Navajo (çhengey)

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
Navajo
Diné bizaad
Goll er loayrt ayns SUA
Ard Arizona, Noa-Veksico, Utah, Colorado
Earroo loayreyderyn 178,000 [1]
Kynney çhengey Dené-Yeniseiagh
Staydys oikoil
Çhengey oikoil ayns Thalloo ny Navajo
Fo stiurey ec Colleish ny Çhengey Navajo
Coadyn çhengey
ISO 639-1 nv
ISO 639-2 nav
ISO 639-3 nav
[[Coadan:
Navaho USC2000 PHS.svg
Steatyn as Navajo goll er loayrt ayndaue|300px]]

Ta Navajo ny Navaho (ennym dooghyssagh: Diné bizaad) ny çhengey Athabaskagh ta loayrit ayns neear-yiass ny Steatyn Unnaneysit. T'ee rere çheeroaylleeaght as çhengoaylleeaght ny çhengey Athabaskagh Yiass (ta'n chooid smoo jeh ny çhengaghyn Athabaskagh ayns y Chanadey as Alaska). Ta ny smoo loayreyderyn ny Navajo na un çhengey Americaanagh ghooghyssagh elley çheu hwoaie jeh'n joarey eddyr ny Steatyn Unnaneysit as Meksico, lesh ny smoo na 100,000 loayreyderyn dooghyssagh, as ta'n earroo shoh girree. Rish y Nah Caggey Dowanagh va coad bunnit er y Navajo ymmydit ec loayreyderyn coadyn dy hiaull çhaghteraghtyn shickyragh caggeeagh harrish y radio.

Sheeanyn[reagh]

Ta ny corocklyn Navajo 'sy chairscreeu cadjinit ry-haishbyney shoh heese, lesh fockley magh ASE ayns lhoobeenyn:

Daa-veillagh Cooyl-eeacklagh Cleaoil Coghooysagh Sluggidagh
meanagh lhiattagh baghtal meillaghit
Bleaystagh baghtal b [p] d [t] g [kɣ] ʼ [ʔ]
boggit t [tx] k [kx] kw [kxʷ]
tilgit [tʼ] [kʼ]
Affricaidyn baghtal dz [ts] dl [tl] j [tʃ]
boggit ts [tsʰ] [tɬʰ] ch [tʃʰ]
tilgit tsʼ [tsʼ] tłʼ [tɬʼ] chʼ [tʃʼ]
Tannaghtagh neuchronnaneagh s [s] ł [ɬ] sh [ʃ] h [x] hw [xʷ] h [h]
cronnaneagh z [z] l [l] zh [ʒ] gh [ɣ] ghw [ɣʷ]
Stroanney m [m] n [n]
Faggyssaght y [j] (w [w])

Ta kiare breeocklyn ayns Navajo: a, e, i as o. Foddee orroo dy ve:

  • giare, myr a as e,
  • foddey, myr aa as ee,
  • stronnit, myr ą as ęę,

ny lesh un jeh kiare toanyn:

  • ard, myr áá as éé,
  • injil, myr aa as ee,
  • girree, myr aá as eé ny
  • tuittym, myr áa as ée.

Foddee dy vel cochianglaghyn anchaslagh jeu, myr ą́ą́ (foddey, stronnit, toan ard).

Imraaghyn[reagh]

Lioaryn[reagh]

Saase ynsee[reagh]

  • Blair, Robert W.; Simmons, Leon; & Witherspoon, Gary. (1969). Navaho Basic Course. BYU Printing Services.
  • Goossen, Irvy W. (1967). Navajo made easier: A course in conversational Navajo. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland Press.
  • Goossen, Irvy W. (1995). Diné bizaad: Speak, read, write Navajo. Flagstaff, AZ: Salina Bookshelf. ISBN 0-9644189-1-6
  • Goossen, Irvy W. (1997). Diné bizaad: Sprechen, Lesen und Schreiben Sie Navajo. Loder, P. B. (transl.). Flagstaff, AZ: Salina Bookshelf.
  • Haile, Berard. (1941–1948). Learning Navaho, (Vols. 1–4). St. Michaels, AZ: St. Michael's Mission.
  • Platero, Paul R. (1986). Diné bizaad bee naadzo: A conversational Navajo text for secondary schools, colleges and adults. Farmington, NM: Navajo Preparatory School.
  • Platero, Paul R.; Legah, Lorene; & Platero, Linda S. (1985). Diné bizaad bee naʼadzo: A Navajo language literacy and grammar text. Farmington, NM: Navajo Language Institute.
  • Tapahonso, Luci, & Schick, Eleanor. (1995). Navajo ABC: A Diné alphabet book. New York: Macmillan Books for Young Readers. ISBN 0-689-80316-8
  • Witherspoon, Gary. (1985). Diné Bizaad Bóhooʼaah for secondary schools, colleges, and adults. Farmington, NM: Navajo Language Institute.
  • Witherspoon, Gary. (1986). Diné Bizaad Bóhooʼaah I: A conversational Navajo text for secondary schools, colleges and adults. Farmington, NM: Navajo Language Institute.
  • Wilson, Alan. (1969). Breakthrough Navajo: An introductory course. Gallup, NM: The University of New Mexico, Gallup Branch.
  • Wilson, Alan. (1970). Laughter, the Navajo way. Gallup, NM: The University of New Mexico at Gallup.
  • Wilson, Alan. (1978). Speak Navajo: An intermediate text in communication. Gallup, NM: University of New Mexico, Gallup Branch.
  • Wilson, Garth A. (1995). Conversational Navajo workbook: An introductory course for non-native speakers. Blanding, UT: Conversational Navajo Publications. ISBN 0-938717-54-5.
  • Yazzie, Evangeline Parsons, Ed.D. (2008). Diné Bizaad Bínáhoo'aah: Rediscovering the Navajo Language. Flagstaff, AZ: Salina Bookshelf, Inc. ISBN 978-1-893354-73-9

Çhengoaylleeaght as screeuyn moyllee elley[reagh]

  • Akmajian, Adrian; & Anderson, Stephen. (1970). On the use of the fourth person in Navajo, or Navajo made harder. International Journal of American Linguistics, 36 (1), 1–8.
  • Creamer, Mary Helen. (1974). Ranking in Navajo nouns. Navajo Language Review, 1, 29–38.
  • Faltz, Leonard M. (1998). The Navajo verb: A grammar for students and scholars. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-1901-7 (hb), ISBN 0-8263-1902-5 (pbk)
  • Frishberg, Nancy. (1972). Navajo object markers and the great chain of being. In J. Kimball (Ed.), Syntax and semantics (Vol. 1, p. 259–266). New York: Seminar Press.
  • Grimes, Barbara F. (Ed.). (2000). Ethnologue: Languages of the world, (14th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-106-9. (Online edition: http://www.ethnologue.com/, accessed on November 19, 2004).
  • Hale, Kenneth L. (1973). A note on subject-object inversion in Navajo. In B. B. Kachru, R. B. Lees, Y. Malkiel, A. Pietrangeli, & S. Saporta (Eds.), Issues in linguistics: Papers in honor of Henry and Renée Kahane (p. 300–309). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1945). Navaho phonology. University of New Mexico publications in anthropology, (No. 1).
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1945). Classificatory verb stems in the Apachean languages. International Journal of American Linguistics, 11 (1), 13–23.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1945). The Apachean verb, part I: Verb structure and pronominal prefixes. International Journal of American Linguistics, 11 (4), 193–203.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1946). The Apachean verb, part II: The prefixes for mode and tense. International Journal of American Linguistics, 12 (1), 1–13.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1946). The Apachean verb, part III: The classifiers. International Journal of American Linguistics, 12 (2), 51–59.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1948). The Apachean verb, part IV: Major form classes. International Journal of American Linguistics, 14 (4), 247–259.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1949). The Apachean verb, part V: The theme and prefix complex. International Journal of American Linguistics, 15 (1), 12–22.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1970). A Navajo lexicon. University of California Publications in Linguistics (No. 78). Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Kari, James. (1975). The disjunct boundary in the Navajo and Tanaina verb prefix complexes. International Journal of American Linguistics, 41, 330–345.
  • Kari, James. (1976). Navajo verb prefix phonology. Garland Publishing Co.
  • McDonough, Joyce. (2003). The Navajo sound system. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 1-4020-1351-5 (hb); ISBN 1-4020-1352-3 (pbk)
  • Reichard, Gladys A. (1951). Navaho grammar. Publications of the American Ethnological Society (Vol. 21). New York: J. J. Augustin.
  • Sapir, Edward. (1932). Two Navaho puns. Language, 8 (3) , 217-220.
  • Sapir, Edward, & Hoijer, Harry. (1942). Navaho texts. William Dwight Whitney series, Linguistic Society of America.
  • Sapir, Edward, & Hoijer, Harry. (1967). Phonology and morphology of the Navaho language. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Speas, Margaret. (1990). Phrase structure in natural language. Kluwer Academic Publishers. ISBN 0-7923-0755-0
  • Wall, C. Leon, & Morgan, William. (1994). Navajo-English dictionary. New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-7818-0247-4. (Originally published [1958] by U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Branch of Education, Bureau of Indian Affairs).
  • Webster, Anthony K. (2004). Coyote Poems: Navajo Poetry, Intertextuality, and Language Choice. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 28, 69-91.
  • Webster, Anthony K. (2006). "ALk'idaa' Ma'ii Jooldlosh, Jini": Poetic Devices in Navajo Oral and Written Poetry. Anthropological Linguistics, 48(3), 233-265.
  • Witherspoon, Gary. (1971). Navajo categories of objects at rest. American Anthropologist, 73, 110-127.
  • Witherspoon, Gary. (1977). Language and art in the Navajo universe. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08966-8; ISBN 0-472-08965-X
  • Yazzie, Sheldon A. (2005). Navajo for Beginners and Elementary Students. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Press.
  • Young, Robert W. (2000). The Navajo verb system: An overview. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-2172-0 (hb); ISBN 0-8263-2176-3 (pbk)
  • Young, Robert W., & Morgan, William, Sr. (1987). The Navajo language: A grammar and colloquial dictionary (rev. ed.). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-1014-1
  • Young, Robert W.; Morgan, William; & Midgette, Sally. (1992). Analytical lexicon of Navajo. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-1356-6; ISBN 0825313566



Wikipedia
Ta Wikipedia ry-gheddyn ayns Navajo (çhengey) foast