannagyn aeg jeh’n rannag Spring Peeper (Pseudacris crucifer) caghlaa ny cummaghyn oc

Ec jerrey y cheim rannag aeg, ta rannagyn caghlaa ny cummaghyn oc. She caghlaa trome t’ayn, goaill stiagh jalloo-oaylleeaght as fyshoaylleeaght. T’ad gaase lurgaghyn as scowanyn, as ta ny collaneyn oc girraghey, tra t’ad garraghey veih ee lossreeyn dys ee shey-chassee. Ta ny sooillyn oc garraghey son dy lhiggey dou fakin dy ghaa-hooillagh. Ta’n caghlaa shoh soilshaghey y caghlaa veih olmys (as feme reayrtys lhean oc) dys cragheyder (as feme tastid duinid oc). Ec jerrey y chaghlaa, ta killaghyn y famman marroo (apoptosis) as t’eh goll er soo stiagh y chorp.

Rannag aasit[reagh]

Erreish daue caghlaa cummey, ta kuse dy rannagyn goll magh ass yn ushtey as cummal er y thalloo, as dooieyn elley tannaghtyn ‘syn ushtey. Ta dagh dooie aasit nyn eederyn-foalley, faggys, as ad gee beiyn gyn craue dommey, myr sampleyr arthropodyn, annelaidyn as gastreypodyn. Beggan dooie smoo, t’ad gee beiyn elley, myr sampleyr, yeeastyn, rannagyn sloo, as sheeintee beggey. Ta kuse dy rannagnyn shelg liorish y çhengey gleiynagh oc, as dooieyn elley jannoo ymmyd jeh ny laueyn oc. Beggan beg jeh rannagyn, ta lossreeyn bun-vee daue[19].

Ta ram beiyn elley gee rannagyn, goaill stiagh ushagyn, yeeastyn, ardnieughyn, sheeintee, as sleih.

Ta bea liauyr ec rannagyn, ny keayrtyn; ga nagh vel monney fys ayn mychione y vea feie t’oc, ta recortyssyn ayn er rannagyn fo cappeeys as ad bea dys 40 bleeantyn[20][21]. Cosoylaghey rish eairkagyn as lossagyn, cha nel rannagyn rieau çheet dy ve keintyssagh roish t’ad ec y cheim aasit.

Geddyn sliught[reagh]

Tra t’ad aasit, ta rannagyn co-chruinnaghey ec loghan ny strooan son geddyn sliught. Ta ymmodee rannagyn goll erash da’n ushtey raad ruggyree ad; er y fa shen ta arraghey bleinoil ayn, as thousaneyn jeh rannagyn goaill rheynn ayndaue.

rannagyn cadjin (Bufo bufo) firrinagh as bwoirrinagh ec amplexus.

Ec y voayl geddyn sliught, ta rannagyn firrinagh gyllaghey son dy chleayney ben. Ta’n eam lesh y ghooie hene er lheh, as cha nel eh cleayney mraane jeh dooieyn elley. Ec ymmodee dooie, ta fir cruinlagh – fir nagh vel gyllagh, as ad cur stiagh er mraane ta tayrn er-gerrey da fir ta gyllagh.

Erreish daue çheet ry-cheilley, ta’n jees jannoo amplexus. Ta’n fer drappal y ven as goaill greim urree. Ta torraghey mooie ec rannagyn: ta’n oohyn as sheelyn çheet ry-cheilley çheumooie jeh’n chorp. Ta’n ven feaysley er ny oohyn oc, as y fer cur lheieyn sheel orroo. Lurg shen, ta ny h-oohyn gaase as croo coodagh fendeilagh. Son y chooid smoo, ta ny h-oohyn dorraghey as y coodagh trooid-hoilshagh.

Dy mennick, ta rannagyn tempreilagh geddyn sliught eddyr anmagh ‘sy fouyr as leah ‘syn arree. Ta çhiassid ushtey feayr ec ny traaghyn shoh, as myr shen, ta ny smoo ocsygien lheieit ayn. Chammah’s shen, ta geddyn sliught anmagh ‘sy vlein shickyraghey dy beagh bee kiart ry-gheddyn ec ny rannagyn noa ec y traa kiart.

Kiarail ny mayrey as ayrey[reagh]

Jalloo ass Kunstformen der Natur, 1904, liorish Ernst Haeckel, soilshaghey dooieyn rannag as kiarail ny mayrey as ayrey jeant oc.

Ga nagh vel monney fys ayn myechione, t’ad gra dy nod 20% jeh dooieyn daa-veaghee goaill kiarail jeh ny cloan oc. Ta ymmodee saaseyn oc son shen y yannoo[22]. Ta kuse dy rannagyn steab nieunagh breh ny h-oohyn oc er laare y cheyll as cur currey orroo, chammah as freayll ad tash liorish jannoo mooin orroo. Erreish daue guirr, ta’n ayr ny moir (croghey er y dooie) garraghey ad er y drommey echey/eck da bromeliad as ushtey ayn. Lurg shen, nee yn voir cur bee daue, liorish breh oohyn neulhearee ‘syn ushtey. Rannagyn elley, t’ad ymmyrkey lhieu ny h-oohyn (ny rannagyn aegey) er ny lurgaghyn sjerree ny’n drommey oc (myr sampleyr, y rannag reealt, dooieyn Alytes). Ta kuse dy rannagyn eer ymmyrkey lhieu ny cloan oc sthie y chorp oc hene. Y rannag phoagey Austrailagh firrinagh, ta poagaghyn er y lhiattee echey, raad ta ny rannagyn aegey cummal derrey t’ad caghlaa cummey. Y rannag Gharwin (Rhinoderma darwinii) ayns y Çhillee, t’ee cur ny rannagyn aegey stiagh ‘sy poagey coraagh eck. Y rannag volg-ghuirragh Austrailagh (Rheobatrachus), t’ee sluggey ny rannagyn aegey eck, as t’ad gaase sthie y volg eck. Son shen y yannoo, ta’n rannag scuirr taaley geayr ghailley as scuirr gluggal gailley. S’cosoylagh dy vel y rannag shoh anvio nish.

Yllagh[reagh]

Kuse dy eamyn rannag, t’ad cho tharmaneagh, nod oo ad nyn clashtyn meilley ersooyl[23]. Ta eam er lheh ec dagh dooie. T’ad gyllagh liorish aer y chur trooid ny goolag oc. Dy mennick, ta poagey coraagh oc: far-chrackan fo y scoarnagh, ny er uillin y veill, ta sheeyney magh traa t’ad gyllagh. Dooieyn elley, ta shamyr aavuilley oc son dy vooadaghey yn eam oc. Dooieyn gyn eam tharmaneagh, t’ad cummal faggys da awinyn son y chooid smoo, as y sheean jeu follaghtyn eam erbee.

Son y chooid smoo, ta rannagyn gyllagh son dy chleayney ven. Ta fir gyllagh ny lomarcan ny ayns possan. Mraane ayns kuse dy ghooie, t’ad gyllagh erash [24]. Ta eam seyrey jeant ec rannag firrinagh my ta fer elley geabbey dy ghrappal. Ymmodee dooieyn grianchryssagh, ta eam fliaghey oc as ad gyllagh roish t’eh ceau fliaghey. Ta eam çheeragh ec kuse dy ghooie chammah, son dy imman ergooyl fir elley. Ooilley ny h-eamyn shoh, t’ad goll er jannoo liorish beeal doont.

Rheam as stayd freayltys[reagh]

(Ollotis periglenes) – er ny fakin ny sjerree ayns 1989

Ta rannagyn cummal harrish y teihll, faggys, agh cha nel ad cummal ayns yn Antarctagh ny ayns ymmodee ellanyn ny marrey[25][26].

Ta’n chooid smoo jeh rannagyn ry-akin ayns buill grianchryssagh, raad ta ushtey ry-gheddyn dy aashagh. Ta kuse dy rannagyn cummal ayns ardjyn çhirrym, raad nagh vel monney ushtey ry-gheddyn; ta feme oc er troyn er lheh son bea. Ta’n kynney Austrailagh Cyclorana as y kynney Americaanagh Pternohyla goanluckey ad hene fo-halloo, cur cocoon jeen mygeayrt y moo, as cadley fud ny h-earishyn çhirrym. Tra vees eh ceau fliaghey, bee ad çheet magh feddyn loghan shallidagh, as geddyn sliught. Ta aase ny h-oohyn feer tappee cosoylaghey rish rannagyn elley, as er y fa shen bee ad aasit dy liooar roish ta’n ushtey caillt oc. Rannagyn elley, t’ad er gormal rish çhymyllaght feayr. Myr sampleyr, y rannag villagh ayns twoaie Chryss yn Arctagh, t’ee goanluckey ee hene fo-halloo car y gheuree, as cooid mooar jeh’n chorp eck riojey.

Ta shymley mooar jannoo er rannagyn. T’ad credjal dy vel gaue baase er ny smoo na treen jeh ny dooieyn t’ayn, as dy vel ny smoo na 120 dooie er ngeddyn baase neayr’s ny 1980yn. [27] Ta ny dooieyn shoh goaill stiagh y rannag airhey ayns Costa Rica as yn rannag volg-ghuirragh ayns yn Austrail. Ta caill oayllys fa mooar son shen, chammah as sollaghey, caghlaa speyr, cragheyderyn neughooghyssagh, as çhingyssyn noa, goaill stiagh chytridiomycosis. Ta ymmodee bea-oayllee credjal dy vel daa-veaghee nyn nooieyn cowrey mie bentyn rish slaynt y corys-vea, er coontey dy vel ad meanagh ‘syn eggey bee, dy vel crackan neuyeenagh oc, as dy vel bea jeh daa cheim oc (laarvey ‘syn ushtey as rannag aasit er y thalloo)[28]. Rere’n fys t’ayn, ta’n shymley jannoo ny smoo er dooieyn ta croghey er yn ushtey dy trome (ooh as laarvey ushtagh oc). Adsyn ta gaase stiagh ‘syn voir, t’ad tannaghtyn ny share.[29].

Rere studeyryn Canaadagh ayns 2006, ta traaght mooar ny ghaue mooar da rannagyn [30].

Ny keayrtyn, ta eabyn sheelraghey fo cappeeys er jeet lhieu, as shen cur cooney da rannagyn feie[31][32]. Ayns Mee ny Boaldyn 2007, hie eh er soilshaghey magh dy nod oo cur coadey da daa-veaghee noi chytridiomycosis liorish cur daue bacteyryn beaghee er lheh[33].

She Blein y Rannag 2008, son tastey y chur er y chooish freayll t’ec rannagyn [34].

Aafilley[reagh]

Rannag fosslit veih’n Phobblaght Çheck, Palaeobatrachus gigas, foddee.

Derrey hooar ad Gerobatrachus hottoni, fossyl rannagagh as troyn lossagagh echey, she Triadobatrachus massinoti va’n proto-rannag shinney as fys er. Va Triadobatrachus massinoti bio ‘syn Eash Triassagh, ayns Madagascar[35]. Va claigin rannaghagh echey, agh ny smoo vertebraghyn chammah, as adsyn ‘sy famman, cha ad row colheit. Ec rannag yeianagh, ta vertebraghyn y famman colheit as ad jannoo yn gimmijey. Cha nel craueyn ny lurgey colheit noadyr, as er y fa shen, s’cosoylagh nagh row Triadobatrachus ny lheimmeyder fondagh. Y feer rannag sleaie, shen Vieraella herbsti, as ee bio ‘syn Eash Jurassagh – mysh 213 millioon bleeantyn er-dy-henney. Cha nel fys ayn agh er unnane sampleyr j’ee; t’ad gra dy row eh mysh 33mm er lhiurid. Va Notobatrachus degiustoi ny rannag y Yurassagh veanagh, mysh 170 millioon bleeantyn er-dy-henney. S’cosoylagh dy row aafilley Anura jeianagh jeant roish jerrey yn Eash Jurassagh. Y caghlaaghyn mooar jeant eck, she girraghey y corp as coayl y famman ad.

Y clane rannag fossylagh t’ayn, she sanyanlichan ee. Va’n rannag shoh bio 125 millioon bleeantyn er-dy-henney [36]. Va troyn rannag yeianagh eck, ga dy row 9 vertebraghyn roie-sacral eck. Cha nel agh 8 ec y rannag yeianagh.[37]


Rannagyn as deiney[reagh]

Ta kuse dy ymmydyn jeant jeh rannagyn. Ayns muse dy vuill, t’ad nyn mee; myr sampleyr, ayns y Çheen, y Rank, y Ghreag hwoaie, as buill ayns ny Steatyn Unnaneysit. Ny keayrtyn, ta sleih jannoo ymmyd jeh rannagyn son dy ynsaghey corp-yiarrey.

Ta rannagyn er ve nyn sampleyryn scanshoil fud shennaghys oaylleeaght. Hooar magh Luigi Galvani y kiangley eddyr lectraght as y corys nearag liorish studeyrys er rannagyn. (Xenopus laevis), y rannag inginagh Affrickagh, ren ad ymmyd j’ee son prowal torraghys anmagh ‘sy 20oo eash. Ayns 1952, ren Robert Briggs as Thomas J. King dooblaghey rannag liorish arraghey çheshvean chillag somatagh. Shen y chied keayrt dy row peiagh erbee er nyannoo arraghey çheshveanagh ayns metazoa. [38]

Mastey beiyn gyn bleayst er yn ooh, ta’n mooinjerys eddyr rannagyn as deiney mastey ny s’faggys. Gyn y vleayst shoh, she ny sassey t’eh dy ‘akin ny ta taghyrt. Er y fa shoh, t’ad jannoo ymmyd jeh rannagyn son ronsaghey dooblaghey, as mwane-oaylleeaght. Ga dy vel prowallyn elley ayn, ta bea-oayllee jannoo ymmyd jeh Xenopus myr bioag sampleyr foast, er y fa dy vel eh aashagh troggal ee as dy vel mwane vooar eck. Ayns yn 21oo eash, t’ad çheet dy yannoo ymmyd jeh X. tropicalis, mooinjer sloo jee, er y fa dy nod ee geddyn sliught as ee queig meeaghyn d’eash; shegin da X. laevis ve harrish blein d’eash[39]. Ta X. tropicalis lhiggey daue jannoo studeyrys er ymmodee sheeloghyn ny s’tappee.

Rannagyn as cultoor[reagh]

Rannag Moche, 200 B.N.J. ayns Çhaglym Hie Tashtee Larco, Lima, Yn Pheroo.

Ta rannagyn ry-akin dy mennick ayns far-skeealyn, beeal-arrish as cultoor cadjin. Ta sampleyryn goaill stiagh Y Prinse Rannag, as Kermit the Frog. “Skeeal y Prinse Rannag”, she far-skeeal mychione rannag eh, as erreish da goaill paag, t’eh caghlaa dys prinse braew. “Kermit the Frog”, she karracteyr eh er The Muppet Show as Sesame Street, as eh feer scruppylagh. Ga dy vel eh caarjoil as schleioil, t’eh ry-akin dy mennick as eh jonsey, er coontey ymmyrkey ro-ghaaney ny karracteyryn smoo ymmodee-taishbynagh.

Y sleih Moche ayns y Çhenn Pheroo, v’ad cur ooashley da beiyn, as ta ymmodee rannagyn ry-akin ‘syn elley v’oc[40].

Imraaghyn[reagh]

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  • Holman, J. A. (2004). Fossil Frogs and Toads of North America (Baarle). Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34280-5.
  • San Mauro, Diego; Miguel Vences, Marina Alcobendas, Rafael Zardoya & Axel Meyer (2005-05-01). "Initial diversification of living amphibians predated the breakup of Pangaea" (Baarle). American Naturalist 165: 590-599. doi:10.1086/429523. 
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Kianglaghyn mooie[reagh]

Sheean as feeshag[reagh]