Far-skeealaght Ghothagh

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
Strawberry Hill, ny thie ooasle 'syn aght Gothagh jeant ec screeudeyr Gothagh bunneydagh Horace Walpole.

Ta far-skeealaght Ghothagh ny ghenre Romansagh Europagh. T'eh goaill stiagh troyn far-skeealaght ghraih as scoaghagh. T'eh kianglt rish seyrnaght vean-eashagh as seyrnaght Aavioghey Ghothagh: ghow screeudeyryn breeaghys jeh shenn troggalyn as tholtanyn, as haghyr ny skeealyn ayns cashtallyn as mannishteryn, as limmeryn follit, cooyllyn troggee as nyn lheid oc. V'ad kiangley ny troggalyn dorraghey shoh rish folliaghtyn, drogh haghyrtyn as reddyn neughooghyssagh.

Va bun ec ny ta shin cur "far-skeealaght Ghothagh" er nish ayns obbyr Horace Walpole, The Castle of Otranto. She y cashtal hene eh bun y skeeal, ny troggal cartageagh t'er n'aase far-enney, faggys, rish ny h-eashyn. Ta caggeydeyr y skeeal soit er beaynaghey e chlein e hene, as cha nel eh tayrn er ash eer veih egin ben. Ta'n skeeal soilshaghey magh ny kianglaghyn eddyr fuilleeaght as thalloo ny sleih ooasley ayns cooish chassit.

Dy cadjin, ta ny skeealyn ard-haghyrtagh as ceautagh. Ta scaanyn, dorraghys, baase, baanrid, fioghys, folliaghtyn as mollaghtyn eiraghtagh ayndaue dy mennick.

Shennaghys[reagh]

Noaskeealaght as cremeydys romanseeaght[reagh]

Haink magh y noaskeeal "rieughee" leah 'sy 18oo eash myr aawoalley da'n romanseeaght tradishoonagh va çhiarnyssagh neayr's jerrey'n 17oo eash. Hoilshee magh Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richardson as Henry Fielding dy row yn obbyr oc noa as bentyn da bea jeianagh liorish eddyr-scarrey eh veih "romanseeaght" shenn-emshiragh neuheiltagh.[1] Ren Richardson caartrey ben-eniee liorish gra dy vel ad lhiah far-skeealyn romanseeagh; myr shen, dy vel ad nyn nyummaltee-traa as sheiltynee. Hug Fielding kied chabdil lioar 8 Hom Jones da grinderys er ymmyd reddyn yindyssagh ayns far-skeealaght. Ren ad ymmyd jeh "noaskeeal" bentyn da'n obbyr oc: cummey noa dy 'ar-skeealaght, ny smoo so-chredjal as jeianagh, cooie da eash toiggalagh. Chowree ad eieyn Aristotle as Horace myr bun er son caartrey romanseeaght, er y fa dy row adsyn shassoo er cosoylaght er son ynsagh as sharaghey moralaght.[1]

Va'n cremeydys shoh er daa vun. Er yn un laue, honnick ad romanseeaght myr eiyrtys Chatoaleaghys Raueagh, as kyndagh rish y Toilsheraght as yn Aachummey Sostnagh, va shen neuchooie.[1] Myr sampleyr, ayns goan foslee da Roderick Random, screeu Tobias Smollett: [2]

Agh tra va aigney deiney trullit fo obbraghyn saggyrtoil dys eer-vullagh credjallaght, haink rish screeudeyryn romanseeaght, as hie ad ass shilley cosoylaght, as lhieeney yn obbyr oc lesh mooadaghey do-hurransagh. Ga nagh row ad corrym rish ny shenn vardyn myr ard-cheeayllee, v'ad soit er geddyn laue yn eaghtyr orroo myr far-skeealeyderyn, as croghey er yindys y lhiahderaght ayns ynnyd y tushtey oc. Myr shen, dyllee ad er marroo-ghruiaght, as ayns ynnyd jeh cummal seose ambee ny h-ard-feniee oc liorish smooinaght as ymmyrkey ooasle, scarr ad ad er coontey roiaght, ymmrkey as aghtys neulhiettrimit.

Va'n argane elley rere'n eie dy nee ynsaghey eh ard-ymmyd skeealaght, dys jannoo lhaihderyn aarloo da bea. Myr shen, er lhieu dy row romanseeaght ny red ass cummey yinnagh y lhaihder neuaarloo da bea 'syn 'eer teihll. Va'n argane shoh rere Don Quixote skitt er romanseeaght reejeroil myr Amadis de Gaula.[1] Agh dy cadjin, cha row ny briwnyssyn shen jeant er bun lettyraght roish y 17oo eash, agh er romanseeaght Rangish ennoil myr Le Grand Cyrus liorish Madeleine de Scudéry as Cassandre liorish La Calprenède.[1] Dy jarroo, cha row taghyrtyn neughooghyssagh ayndaue son y chooid smoo, agh v'ad yn-enneydagh liorish focklaghey ellynagh, cohaghyrtyn ass towse, mestey shennaghys as far-skeealaght, as treanid erskyn credjue.[1]

Gyn scansh da lheid y taishbyney, cha row scarrey baghtal ayn eddyr noaskeealaght as romanseeaght, ny cosoylaght as neuchosoylaght. Ta Clarissa liorish Richardson goaill stiagh pryssoonaght as baanrid gollrish obbraghyn ard-haghyrtagh Nicholas Rowe. Ta reayrt ayns Ferdinand Count Fathom, liorish Smollett, as yn Eearley goit ayns thie roosteyryn marish corp marroo, ta bun reayrt cosoylagh rish ayns The Monk.[3] Hug cremeyderyn s'anmey moylley da myr ard-hampleyr scoagh dooghyssagh, agh cha row noaskeealee aarloo dy gholl harrish y dooghyssagh as resoonagh foast.[4][3] Haink magh The Castle of Otranto myr doolane da'n cair-chredjue shoh. Er lesh Walpole dy row cosoylaght lhiettal far-skeealaght: "ta cooid share sheiltynys er nyn stangey liorish lhiantyn rish bea cadjin".[5] Loght eh cliaghtaghyn screeuee Hamuel lhiann rish reddyn dooghyssagh.[6] Va Samuel Johnson er screeu art dardjee ny cliaghtaghyn shoh dys reillyn moralagh: dys ynsaghey sleih aegey (ard-ymmyd skeealaght, er lesh) begin da far-skeealaght "taishbyney bea 'sy feer stayd echey, gyn caghlaa agh liorish taghyrtyn laaoil y teihill, as fo cummaght ennaghtyn as quallidyn ta ry-akin dy feer liorish ainjys deiney."[7] Er lesh dy va skeealyn nyn sampleyryn ymmyrkey da sleih, as mannagh row eh er skeeal lhiantyn rish firrinys, begin da taishbyney sampleyr fondalys deiney. Ny nagh dod shin credjal, cha nod eh ve sampleyr dooin.[8] Ren Walpole beg jeh'n reill shoh: ayns The Castle of Otranto, ta kerraghey Yee roshtyn eirey far-ghoaillagh liorish scaanjoon jymmoosagh as meeryn dy phlaaitail buillvollee. Cha nod shen ve ny lessoon moralagh er son bea er chor erbee. Myr dooyrt Walpole hene, ta bun-cheeal y skeeal: "dy vel peccaghyn ny ayraghyn goll er kerraghey er y chloan dys y trass as y chiarroo heeloghe", as cha nel eh feer ymmydoil.[9] V'eh fo cur taitnys da sleih, cha nel lessoonyn. Tra ghow eh rish dy nee eshyn ughtar y skeeal, hoilshee eh dy row eh fo mestey "y daa horçh romanseeaght: shenn as jeianagh", as cur ry-cheilley taghyrtyn ard-yindyssagh as ymmyrkey deiney cosoylagh.[5] V'eh cur trimmid er yn eie dy vel noaskeealaght ny sorçh dy romanseeaght, gyn scansh da'n rieughid echey as aggyrtys ny h-ughtaryn. [10] Chammah's shen, v'eh goaill stiagh eieyn ny condaigee: v'eh fosyn "jannoo seyr obbraghyn sheiltynys dys croo soiaghyn ny smoo anaasagh", agh "stiurey jantee deiney y skeeal rere reillyn cosoylaght; dy giare, dy chur orroo smooinaghtyn, loayrt as jannoo ny yinnagh deiney as mraane cadjin mastey taghyrtyn neuchadjinagh". V'eh jannoo eab dy ghoaill stiagh cooishyn ard-haghyrtagh as neughooghyssagh lesh soilshaghey as coloayrtys najooragh. 'Syn aght cheddin as ghow stiagh noaskeealaght cowraghyn romanseeaght, va Walpole gobbraghey er bun far-skeealaght rieughee as ennaghtagh.[10]

Aavioghey romanseeaght[reagh]

Haink magh daa obbyr scanshoil shennaghys lettyraght beggan roish The Castle of Otranto: Observations on the Faerie Queene of Spenser liorish Thomas Warton as Letters on Chivalry and Romance liorish Richard Hurd. V'ad cur trimmid er y scansh leagh y chur er romanseeaght mean-eashagh myr troar ny h-eashyn as sheshaghtyn v'ayn. She Hurd hug "Romanseeaght Ghothagh" er y troa noa. Er lesh, foddee, dy row "red ennagh 'sy Romanseeaght Ghothagh cooie er lheh da baght ard-cheeayllagh as dean bardaght".[11] Dys fendeil far-skeealaght Ghothagh, chosoylee eh seyrnaght Ghothagh as Greagagh.[12]

My vees seyrnagh scrutaghey strughtoor Gothagh rere reillyn Greagagh, cha voghe eh agh mee-chummey. Agh ta reillyn e hene ec seyrnaght Ghothagh, as tra t'ee goll er ronsaghey rere adsyn, t'eh ry-akin dy vel feeu eck chammah's ec y Ghreagagh. Cha nel y cheisht cre'n aght smoo cooie as kiart y blass eck, agh my ta keeall as kiaddey 'sy jees oc ny dyn tra t'ou scrutaghey ad rere ny reillyn kiaddagh ta stiurey dagh fer. Ta'n baght cheddin bentyn rish y daa horçh dy vardaght. My t'ou jeeaghyn er The Fairy Queen myr kiaddey classicagh, goghe uss meereiltys scammyltagh; my t'ou smooinaghtyn as arrey er y Ghothagh, goghe uss dy vel eh reiltagh. Ta unnaneys as aashaght smoo lane ec y chied 'er, agh ta unnaneys as aashaght elley ec y nah ta geiyrtys ass e dooghys.

Er bun studeyrys shennaghys Palaye Noo Mémoires de l'Ancienne Chévalerie, hug Hurd argane lajer dy row lettyraght Ghothagh ny cummey ellynagh cho fondagh as ellyn Greagagh, rere'n coheks eck.[12] Hass Hurd noi'n eie dy row romanseeaght ny Shee gyn feeu er y fa dy row ee erskyn cosoylaght. Hug eh trimmid er yn eie nagh row bardyn shirrey er sleih credjal ny screeu ad, agh cur orroo sheiltyn eh er son taitnys. Ren eh geddyr-scarrey credjue ny theay, nyn mun as breeaghys da skeealaght as bardaght, as credjue y lhaihder hene. Er lesh nagh row feme er y fer s'jerree: "tra ta [credjue ny theay] er y çheu echey, as ta bun ayns credjue ny h-eash echey da'n çheiltynys echey, t'eh lhiggey harrish [credjue y lhaihder] as lhiggey da'n lhaihder ve wheesh meechredjallagh as wheesh ouryssagh as s'taittin lesh."[13] Dooyrt eh myrgeddin nagh row kuse dy hropeyn romanseeaght wheesh do-chredjal as shen; myr sampleyr, va mraane caggee ry-akin ayns ny h-eashyn shen, as va sheshaghtyn caggee erskyn towse ry-akin 'sy Chroshaid.[14]

Liorish goaill rish dy row dooghys er lheh ec lettyraght Ghothagh, haink yn eie dy row mieyn e hene eck. Hug roish Warton as Hurd dy row yn eash Ghothagh cooie er lheh da sheiltynys, er y fa hene dy row eh barbaragh, as dy row beasaght yn eash jeianagh er goayl breeaghys bardoil.[10] Dy feer, er lesh Hurd dy row yn eash Ghothagh ny share myr bun bardaght as far-skeealaght na'n eash Ghreagagh.[15] Haink rish Bunneydaght, gleashaght ren arganeys noi y çhenn hickyrys dy row beasaghey y red cheddin as shareaghey. Lesh goaill rish dy row red ennagh caillt liorish beasaghey y teihill, haink rish yn eie dy row eh er sleih jeianagh ynsaghey jeh ny shenn eashyn neuveasagh as geiyrt orroo. Ayns 1765, hoilshee magh James Macpherson "shenn obbraghyn Ossian çhyndaait ass y Ghaelg Albinagh", agh s'cosoylagh dy nee eh obbyr eh hene v'ayn son y chooid smoo, goaill stiagh eieyn jeh beeal-arrish as arraneyn ny h-Albey.[16] Va cummaght mooar as lheead ec yn obbyr shen, er lheid ny screeudeyryn as Walter Scott, János Arany, Goethe as Herder. Screeu Goethe as Herder bardaght "Ossianagh" rish y cheilley. Va ard-vian ec sleih er feer shenn vard Nordagh, as ram anaase oc er shenn reddyn, reddyn dorraghey as neuhoilsheydagh. Chroo y ghleashaght shen çhymbyllaght chooie da aavioghey romanseeaght Ghothagh.[10]

Ren Warton as Hurd myrgeddin argane dy row lheid yn 'ar-skeealaght ny scaa streeu brastyllagh ny h-eash, raad va çhiarnyn tranlaasagh nyn voawir ayns cashtallyn, as ny shirveishee oc nyn roosteyryn as fir oaldey.[17][18] 'Syn aght cheddin, ayns Otranto ta fansee mooadit ny eiyrtys drogh-ymmyd pooar. [18] Va cremeydys elley bentyn rish cummaght Chatoaleaght Raueagh er romanseeaght. Er lesh sleih dy nee noaskeealaght ouryssagh y cummey cooie da cultoor toiggalagh Protestoonagh.[18] Myr shen, haink corree er kuse dy 'leih liorish feddyn magh dy row Otranto ny skeeal jeieanagh, cha nel ny hyndaa ass shenn skeeal.[19] Ny s'anmey, ver lhee stiagh Radcliffe "neughooghyssaght yn-hoilshaghey" dys aachoardail meechredjue Protestoonagh as graih scoagh scaanjoonagh.[18]

Fallsoonys ooashlaght[reagh]

Ayns 1674, ren Boileau çhyndaa traaght Longinus Peri hupsous er "aght mooar screeuee" ta greesaghey irree lajer. Haink yn eie shen y ve cummaghtagh, as ghow sleih toshiaght jannoo ymmyd jeh'n eie chlassicagh shoh noi eieyn classicagh elley, goaill stiagh mimesis (eiyrt er najoor).[20] Rere'n "aght mooar screeuee", foddee ughtaryn goaill stiagh neughooghyssaght as reddyn ard-yindyssagh dys greinnaghey ennaghtyn gleashagh. Haink rish "Scoill Ruillick" bardaght Hostnagh, goaill stiagh William Cowper as Thomas Gray, screeu er marvaanaght as baase. Hug lheid ny h-obbraghyn folliaghtyn, scoagh as yindys noi resoonaghys y 18oo eash.

Ren y Scoill Ruillick ymmyd jeh blass faasechredjueagh dys cur eieyn marvaanys er y lhaihder gyn taishbyney "feer" scaanjoonyn. Ayns 1757, hug magh Edmund Burke A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful bentyn rish yn eie cheddin. Er lesh nagh row gleashaght ennaghtagh cooie ynrican, agh femoil da aigney as corp. Ta ennaghtyn lajer, as scoagh erskyn ooilley, gooraghey feayr-chooish aigney as cummal seose aigney sunt.[21] Va'n eie cheddin, dy nee scoagh eh ard-ghean skeealaght, ny vreeaghys da Walpole. Va bun ec obbyr Vurke as Walpole myrgeddin ayns dreeys as saieid sheshaght hraghtee ny h-eash, as mian ny theay er reddyn noa as greesaghey ellynagh.[22] Ny yei shen, cha daink lesh ughtaryn y ghenre noa noi condaigys lettyraght 'ondid rish tammylt. Myr sampleyr, cha hoie ad monney jeh The Bard liorish Ghray, lane dy neughooghyssaght as bunneydaght. Haink lesh obbraghyn "Ossian" er y fa dy lhig yn ughtar er dy nee shenn obbyr v'ayn, as tra dooar ad magh nagh nee, haink cremeydys er. Foddee dy row laue ec cremedys The Bard 'sy lhiggey-er shen.[22]

Hyndaa Walpole dys drama, agh cha hoilshee magh eh yn obbyr noa, The Mysterious Mother dy foshlit; er lesh dy row bun-chooish y skeeal, croaiaght vayrey, ro-ghraney myr ayrn cuirraghan as erskyn aa-eaysley moralagh erbee. [23] Cha daink eh rieau da thieyn cloie, as cha daink magh lhieggan clout derrey 1791. Ny yei shen, va cummaght echey er banglane Gothaght "hicklaagagh" noa, myr sampleyr dy scoagh dooghyssagh as cagliee sodjey dooghys deiney.[23] Denmys Ann Radcliffe eh ayns The Italian, as va'n blass cheddin ry-akin ny s'anmey ayns obbraghyn Mary Shelley, y Çhiarn Byron as Edgar Allen Poe.[23] Ec y traa cheddin, ghow sleih toshiaght dy hoaiaghey mooar jeh Otranto myr genre noa.[23] Ren William Warburton, ny ghooinney lettyragh mie er enney, cur moylley da myr "ard-obbyr" er son jannoo ymmyd jeh "sheiltynys aalin" as "briwnys fondagh" dys goll harrish "feniaghtys Gothagh" as "cooilleeiney dean shenn doo-skeealyn, dy ghra myr shen, glenney ny h-ennaghtyn liorish erreeish as scoagh".[24]

Bishaghey[reagh]

By Ann Radcliffe as Matthew Lewis ad noaskeealee Ghothagh smoo cummeydagh ny 1790yn. Chosoylee Nathan Drake Radcliffe rish Shakespeare.[25] Va Radcliffe mie er enney er son yrdjaghey far-skeealaght da keim bardoil noa; va Lewis er fys myr screeudeyr The Monk as MP, as va scammylt ayn rish lheid y fer cur magh obbyr nagh haishbynee 'mynchooishaght vaarderagh' ynrican, agh neuyeeys myrgeddin.[26][27] Hug y jees oc nyn gummaght nyn hene er Gothaght. Va Radcliffe screeu rere noaskeealyn ennaghtagh, as firrinaght vardoil; va Lewis shirrey ard-haghyrtys as amlaght.[27] Ren Radcliffe cosoylaghey 'scoagh' as 'grayn' ayns traaght: ta baggyrt jarroo cur grayn ort, agh ta scoagh croghey er follaghey dys gientyn ooashlaght; t'eh "lhiggey da'n çheiltynys obbraghey er y sannish goan ta firrinys faagail da".[28] Ta scoagh ny obbyr sheiltynys; lesh goaill loaghtaght er hene, t'eh gientyn grayn. Ta ben-eniee Radcliffe freggyrt gortey ny egin ben lesh grayn; my she nhee neuheiltagh ta baggyrt orroo, myr sampleyr, jantys neughooghyssagh ny faare yeeaght, ta scoagh yrjee çheet orroo. She Gothaght scoagh phooaree t'ayn, cosoylit rish Gothaght challinagh graynoil Lewis ta ganheiltaghey y surransagh.[27][29]

Ayns 1785, hug magh Clara Reeve The Progress of Romance, ny cohaggloo ellynagh er romanseeaght as lettyraght. T'ee soilshaghey magh dy row ard-skeealyn Homer as Virgil nyn skeealyn romanseeagh, 'syn aght cheddin as Oie as Thousane. Er y vun shen, t'ee cur roish yn eie dy vel romanseeaght ayn er feie ny cruinney as car ny h-eashyn, as cha nel eh lhiettit da eash ny boayl er lheh.[30] Ren ee geddyr-scarrey romanseeaght "bentyn rish sleih as reddyn ard-yindyssagh" veih noaskeealaght myr "caslys jeh feer vea as aghtys". T'ee croo rang noa far-skeealaght, "skeealyn noa as neuchadjin", ta goaill stiagh Otranto chammah's noaskeealyn ard-yindyssagh myr Tristram Shandy, Don Quixote, The Pilgrim's Progress as Robinson Crusoe, as gra dy vel blass moralagh er y clane.[31] She noaid eh ard-hro y ghenre noa, as shassoo noi taishbyney taghyrtyn as bea cadjin.[32]

Ayns 1782, hug magh William Beckford Vathek, ny skeeal far-hiar lhig er dy ve er ny jyndaa ass yn Arabish. Liorish yn arrish shen, dod eh goll harrish ny lhiettalyssyn cadjin as goaill stiagh co-oltyn ass cosoylaght as neuchredjallagh. Cha ghow rish cremeyderyn dy nee obbyr Arabagh v'ayn, agh screeu ad dy meiygh er, as er neughooghyssaght yn obbyr. [33] Va obbraghyn far-hiar ny s'leaie, myr sampleyr, Rasselas liorish Johnson, er lhiantyn rish ynseydaght wheesh jeeragh as lhiann noaskeealaght. Soiaghey noi ry-hoi y lheid, va aghtys Vathek as e voir dewil erskyn ynsaghey moralagh, as cha row lhiettal jeeoil er niart ny jinneeghyn.[32] Cha row eiyrtyssagh jeeragh ec yn obbyr, agh va cummaght echey er Lewis bentyn rish aghtys Ambrosio ayns The Monk, as goaill stiagh obbeeys erskyn scaanjoonaght chadjin romanseeaght vean-eashagh.[32] Mysh y traa cheddin, screeu yn ughtar Germaanagh Christian Heinrich Spieß Das Petermännchen, skeeal elley drogh-veasaght: ta'n caggeyder poosey shey mraane, goaill stiagh poosey croiagh, as jannoo 70 dunveryssyn. Va lhieggan Baarle ry-gheddyn ec y traa shen, as s'cosoylagh eh dy dug eh cummaght er Lewis.

Gothaght woirrin as 'irrinagh[reagh]

Rish Gothaght y 18oo eash, haink magh y chied ghenre va screeut ec mraane as currit da mraane.[27] Hug Ellen Moers "Gothaght woirrin" er (female Gothic).[27] Ren cremeyderyn beaynaghey y plottey myr "ben-eniagh er ny goaill eddyr kemmyrk çheerey as cashtal baggyrtagh; er çhea voish karracteyr ard-ayroil ny keayrtyn, shirrey er moir haghrynagh ny keayrtyn, as y daa dy mennick."[34] Veen ad "Gothaght 'irrynagh" n'oi dy Oedipagh myr streeu mac noi eaghtyrys.[27] Ta cremeyderyn elley er ngra dy nee bun-chooishyn ta geddyr-scarrey y daa: ta ughtaryn leah Ghothaght woirrin cur tastey da kiartyn y vrastyl oc as kiartyn mreih, agh ta ughtaryn leah Ghothaght 'irrynagh cur ny smoo tastey da jarroo-enney. Va bun-ughtaryn co-emshiragh as roie-immeeaghtyn Radcliffe screeu er son argid son y chooid smoo, as anchochredjuagh dy mennick; v'ad shirrey argid as cur tastey da cooishyn kiartyn bentyn roo. [27] Ta seyrsnys neuchadjin ec ny ben-eniee dy mennick; share daue seyrsnys ellynagh as lomarcanys çheerey na poosey as shickyrys heshoil. T'ad fakin poosey myr bargane tushtagh marish fer surdremagh da'n seyrsnys as argid eck, cha nel myr cooilleeney mian romansagh, as dy mennick ta poosey baggyrt orroo aght ennagh.[27] Ta Miles gra dy vel ad çheet er ard-ayraght dy leah.[27] Va ughtaryn firrynagh ooasle son y chooid smoo, as foddee dy row ad ronsaghey aghtyssyn keintys cadjin ny h-eash; va fir jeu homocheintyssagh er ard (myr sampleyr, Lewis as William Beckford) as va ourys cadjin ayn bentyn rish fir elley.[27]

Ny Romansee[reagh]

Haink Frankenstein; or, the Modern Prometheus liorish Mary Shelley (1818) dy ve skeeal sampleyraght Gothagh 'syn eash Romanseeagh. Coodagh cur magh 1831.

Va laue ec bardyn Romanseeagh 'sy ghenre myrgeddin. Ta sampleyryn goaill stiagh The Rime of the Ancient Mariner as Christabel liorish Coleridge, ny La Belle Dame sans Merci as Isabella, or the Pot of Basil liorish Keats. Ta enmyn, ashlishyn as mynphaartyn corpagh macabragh rere noaskeealyn Radcliffe.[35] Va kied obbyr soilshit Helley ny noaskeeal Gothagh, Zastrozzi, mychione jeebyrtagh lhiantyn hug drogh-chooilleein noi'n ayr as lieh-vraar echey. Screeu eh fer elley y nah vlein, St. Irvyne; or, The Rosicrucian, mychione far-chemmigagh ta shirrey neuvarvaanys.

Ayns 1816, screeu y Ven-çhiarn Caroline Lamb Glenarvon, lesh e h-eear-lhiannan, y Çhiarn Byron, ny charracteyr lieh-farchoamrit myr "y Çhiarn Ruthven". Haink ambee, bardaght, bea ghraih as contoyrtyssyn far-skeealeragh Vyron dy ve breeaghys elley da lettyraght Ghothagh, as bun y beaynchroo feniagh Byronagh. 'Sy tourey cheddin, chumm Byron goaldys ec Villa Diodati rish broogh Logh Geneva, as ren cohirrey skeeal scaanjoon ayn eddyr echeysyn, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelley as John William Polidori gientyn Frankenstein (liorish Mary Shelley) as The Vampyre, skeeal Pholidori daavioee "Ruthven" myr sooder folley.

Gothaght Victorianagh[reagh]

Vishee Edgar Allan Poe y genre 'sy Steatyn Unnaneyssit, as va cummaght mooar echey er screeudeyryn elley (myr sampleyr, H. P. Lovecraft). Va laue ec Gothaght ayns far-skeealaght heanse myrgeddin: ta Frankenstein goaill stiagh laanid ny mynayrnyn shoh: prowaltyssyn mollaghtagh, yllagh as y beishteig hene. Ta cummaght ry-akin ayns obbraghyn H. G. Wells, myr sampleyr, The Island of Doctor Moreau.[36]

20oo Eash[reagh]

Ta lioaryn s'anmey Iris Murdoch, myr sampleyr, The Unicorn, goaill stiagh troyn Gothagh; as va Gormenghast liorish Mervyn Peake ny straih lane Ghothagh.

Screeudeyryn scanshoil[reagh]

Imraaghyn[reagh]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 E. J. Clery (2002). "The genesis of "Gothic" fiction", ayns Jerrold E Hogle: The Cambridge companion to gothic fiction (eddyrlhieen) (Baarle), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 22.
  2. Tobias Smollett (1748). Roderick Random (Baarle). Feddynit er 2010-11-23. “But when the minds of men were debauched by the imposition of priestcraft to the most absurd pitch of credulity, the authors of romance arose, and losing sight of probability, filled their performances with the most monstrous hyperboles. If they could not equal the ancient poets in point of genius they were resolved to excel them in fiction, and apply to the wonder, rather than the judgment, of their readers. Accordingly, they brought necromancy to their aid, and instead of supporting the character of their heroes by dignity of sentiment and practice, distinguished them by their bodily strength, activity, and extravagance of behaviour.”
  3. 3.0 3.1 E. J. Clery (2002). "The genesis of "Gothic" fiction", ayns Jerrold E Hogle: The Cambridge companion to gothic fiction (eddyrlhieen) (Baarle), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 23.
  4. E. J. Clery; Robert Miles (2000). Gothic Documents (Baarle). Manchester University Press, 129.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Horace Walpole (2008). "Preface to the second edition", The Castle of Otranto (Baarle). Oxford Paperbacks, 9. ISBN 978-0199537211.
  6. (1842) "Letter 244 To Monsieur Elie De Beaumont. Strawberry Hill, March 18, 1765.", The Letters of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford: Including Numerous letters Now First Published From The Original Manuscripts. In Four Volumes. 3: 1759-1769 (Baarle). Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard, 381.
  7. Samuel Johnson (1752). The Rambler 1 (Baarle), 27. “The works of fiction, with which the present generation seems more particularly delighted, are such as exhibit life in its true state, diversified only by accidents that daily happen in the world, and influenced by passions and qualities which are really to be found in conversing with mankind.”
  8. Samuel Johnson (1752). The Rambler 1 (Baarle), 35. “In narratives, where historical veracity has no place, I cannot discover why there should not be exhibited the most perfect idea of virtue... not above probability, for that which we cannot credit we shall never imitate, but of the highest and purest kind that humanity can reach...”
  9. Horace Walpole (2008). "Preface to the second edition", The Castle of Otranto (Baarle). Oxford Paperbacks, 7. ISBN 978-0199537211.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 E. J. Clery (2002). "The genesis of "Gothic" fiction", ayns Jerrold E Hogle: The Cambridge companion to gothic fiction (eddyrlhieen) (Baarle), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 24.
  11. Richard Hurd (1811). "Letters on Chivalry and Romance: Letter I", Works of Richard Hurd, Lord Bishop of Worcester 4 (Baarle). Lunnin: T. Cadell & W. Davies, 239.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Richard Hurd (1811). "Letters on Chivalry and Romance: Letter VIII", Works of Richard Hurd, Lord Bishop of Worcester 4 (Baarle). Lunnin: T. Cadell & W. Davies, 279. “When an architect examines a Gothic structure by Grecian rules, he finds nothing but deformity. But the Gothic architecture has its own rules by which, when it comes to be examined, it is seen to have its merit as well as the Grecian. The question is not which of the two is conducted in the simplest or truest taste, but whether there be not sense and design in both, when scrutinized by the laws on which each is projected. The same observation holds of the two sorts of poetry. Judge of the Fairy Queen by the classic models and you are shocked with its disorder: consider it with an eye to its Gothic original and you find it regular. The unity and simplicity of the former are more complete, but the latter has that sort of unity and simplicity which results from its nature.”
  13. Richard Hurd (1811). "Letters on Chivalry and Romance: Letter X", Works of Richard Hurd, Lord Bishop of Worcester 4 (Baarle). Lunnin: T. Cadell & W. Davies, 316-322. “And, in particular, you hear it commonly said of the tales of Fairy, which they first and principally adorned, "that they are extravagant and absurd; that they surpass all bounds, not of truth only, but of probability, and look more like the dreams of children, than the manly inventions of poets." ... This criticism, whatever name it deserves, supposes that the poets, who are lyars by profession, expect to have their lyes believed. Surely they are not so unreasonable. They think it enough if they can but bring you to imagine the possibility of them. And how small a matter will serve for this? A legend, a tale, a tradition, a rumour, a superstition; in short, any thing is enough to be the basis of their air-formed visions. Does any capable reader trouble himself about the truth, or even the credibility of their fancies? Alas, no; he is best pleased when he is made to conceive (he minds not by what magic) the existence of such things as his reason tells him did not, and were never likely to, exist... We must distinguish between the popular belief, and that of the reader. The fictions of poetry do, in some degree at least, require the first (they would otherwise deservedly pass for dreams indeed): but when the poet has this advantage on his side, and his fancies have, or may be supposed to have, a countenance from the current superstitions of the age in which he writes, he dispenses with the last, and gives his reader leave to be as sceptical, and as incredulous, as he pleases.”
  14. Richard Hurd (1811). "Letters on Chivalry and Romance: Letter X", Works of Richard Hurd, Lord Bishop of Worcester 4 (Baarle). Lunnin: T. Cadell & W. Davies, 318-319. “One of the strangest circumstances in those books, is that of the women warriors with which they all abound. Butler in his Hudibras, who saw it only in the light of a poetical invention, ridicules it as a most unnatural idea, with great spirit... Nicetas observes that in the time of Manuel Comnena, there were in one Crusade many women, armed like men, on horseback... Again: what can be more absurd and incredible, it is often said, than the vast armies we read of in Romance? a circumstance to which Milton scruples not to allude in those lines of his Paradise Regained... The classical reader is much scandalized on these occasions, and never fails to cry out on the impudence of these lying fablers. Yet, if he did but reflect on the prodigious swarms which Europe sent out in the Crusades, and that the transactions of those days furnished the Romance writers with their ideas and images, he would see that the marvellous in such stories was modest enough, and did not very much exceed the strict bounds of historical representation. The first army, for instance, that marched for the Holy Land, even after all the losses it had sustained by the way, amounted, we are told, when it came to be mustered in the plains of Asia, to no less than seven hundred thousand fighting men: a number which would almost have satisfied the Romancer's keenest appetite for wonder and amplification.”
  15. Richard Hurd (1811). "Letters on Chivalry and Romance: Letter VI", Works of Richard Hurd, Lord Bishop of Worcester 4 (Baarle). Lunnin: T. Cadell & W. Davies, 280-283. “...the circumstances in which they differ are clearly to the advantage of the Gothic designers... the Gallantry, which inspired the feudal times, was of a nature to furnish the poet with finer scenes and subjects of description in every view, than the simple and uncontrolled barbarity of the Grecian...”
  16. (2006) "Macpherson, James", ayns John T. Koch: Celtic culture : a historical encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 1229. ISBN 1851094407.
  17. Richard Hurd (1811). "Letters on Chivalry and Romance: Letter VIII", Works of Richard Hurd, Lord Bishop of Worcester 4 (Baarle). Lunnin: T. Cadell & W. Davies, 263. “We hear much of Knights-errant encountering Giants and quelling Savages in books of Chivalry. These Giants were oppressive feudal Lords; and every Lord was to be met with, like the Giant, in his strong hold, or castle. Their dependents of a lower form, who imitated the violence of their superiors, and had not their castles, but their lurking-places, were the Savages of Romance. The greater Lord was called a Giant, for his power; the less a Savage, for his brutality.”
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 E. J. Clery (2002). "The genesis of "Gothic" fiction", ayns Jerrold E Hogle: The Cambridge companion to gothic fiction (eddyrlhieen) (Baarle), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 25.
  19. L. "The Castle of Otranto, a Gothic Story. Second Edition" (Baarle). The Monthly Review: 394. “It is, indeed, more than strange that an Author, of a refined and polished genius, should be an advocate for re-establishing the barbarous superstitions of Gothic devilism!” 
  20. E. J. Clery (2002). "The genesis of "Gothic" fiction", ayns Jerrold E Hogle: The Cambridge companion to gothic fiction (eddyrlhieen) (Baarle), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 26.
  21. Edmund Burke (1759). A philosophical enquiry into the origin of our ideas of the sublime and the beautiful, 2oo: with an introductory discourse concerning taste, and several other additions (Baar;e), Lunnin: R & J Dodsley, 256.
  22. 22.0 22.1 E. J. Clery (2002). "The genesis of "Gothic" fiction", ayns Jerrold E Hogle: The Cambridge companion to gothic fiction (eddyrlhieen) (Baarle), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 28.
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 E. J. Clery (2002). "The genesis of "Gothic" fiction", ayns Jerrold E Hogle: The Cambridge companion to gothic fiction (eddyrlhieen) (Baarle), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 31.
  24. (1822) The Works of Alexander Pope: with notes and illustrations by Joseph Warton and others, A new edition, complete in nine volumes 4 (Baarle), Lunnin: Richard Priestley, 168. Feddynit er 2010-12-01. “Yet amidst all this nonsense, when things were at the worst, we have been lately entertained with what I venture to call a Masterpiece, in the Fable; and of a new species likewise. The piece I mean is the Castle of Otranto. The scene is laid in Gothic Chivalry. Where a beautiful imagination, supported by strength of judgment, has enabled the Author to go beyond his subject, and effect the full purpose of the ancient Tragedy, that is, to purge the passions by pity and terror, in colouring as great and harmonious as in any of the best Dramatic Writers.”
  25. Nathan Drake (1800). Literary hours or sketches critical and narrative. In two volumes., 2oo chur magh, kiartit as mooadit 1, Sudbury: Ollooscoill Aah yn Ollee, 359. “...Mrs Radcliffe, the Shakespeare of Romance Writers...”
  26. S. T. Coleridge (1936). "Review of "The Monk" by M. Lewis", ayns T. M. Raysor: Coleridge's Miscellaneous Criticism. Lunnin: Constable, 165.
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.6 27.7 27.8 27.9 Robert Miles (2001). "Ann Radcliffe and Matthew Lewis", ayns David Punter: A Companion to the Gothic, Blackwell Reference Online (Baarle), Blackwell. Feddynit er 2010-11-17.
  28. Ann Radcliffe (1826). "On the supernatural in poetry" (Baarle). New Monthly Magazine 16. 
  29. David S. Miall (1999). "Gothic Fiction", ayns Duncan Wu: A Companion to Romanticism (Baarle), 349. ISBN 978-0631218777.
  30. Clara Reeve (1999). "Clara Reeve (1729-1807) The Progress of Romance", ayns Gary Kelly et al.: Bluestocking Feminism: Writings of the Bluestocking Circle, 1738-1785 (Baarle). Lunnin: Pickering & Chatto, 167. “Romances are of universal growth, and not confined to any particular period or countries.”
  31. Clara Reeve (1999). "Clara Reeve (1729-1807) The Progress of Romance", ayns Gary Kelly et al.: Bluestocking Feminism: Writings of the Bluestocking Circle, 1738-1785 (Baarle). Lunnin: Pickering & Chatto, 244.
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 E. J. Clery (2002). "The genesis of "Gothic" fiction", ayns Jerrold E Hogle: The Cambridge companion to gothic fiction (eddyrlhieen) (Baarle), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 35.
  33. E (Mee Vayrnt 1787). "An Arabian Tale" (Baarle). The Monthly Review: 450. “Though there are in this work too many ideas and sentiments of European growth, to admit of its passing for a translation of an Eastern manuscript, the piece has all the wildness of Eastern fable; we will add, too that it preserves the peculiar character of the Arabian Tale, which is not only to overstep nature and probability, but even to pass beyond the verge of possibility, and suppose things, which cannot be for a moment conceived.” 
  34. Robert Miles (1994). "Introduction" (Baarle). Women's Writing 1 (2): 1. doi:10.1080/0969908940010201. “Since Ellen Moers first coined the phrase in the 1970s the "female Gothic" has hardened into a literary category. Moers primarily meant Gothic texts written by women; but from this simple definition much has followed. As critics pursued Moers'S leads, a recurring family of narratives began to emerge as a common description of the female Gothic plot. Although different critics at different times stressed different aspects, the plot's broad contours remained constant: a heroine caught between a pastoral haven and a threatening castle, sometimes in flight from a sinister patriarchal figure, sometimes in search of an absent mother, and, often, both together (that is to say, we encounter variations on Ann Radcliffe's A Sicilian Romance).” 
  35. Patricia L. Skarda; Norma Crow Jaffe (1981). Evil Image: Two Centuries of Gothic Short Fiction and Poetry (Baarle). York Noa: Meridian, 33-5, 132-3.
  36. "Gothic", Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Academic Edition (Baarle). Feddynit er 16 Sauin 2010.