William Butler Yeats

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
William Butler Yeats
Yeats Boughton.jpg
Ruggit 13 Mean Souree 1865(1865-06-13)
Dumhach Thrá, Divlyn, Nerin
Hooar baase 28 Jerrey Geuree 1939 (eash 73)
Menton, Yn Rank
Keird Bard, draameyder, screeudeyr sonnadyn
Ashoonaght Flag of Ireland.svg Yernagh

Va William Butler Yeats (focklit magh myr /ˈjeɪts/; 13 Mean Souree 1865 - 28 Jerrey Geuree 1939) ny vard as ny ghraameyder Yernagh, as nane jeh ny persoonyn toshee ayns lettyraght y 20oo eash. Nane jeh ny fir toshee jeh lught ooasle lettyraght Hostyn as Nerin, v'eh ny hannadeyr ayns Seanad Éireann er feie daa hraa. Va'n Abbey Theatre bunnit echey lesh y Ven Gregory as Edward Martyn, as v'eh n'er toshee er y thie cloie rish ny bleeantyn leah. 'Sy vlein 1923 va'n Aundyr Nobel ayns Lettyraght er ny briwnys da, as y Bing Nobel gra dy vel yn obbyr echey ny "vardaght ard-smooinaghtagh, quoi ayns form feer ellynagh, cur raa da spyrryd yn ashoon er feie". V'eh ny chied 'owder Yernagh jeh'n Aundyr Nobel ayns Lettyraght.[1] T'eh er credjal dy vel Yeats nane jeh ny beggan screeudeyryn beg lesh yn obbyr share echey creaghnit ny yei yn Aundyr Nobel;[2] ta The Tower (1928) as The Winding Stair and Other Poems (1929) y lhied assdaue.

Va Yeats ruggit as ynsaghit ayns Divlyn, agh cheau eh y lambaanid echey ayns Shliggagh. Ren eh studeyrys er y vardaght 'syn aegid echey, as veih eash aeg va sym echey ayns shenn-skeealyn Yernagh as 'syn 'yssaght. Ta ny cooishyn shoh ry-gheddyn ayns kied keim yn obbyr echey, as ad ry-akin derrey cassey y cheead. Va ym-lioar ronniaght s'leah echey soilshit magh 'sy vlein 1889, as va ny daanyn cronnaneagh as ad shooyl rea lhieu taishbyney lhiastanys da Edmund Spenser as Percy Bysshe Shelley, as da lyreaght ny bardyn roie-Raphaelagh.

Veih'n vlein 1900 haink er feeleeaght Yeats dy ve ny smoo corpagh as rieughagh. Va credjue tarcheimneeoil yn aegid echey shaghnit echey, agh hannee er dy ve boirit lesh maskyn corpagh as rieughagh, as lesh sheiltynysyn çhymshallagh y theihill. Harrish ny bleeantyn, va mie dy liooar shassooghyn eie-oaylleeaghtagh echey, lhied as, ayns focklyn y chremeyder Michael Valdez Moses, "ashoonaghys fraueoilagh, libraalagh classicagh, cumaadagh aawoalltaagh as neunheeyseyr milley-vleeanagh".[3]

Seihll[reagh]

Bleeantyn leah[reagh]

Rugg Yeats ayns Dumhach Thrá (Baarle: Sandymount), Divlyn, Nerin.[4] Va'n ayr echey, John Butler Yeats, jeh'n sluight jeeragh jeh Jervis Yeats, sidoor Illiamagh as marçhan lieen quoi hooar baase 'sy vlein 1712. Phoose oe Jervis rish Mary Butler, inneen jeh clein thallooinagh ayns Coontae Cheeill Darey. Ec traa yn phoosey echey, va John Yeats jannoo studeyrys er leigh, agh cheau eh ass y kione echey dy yannoo studeyrys er ellyn ec Scoill Ellyn Heatherley ayns Lunnin.[5] Va'n voir echey, Susan Mary Pollexfen, jeh'n chlein baghtal Anglo-Yernagh ayns Coontae Cliggee, raad dy row dellal mwyllaragh as lhuingys oc. Giare ny yei ruggyr William, hie yn clein gys Shliggagh dy hannaght lesh y chlein sheeynt eck, as haink er y vard aeg smooinaghey er y boayl myr y thie spyrrydoil as lambaanidagh echey. Haink er y reeastaneys dy ve'n "çheer ny cree" echey.[6] Va Yeats jeh clein feer ellynagh; haink er y vraar echey, Jack, dy ve ny ellyner as ny pheinteyr ard-ghooagh, as va laueyn ny shuyryn echey, Elizabeth as Susan—Lollie as Lily myr v'ad enmyssit liorish clein as caarjyn—ayns gleashaght Ellynyn as Keirdyn.[7]

As eh gaase, va Yeats ny oltey jeh'n eaghtyrys Protestoonagh as eh er n'gholl fo geyre-ghaue enney. Tra va'n clein echey er son ny caghlaaghyn ayns Nerin ec y tra v'ayn, va aavioghey ashooneyragh y 19oo eash jeianagh jannoo neuvondeish jeeragh da'n eiraght echey, as chur eh fys er y reayrt bea echey er feie y theihill echey. Va'n aegid echey fo scaa doo arraghey y chummaght veih'n Eaghtyrys Protestoonagh mynlagh. Rish ny 1880yn va irree sheose Pharnell as y ghleashaght Hene-reiragh goaill niart. Rish ny 1890yn va gleashaght yn ashoonaghys gaase, as ec cassey y cheead haink ardjid er ny Fenieeyn. Bee ny taghyrtyn shen cur bree er y vardaght echey, as va cummaght mooar ny ronsaghtyn magh enney Yernagh er crooaght bea-skeeal ny çheerey echey.[8]

'Sy vlein 1867, hie yn clein gys Sostyn dy yannoo cooney da nyn ayr oc, John, dy yannoo foays da'n coorse ellynagh echey. Ec y toshiaght va'n clein ynsaghit 'sy thie. Hie yn voir dy mie lesh ny paitçhyn lesh skeealyn as skeealyn çheerey. Va edjaghys ayns çheeroaylleeaght as kemmig kiarit liorish John, as hug eh William er ronsaghtyn magh tushtey najoor y çheu çheerey mygeayrt Slough.[9] Er 26 Jerrey Geuree, 1877, hie yn bard aeg stiagh ayns Bunscoill Godolphin,[10] raad dy vel eh gynsagh er feie kiare bleeaney. Cha dayrn eh ooashley er e hene ec y scoill dy scoillaragh, as va tuarastyl scoill jannoo cur sheese er yn obbraghey echey as "troggal mean er. Foddee ny share ayns Ladjyn na ayns cooishyn elley. Ta drogh-lettyraght echey."[11] Faagail magh dy row doilleeid echey ayns maddaght as çhengaghyn, v'eh currit fo drualtys liorish bea-oaylleeaght as baagh-oaylleeaght. Er son cooishyn argidoil, hie yn clein er-ash gys Divlyn ec jerrey ny bleeaney 1880, as ad nyn gummal ec y toshiaght ayns çheshvean y valley, as ny yei ayns fo-valley Binn Éadair (Howth). Ayns Jerrey Fouyir 1881, hoshee Yeats reesht gynsagh ayns Erasmus Smith High School, Divlyn.[12] Va seyrlan yn ayr echey soit faggys da'n scoill as cheau William ram traa ayn, as haghyr eh er ram ellyneyryn as screeudeyryn y valley. Hoshee eh screeu feeleeaght 'syn amm shen, as 'sy vlein 1885 va ny kied daanyn echey, chammah as traaght lesh yn enmys "The Poetry of Sir Samuel Ferguson", soilshit magh 'sy Dublin University Review. Eddyr ny bleeantyn 1884 as 1886, v'eh goll dys Scoill Moirvaljagh yn Ellyn—Colleish Ashoonagh Ellyn as Kiaddey jiu—er Straid Cheeill Darey.[4] Va ny kied obbraghyn echey screeuit echey as eh shiaght bleeaney jeig d'eash, as t'ad cur stiagh daan 'syn earroo ta cleaynnit ayns aght Percy Bysshe Shelley ta jannoo cur sheese er druaightagh ta soiaghey seose e stoyl reeoil 'syn Aishey Veanagh. T'ad obbraghyn elley ym amm shoh na draght cloie lesh aspick, maynagh, as ben ta currit ass lieh ny paganaght eck liorish bochillaghyn ynnydagh, chammah as daanyn graih as lyreeyn skeeallagh er reejeraghyn mean-eashagh Germaanagh. Va ny h-obbraghyn leah cadjincliaghtit as, rere y cremeyder Charles Johnson, "neu-Yernagh dy bollagh", as ad çheet magh ass "dullyr tallaghagh mooar ashlishyn" dy baghtal.[13] Faagail magh dy row obbyr leah Yeats bunnit er Shelley, Edmund Spenser, as er focklaghey as daaghey ronniaght roie-Raphaelagh, chass eh dys feayn-skeealleydaght as beeal-arrish Yernagh, as screeunyn William Blake. Ayns e henneraght chur eh bwooise da Blake as ren eh cur sheese er myr nane jeh ny "fir keirdey ard-ghooagh Yee quoi dooyrt firrinysyn mooarey da clein beg".[14]

Bard aeg[reagh]

Hyndaa yn clein gys Lunnin 'sy vlein 1887. 'Sy vlein 1890, va'n Rhymers' Club—possan bardyn Lunninagh va goll ny quail ayns thie oast er Straid Fleet gys daanyn dy aaloayrt—co-vunnit ec Yeats lesh Ernest Rhys.[15] Ny s'anmey va'n çheshaght enmysit myr y "Tragic Generation" ("Gientyn Doo-skeealagh")[16] as va daa heihys daaneyn soilshit magh oc: yn chied 'sy vlein 1892, as reesht 'sy vlein 1894. Va Yeats co-obbragey Edwin Ellis er y chied cur magh creaghnit jeh obbraghyn William Blake, as 'syn obbraghey ren eh aa-eddyn magh er y ghaan "Vala, or, the Four Zoas."[17] Ayns traaght jeianagh er Shelley, screeu Yeats, "Ta Prometheus Unbound aalhaiht aym... as ta mee credjal dy vel ynnyd smoo er lheh echey na va mee credjal roish mastey lioaryn casherick y dowan."[18]

Va sym mooar ec Yeats 'syn 'yssaght, spyrrydoilaghys, ghruaiaghtys, as 'syn astroaylleeaght. Lhaih eh dy rheamyssagh ny cooishyn shoh er feie e theihill as v'eh cleaynit liorish screeunyn Emanuel Swedenborg.[19] Cha foddey er ash as 1892, screeu eh: "Mannagh vel y druaightys my heer-studeyrys, cha beagh mee abyl fockle erbee yn lioar er Blake dy screeu, ny cha beagh The Countess Kathleen screeuit aym. She yn seihll oaylyssagh cree er chooilley red ta jeant aym, ta smooinaghit aym, as ta screeuit aym."[20] Va'n sym oaylyssagh echey—chur studeyrys y Hindooghys, fo stiurey y Yeesoo Mohini Chatterjee, as yn 'ysseraght, ardsmooinaght da Yeats—croo cooid mie vun ny feeleeaght jeianagh echey. Ta beggan cremeyderyn ceau magh ny cleaynaghyn shoh er y fa dy vel credjaltys toiggaltagh ry-laccal, ansherbee. Unnaneagh, va W. H. Auden cremmey y reayrtys shoh jeh obbyr Yeats myr "shilley trei-hrimshagh jeh dooiney aasit ta cummalit lesh trustyr y ghruaightys as ommidjys ny h-Injey."[21]

V'eh "The Isle of Statues" ny chied ghaan trome-cheeallagh ec Yeats, obbyr yindyssagh va Edmund Spenser gowit myr cummey bardoil y ghaan. Va'n daan soilshit magh 'sy Dublin University Review, agh cha row eh aa-hoilshit magh derrey'n laa shen. V'eh yn lioaran Mosada: A Dramatic Poem (1866) ny chied clou magh ny lomarcan echey as eh jeant sheose jeh 100 coipyn eeckit liorish yn ayr echey. Va'n çhaglym The Wanderings of Oisin and Other Poems (1889) y heet er, as eh reaghey straih ronniaght veih ny mean-1880yn. Ta'n daan enmyssit foddey goaill stiagh, rere focklyn y veashnyseyr R.F. Foster, "enmyn neuvaghtallagh Gaelgagh, aaloayrtysyn ard-yindyssagh [as] ryddim farraghtagh ta anchasley dy croutagh tra dy vel y daan immee trooid y tree rheynnyn echey".[22]

We rode in sorrow, with strong hounds three,
Bran, Sgeolan, and Lomair,
On a morning misty and mild and fair.
The mist-drops hung on the fragrant trees,
And in the blossoms hung the bees.
We rode in sadness above Lough Lean,
For our best were dead on Gavra's green.

Ta "The Wanderings of Oisin" bunnit er lyreeyn Feniaght ny feayn-skeealleydaght Yernagh as t'eh cowrey magh cummaght y Reejerey Samuel Ferguson as ny bardyn roie-Raphaelagh.[23] Va Yeats gobbyr er feie daa vlein er y ghaan shoh, as v'eh nan jeh ny h-obbraghyn veih'n amm shen nagh row jiooldit echey ayns e henndiaght. Ta Oisin fosley-raa gys nane jeh ny cooishyn smoo scanshoil echey: yeearreeaght seihill y srsmooinaght harrish yeearreeaght seihill y jantys. Ny yei yn obbyr shen, cha ren Yeats eab er daan foddey reesht 'sy theihll. V'ad graih as redyn oaylyssagh ny folliaghtagh mooar-chooishyn ny daanyn leah echey, lhied as Poems (1895), The Secret Rose (1897), as The Wind Among the Reeds (1899).

Rish ny bleeaney 1885, va laue ec Yeats ayns bunneeaght Oardagh Hermetagh Ghivlyn (Baarle: Dublin Hermetic Order). Va'n chied çhaglym ny hoie er 16 Mean Souree, as va Yeats ny chaairliagh ayn. 'Sy vlein keddin va crouw Jeesooagh Ghivlyn foshlit ayns co-whingaghey lesh Brahmin Mohini Chatterjee, quoi haink veih'n Çheshaght Yeesooagh ayns Lunnin dy leaghtey. Deaisht Yeats rish e chied séance 'sy vlein ny yei. Ny s'anmey, va laue mooar ec Yeats 'sy Çheshaght Yeesooagh as 'sy hermeteeaght as ayns rose-chrossaghys femblagh y Golden Dawn. Car séanceyn veih'n vlein 1912, va spyrryd enmyssit myr "Leo Africanus" gra dy vel eh ny Ghaemon Yeats ny yn noi-hene, as eh cur ardsmooinaghtyn da beggan sheiltynysyn.Per Amica Silentia Lunae.[24] V'eh lhiggit stiagh 'sy Golden Dawn ayns Mee Vayrnt 1890 as ghow eh yn jarroo-raa pishagagh Daemon est Deus inversus—çhyndaait myr T'eh yn Jouyll na Jee ynvaartit ny Ta drogh spyrryd ny yee aahoilshaghit.[25] V'eh ny hroggeyder son çhiamble Isis-Urania ny sheshaght scarree, as hugg eh stiagh e naim George Pollexfen, Maud Gonne, as Florence Farr. Shaghrey magh dy vel amvlass echey lesh ny craueeaghtyn foayssagh as dogmagh bunnit er cultys persoonid, v'eh cleaynit huc ny deiney v'eh çheet nyn guail ayn.[26] Va laue echey ayns strepaghyn yn Oardagh, chammah lesh Farr as lesh Macgregor Mathers, agh va laue mooar echey ayns yn oardagh tra dy vel Aleister Crowley shiaullit ec Mathers dy goaill aahellooderys er scudlagh y Golden Dawn rish "Battle of Blythe Road." Ny yei brishey sheose y Golden Dawn as e scryssey magh ayns ram possanyn beggey elley, hannee Yeats lesh y Stella Matutina derrey'n vlein 1921.[27]

Maud Gonne[reagh]

Maud Gonne

'Sy vlein 1899, haink Yeats ny whail lesh Maud Gonne, eirey-neen as ben ashooneyragh va tree bleeaney as feed d'eash.[28] Va Gonne hoght meeghyn jeig ny s'aa na Yeats as ny s'anmey dooyrt ee dy haink ee ny quail lesh Yeats as eh ny "scollag ellyn daahit lesh peint".[29] Va'n daan "The Isle of Statues" cur moylley mooar jee, as lesh shen, va ainjys lesh shirrit eck. Haink doal-ghraih er Yeats lesh yn aalinid as yn aght brynt eck, as va eiyrtys trome-cheeallagh as foddey farraghtyn eck er yn 'eeleeaght as heihll echey ny lurg shen.[30] Jeeaghyn ny yei er ayns ny bleeantyn jeianagh, dooyrt eh "er lhiam hugg ee [Gonne] stiagh gys my heihll ny laaghyn shen—honnick mee cre va ny lhie er y thalloo, unnane—meanagh y scaavreckey, sheean myr ta çheet magh ass gong Burmagh, tharmane marrooagh lesh fo-noteyn taitnyssagh."[31] Hannee graih Yeats neu-aalhiasit, by vooar y lhiastid echey 'syn ashoonaghys eck 'sy chooish.[32] V'eh yn un hooree echey ec y traa shen na'n sooree lesh Olivia Shakespeare, quoi haghyr eh urree 'sy vlein 1896, agh v'ad scarrit rish y cheilley blein ny yei. 'Sy vlein 1895, ren eh keayrt er Gonne ayns Nerin as geearree ry-phoosey, agh v'eh jiooldit. Dooyrt eh ny s'anmey dy row yn poynt shen ny "toshiaght er trubbylyn y heihill echey."[33] Ren Yeats tree keayrtyn ny smoo er Gonne as eh geearree ry-phoosey: ayns ny bleeantyn 1899, 1900 as 1901. Yiool ee dagh treealtys echey, as 'sy vlein 1903, da'n scoagh echey, phoose ee rish yn ashooneyder Yernagh yn Ard-chaptan John MacBride.[34]

Hannee caarjys Yeats lesh Gonne, ansherbee, as ayns Paarys 'sy vlein 1908 va'n mooinjerys cooilleenit oc fy yerrey.Ren nane jeh ny graihderyn echey cur sheese er y haghyrt shen: "Va bleeantyn foddey y treishteilys eeckit 'sy yerrey". Cha row Yeats cha ennaghtagh, as ny s'anmey, dooyrt eh dy vel "doo-skeeal ny bwoidiaght ny sheer-voidynoilaght yn annym."[33] Cha daink çheet gys kione gys keim noa er y vooinjerys oc ny yei ny h-oie ry-cheilley. Giare ny yei shen screeu Gonne gys y vard as ee cowraghey, faagail magh y cooilleeney corpagh, cha row ad abyl goll er oaie myr v'ad: "Va me guee dy vel y saynt foalley goit ass y ghraih t'aym lhiat, y chree, as mee ayns graih royd, va mee gueeas ta mee foast guee dy vel y saynt foalley goit assyd myrgeddin."[35] Derrey ny bleeaney 1909, va Gonne cur screeunyn gys Yeats as ee cur moylley da'n vondeish ta currit da ellyneyryn ta faagail jeh keintys. Begnagh feed bleeaney ny yei va Yeats aachooinaghey er yn oie lesh Gonne 'sy ghaan "A Man Young and Old":

My arms are like the twisted thorn
And yet there beauty lay;
The first of all the tribe lay there
And did such pleasure take;
She who had brought great Hector down
And put all Troy to wreck.

'Sy vlein 1896 va Yeats currit er enney da'n Ven Gregory liorish y cho-charrey oc Edward Martyn. Chur Gregory creeaght er ashoonaghys Yeats, as v'ee shickyraghey er freayll screeu er e chooid drama. Ga dy dy row cummaght y chosoyley Frangagh ry-akin 'syn obbyr echey, chur Yeats ooilley d'arrey er cummal lesh enney Yernagh, as va'n cleaney shoh aaniartaghit lesh y chiangley echey lesh giennaghtyn noa ughtaryn Yernagh ny s'aa. Myrane lesh Gregory, Martyn, as screeudeyryn elley, lhied as J. M. Synge, Sean O'Casey as Padraic Colum, va Yeats freggyrtagh son bunneeaght ny gleashaght "Aavioghey Lettyragh Nerin".[36] Magh jeh ny screeudeyryn crootagh shoh, va'n cooid smoo jeh'n gharrey çheet magh ass obbyr ny glareyderyn scoillaragh as ad feddyn magh shenn-skeealyn as feeleeaght Oshinagh as tradishoon nyn arraneyn theayagh. V'eh Douglas Hyde—ny s'anmey v'eh ny chied eaghtyrane Nerin—nane jeh ny fir smoo trome-cheeallagh jeu, as va moylley mooar currit da'n obbyr echey, Love Songs of Connacht.

Abbey Theatre[reagh]

'Sy vlein 1899, va'n Irish Literary Theatre (Theater Lettyragh Nerin) bunnit ec Yeats, y Ven Gregory, Martyn as George Moore dy chloie as dy haishbyney draamaghyn Celtiagh as Yernagh.[37] Va ard-smooinaghtyn yn Abbey çheet magh ass y theater avant-garde Frangagh, quoi va geearree "eaghtyrys y screeudeyr cloie, harrish y chloieder-reireyder à l'anglais," dy hirrey.[38][39] Va fogrey polasee y phossan, screeuit liorish Yeats hene, gra "Ta shin geearree lurg lught eaishtagh neuchleaynit as kiaddagh ta ynsit dy eaishtagh liorish y fargagh oc son raatys... as y seyrsnys dy yannoo prowaltys nagh vel ry-gheddyn ayns ny theateryn Hostyn, as mannagh vel ayn cha nod gleashaght noa ayns ellyn ny lettyraght çheet er y hoshiaght."[40]

Hannee yn possan gobbyr er feie daa vlein agh cha row eh rahoil. Ansherbee, va'n Irish National Theatre Society (Sheshaght y Theater Ashoonagh Nerin) bunnit ec y phossan, as eh gobbraghey lesh daa vraar Yernagh lesh taghyrt theateragh, William as Frank Fay, y scrudeyr vaghtal Annie Elizabeth Fredericka Horniman, as ard-ven cloieder y West End Florence Farr. Va'n possan kiaddeyderyn shoh jargal, myrane lesh J. M. Synge, thie as thalloo y chionnagh ayns Divlyn as yn Abbey Theatre dy 'osley er 27 Nollick 1904. Va Cathleen Ní Houlihan liorish Yeats as Spreading the News liorish y Ven Gregory taishbynit er y chied oie. Hannee laue Yeats 'syn Abbey derrey laa e vaaish, myr oltey yn ving as myr screeudeyr cloie sheelaghtagh. 'Sy vlein 1902 va Dun Emer Press bunnit echey dy hoilshey magh obbraghyn liorish screeudeyryn va kianglt lesh yn Aavioghey. Va'n colught shoh aaenmyssit myr Cuala Press 'sy vlein 1904 as, lesh ardsmooinaght ny Gleashaght Ellyn as Keird, v'eh geearree "obbyr y lurg da laueyn Yernagh ayns crooaght nheeghyn aalin."[41] Veih'n traa shen derrey dooney y cholught 'sy vlein 1946, va ny smoo na 70 enmyssyn (48 jeu ny lioaryn liorish Yeats hene) soilshit magh ec y cholught.

Yeats, 1933. Fer fotograf gyn enney. U.S. Library of Congress.

'Sy vlein 1913, haghyr Yeats er y vard Americaanagh aeg Ezra Pound. Haink Pound gys Lunnin dy heet ry-cheilley lesh yn 'er ny shinney, as Pound er chredjal dy vel Yeats ny "un vard ta feeudagh da studeyrys trome-chooishagh."[42] Veih'n vlein shen derrey 1916, cheau ad ny geuraghyn ayns Stone Cottage ayns Keyll Ashdown, as Pound gobbyr myr scrudeyr da Yeats. Hoshee yn mooinjerys lesh toshiaght creoi neayr's va soilshey magh ronniaght Yeats lesh caghlaaghyn gyn ughtarys reaghit liorish Pound ayns yn earishlioar Poetry. Va ny caghlaaghyn shen aahoilshey amvlass Pound son prosoid Victorianagh. V'eh ny chummaght ny smoo jeeragh na'n schoillaraght er cloiaghyn Shapaanagh Noh goit liorish Pound ass ben hreoghe Ernest Fenollosa, as eh cur kiaddey da Yeats son cloie ooaslagh v'eh geearree screeu. V'eh At the Hawk's Well ny chied ghrama echey bunnit er Noh, as va'n chied ghraght aaloayrt gys Pound ayns Jerrey Geuree 1916.[43]

'Syn obbyr leah echey, trooid prose ooaslagh Yeats haink ard-smooinaghtys y voddagh Yernagh as aggindys sooill y ghooney er boghtinys as fuillaghtagh. Ansherbee, ren Yeats aa-howse jeeyl er yn ymmyrkey echey lesh çheet magh gleashaght meeammyssagh mastey rang mean-eeghtyragh y lught baljagh Catoleagh. Ta'n currym jeeragh noa lesh y pholitickaght ry-gheddyn 'sy ghaan September 1913, lesh y staayney ard-ghooagh ayn "Romantic Ireland's dead and gone / It's with O'Leary in the grave." Ta'n daan ny hoiagh da ny failleyderyn Divlynagh va laue oc ayns Glassey Magh y lught obbyr ny bleaney 1913 as ad nyn gummal seose eiyrtysyn James Larkin as eh geearree reaghey gleashaght lught obbyr Nerin. 'Sy staayney Easter 1916 ("All changed, changed utterly / A terrible beauty is born") ta Yeats jeeaghyn er yn 'ailleil echey dy ghoaill rish toilçhinyn fir toshee er Irree magh ny Caisht, rere yn ymmyrkey echey da'n chooylrey as bea oc.[44]

Poosey rish Georgie[reagh]

'Sy vlein 1916, va Yeats 51 vlein d'eash, as v'eh slane kiarit ry-phoosey as eirey dy yannoo. Haink y treealtys jerrinagh echey da Maud Gonne ayns sourey ny bleeaney 1916.[45] 'Sy vaght echey, v'ee ny ven phoost neu-chooie, er y fa dy row shennaghys roortys irree magh politickoil er rouyl eck, chammah as straih episodeyn craghoil persoonagh ayns ny bleeantyn shoh roish e seihill, goaill stiagh cleayney chloroform as poosey corragh lesh John MacBride, irreyder magh Yernagh va currit gys baase er son e phaart ayns Irree magh ny Caisht.[33] Ta R. F. Foster goaill tastey dy row yn treealtys jerrinagh ec Yeats bunnit ny smoo er keeall churrym na er yeearree jeelys Gonne ry-phoosey. Ren Yeats y treealtys er aght neuhymoil, lesh coardailys kianglagh, as v'eh jerkal as geearree ee dy obbal. Rere Foster, "tra chur Yeats y treealtys ry-phoosey dy cooie da Gonne, as tra dy row yn treealtys jiooldit liorish Gonne, cheaghil e smooinaghtyn dy tappee gys yn inneen eck." Va Iseult Gonne ny nah paitçhey ec Gonne as Lucien Millevoye, as ec y traa v'ayn, v'ee un vlein as feed d'eash. Va seihll trimshagh eck derrey'n traa shen. Va Iseult gientit myr eiyrtys corp e braar giare-heillagh eck dy aaghoaill, as ayns ny kied bleeantyn y theihill eck v'ee currit er enney myr inneen vraarey doltit ny mayrey eck. V'ee deinit liorish y lhiass-ayr eck as ee un vlein jeig d'eash,[46] as haink urree dy ve ny roieder gunnaghyn son Armee Phobblaghtagh Nerin (IRA). Ren ee treealtys da Yeats as ee queig bleeaney jeig d'eash. Mee ny ghaa ny yei toshiaght Yeats gys Gonne, ren y vard treealtys gys Iseult, agh dob ee. Ayns e henndiaght, dooyrt Yeats dy row yn traa shen ny "nah amm" echey, as denee eh jeh carrey "quoi mish, nagh vel mee jargal ommidan dy yannoo assym".[33]

Ayns Mean Fouyir ny bleeaney shen, ren Yeats treealtys da George (Georgie) Hyde-Lees (1892-1968), as ee kiare bleeaney as feed d'eash ec y traa shen. Haghyr Yeats urree trooid kiarkil druaightagh. Hoie Hyde-Lees lesh y treealtys dyn wooise ny caarjyn eck, as v'ad poosit ry-cheilley er 20 Jerrey Fouyir.[33] Va'n poosey ny speeideilys, dyn y wooise da'n anchaslys eash v'eddyr oc, as dyn y wooise da corree arrys as sneih-aigney Yeats car mee ny molley. Ec y traa shen, screeu George da Yeats "Choud's ta shiu marroo, bee yn sleih gra fo ny sooree ayd, agh bee red erbee raait liorym, er y fa dy bee mee smooinaghey er y voyrn vooar ayd." V'ad er ruggaghtyn daa phaitçhey, Anne as Michael.

Rish ny kied bleeantyn y phoosey, v'eh as george goaill greme ayns form screeudeyrys seyr-obbragh, as George cur fys er ram spyrrydyn as stiuragyn ennagh, as ad enmyssit myr "Ynseyderyn" oc. Va ny spyrrydyn cur cummyn da corys cowraghyn as shennaghys co-chast as folliaghtagh, quoi va bishaghit rish prowaltysyn lesh coryn taaue-neeal as taishbynys caghlaaghyn, cughlinyn, as gyreyn.[47] Cheau Yeats dy liooar traa aarlaghey y stoo shen da'n clou magh A Vision (1925). 'Sy vlein 1924, screeu eh gys y hoilsheyder magh echey, T. Werner Laurie: "Credjym, dy vel mee molley as mee smooinaghey dy vel y lioar shoh ny lioar ny lioaryn aym".[48]

Aundyr Nobel[reagh]

Ayns Mee ny Nollick 'sy vlein 1923, va Aundyr Nobel ayns Lettyraght bronnit er Yeats, as ren eh eiyrtys mooar dagh red y yannoo rere y taghyrt shen. Va eie vie echey er towse cowreydagh dy chosneyder Yernagh bleeandyn giarey lurg seyrsnys Nerin, as ren eh eiyrtys cur geill er lheh da'n fys shen ec dagh cooish. Chur eh stiagh ny focklyn "I consider that this honor has come to me less as an individual than as a representative of Irish literature, it is part of Europe's welcome to the Free State." ("Ta mee coontey dy vel yn onnor shoh er heet hym ny sloo myr dooiney lomarcan agh myr dooiney reiht jeh lettyraght Nerin, t'eh ny chooid jeh failt ny h-Oarpey er y Steat Seyr.")[49] Ren Yeats ymmyd jeh'n leaght ghoaill ec Undinys Reeoil ny Soolynn dys eh hene dy ghiootal myr vergeyr yn ashoonaghys Yernagh as y teyrsnys cultooragh Yernagh. Myr dooyrt eh, "Va ny theateryn ayns Divlyn nyn dhieyn follym v'er maill ec colughtyn troailtagh Sostynagh, as va cloiaghyn Yernagh as cloiederyn Yernagh er nyn laccal ain. Nar ren shin smooinaghtyn er ny cloiaghyn shen, ren shin smooinaghtyn er dagh red va romansagh as bardoil, myr va'n ashoonaghys v'er eam ain-yn ashoonaghys v'er eam ec dagh sheeloghe ayns traaghyn tarmestey-jeh'n torçh romansagh as bardoil."[3] Haghyr bishaghey mooar ayns creckyn e lioaryn, myr va ny soilsheyderyn echey (Macmillan Publishers) lurg y chooid smoo y yannoo jeh'n toilsheydaght. Va argid echey da'n chied cheayrt, as v'eh jargal e feeaghyn dy aayeeilley myrane lesh feeaghyn e ayr.[50]

Shenndiaght[reagh]

Jalloo cooinaghyn William Butler Yeats ayns Shliggagh, Nerin

Aght[reagh]

Obbyr[reagh]

Feeleeaght[reagh]

  • 1886 - Mosada
  • 1889 - The Wanderings of Oisin and Other Poems
  • 1891 - John Sherman and Dhoya
  • 1892 - The Countess Kathleen and Various Legends and Lyrics
  • 1894 - The Land of Heart's Desire
  • 1895 - Poems
  • 1897 - The Secret Rose
  • 1899 - The Wind Among the Reeds
  • 1900 - The Shadowy Waters
  • 1902 - Cathleen Ní Houlihan
  • 1903 - In the Seven Woods
  • 1910 - The Green Helmet and Other Poems
  • 1912 - The Cutting of an Agate
  • 1913 - Poems Written in Discouragement
  • 1914 - Responsibilities
  • 1917 - The Wild Swans at Coole
  • 1921 - Michael Robartes and the Dancer
  • 1921 - Four Plays for Dancers
  • 1924 - The Cat and the Moon
  • 1927 - October Blast
  • 1928 - The Tower
  • 1929 - The Winding Stair
  • 1933 - The Winding Stair and Other Poems
  • 1934 - Collected Plays
  • 1935 - A Full Moon in March
  • 1938 - New Poems

Obbyr elley[reagh]

  • 1888 - Fairy and Folk Tales of the Irish Peasantry
  • 1891 - Representative Irish Tales
  • 1892 - Irish Faerie Tales
  • 1893 - The Celtic Twilight
  • 1907 - Discoveries
  • 1903 - Ideas of Good and Evil
  • 1916 - Reveries Over Childhood and Youth
  • 1918 - Per Amica Silentia Lunae
  • 1921 - Four Years
  • 1925 - A Vision
  • 1926 - Estrangement
  • 1926 - Autobiographies

Noteyn[reagh]

  1. Yn Aundyr Nobel ayns Lettyraght 1923. Nobelprize.org. Feddynit er 3 Mean Souree, 2007.
  2. Frenz, Horst (Edit.). Yn Aundyr Nobel ayns Lettyraght 1923. "Nobel Lectures, Literature 1901–1967", 1969. Feddynit er 23 Boaldyn, 2007.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Moses, Michael Valdez. "The Poet As Politician". Reason, Toshiaght Arree, 2001. Feddynit er 3 Mean Souree, 2007.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Obituary. "W.B. Yeats Dead". The New York Times, 30 Jerrey Geurree 1939.
  5. "John Butler Yeats". Feddynit er 12 Jerrey Fouyir, 2007.
  6. The Collected Poems (1994), p. vii.
  7. Gordon Bowe, Nicola. "Two Early Twentieth-Century Irish Arts and Crafts Workshops in Context". Journal of Design History, Vol. 2, No. 2/3 (1989). pp. 193–206.
  8. Foster (1997), p. xxvii.
  9. Foster (1997), p. 24.
  10. Hone (1943), p. 28.
  11. Foster (1997), p. 25.
  12. Hone (1943), p. 33.
  13. Foster (1997), p. 37.
  14. Paulin, Tom. Taylor & Francis, 2004. "The Poems of William Blake". Feddynit er 3 Mean Fouyir, 2007.
  15. Hone (1943), p. 83.
  16. Alford, Norman. "The Rhymers' Club: Poets of the Tragic Generation". Nineteenth-Century Literature, Vol. 50, No. 4, Mart 1996. pp. 535-538.
  17. Lancashire, Ian. "William Blake (1757–1827)". Department of English, University of Toronto, 2005. Feddynit er 3 Mean Souree, 2007.
  18. Yeats (1900), p. 65.
  19. Burke, Martin J. "Daidra from Philadelphia: Thomas Holley Chivers and The Sons of Usna". Columbia University, 7 Jerrey Fouyir, 2005. Feddynit er 15 Jerrey Souree, 2007.
  20. Ellmann, Richard (1948). "Yeats: The Man and the Masks". (York Noa) Macmillan. p. 94.
  21. Mendelson, Edward (Ed.) "W. H. Auden". The Complete Works of W.H. Auden: Prose, Volume II, 1939–1948, 2002. Feddynit er 26 Boaldyn, 2007.
  22. Foster (1997), pp. 82-85.
  23. Alspach, Russell K. "The Use by Yeats and Other Irish Writers of the Folklore of Patrick Kennedy". The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 59, No. 234, Nollick, 1946. pp. 404-412.
  24. Nally, Claire V. "National Identity Formation in W. B. Yeats' 'A Vision'". Irish Studies Review, Volume 14, Issue 1, Toshiaght Arree 2006. pp. 57–67.
  25. Ta Daemon est Deus inversus goit ass screeunyn liorish Madame Blavatsky as ee gra dy vel "...blass chammah mieys as olk ayns Co-cheintys jeeoilagh", as t'an jarroo-raa shen ymmydit myr cowrey y hollysh rollageagh.
  26. Foater (1997), p. 103.
  27. Cullingford, Elizabeth. "How Jacques Molay Got Up the Tower: Yeats and the Irish Civil War". ELH, Volume 50, No. 4, 1983. pp. 763-789.
  28. Dooyrt Gonne dy haink ad nyn guail ayns Lunnin tree bleeantyn roish. Ta Foster cowraghey dy vel Gonne ny ben "lhiam-lhiat lesh dateyn as buill (1997, p. 57)
  29. Foster (1997), p. 57.
  30. Uddin Khan, Jalal. "Yeats and Maud Gonne: (Auto)biographical and Artistic Intersection". Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics, 2002.
  31. Foster (1997), pp. 86-87.
  32. "William Butler Yeats". BBC Four. Feddynit er 20 Mean Souree, 2007.
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 33.4 Cahill, Christopher. "Second Puberty: The Later Years of W. B. Yeats Brought His Best Poetry, along with Personal Melodrama on an Epic Scale". The Atlantic Monthly, Nollick 2003.
  34. Ó Corráin, Donnchadh. "William Butler Yeats". University College Cork. Feddynit er 15 Jerrey Souree, 2007.
  35. Foster (1997), p. 394.
  36. Corcoran, Neil. After Yeats and Joyce: Reading Modern Irish Literature. (Oxford), Oxford University Press, 1997. p. viii
  37. Foster (2003), pp. 486, 662.
  38. Foster (1997), p. 183.
  39. Teks aagymmyrkit veih draght Yeats 'sy lauescreeuee echey.
  40. Foster (1997), p. 184.
  41. "Irish Genius': The Yeats Family and The Cuala Press". Trinity College, Dublin, 12 Toshiaght Arree, 2004. Feddynit er 2 Mean Souree, 2007.
  42. Monroe, Harriet (1913). "Poetry". (Chicago) Modern Poetry Association. p. 123.
  43. Sands, Maren. "The Influence of Japanese Noh Theater on Yeats". Colorado State University. Feddynit er 15 Jerrey Geuree, 2007.
  44. Foster (2003), p. 59–66.
  45. Mann, Neil. "An Overview of A Vision". "The System of W. B. Yeats’s A Vision". Feddynit er 15 Jerrey Souree, 2007.
  46. Foster (1997), p. 286.
  47. Foster (2003), pp. 105, 383.
  48. Mann, Neil. "Letter 27 July 1924". "The System of W. B. Yeats’s A Vision". Feddynit er 24 Averil, 2008.
  49. Foster (2003), 245
  50. Foster (2003), 246–247

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