Caslys-skeeal

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Ta caslys-skeeal ny skeeal jannoo ymmyd jeh caslyssyn ry hoi taishbyney y skeeal rere ny ta goll er. Ta caslys-skeeal ry-eddyraghey veih lioar yallooyn er daa fa: ta ny caslyssyn eiyrtyssagh, son dy hroggal y slane skeeal; as ta caslys ard-chionyssagh harrish fockle, dy ghra myr shen, ta’n skeeal goll er insh liorish ny caslyssyn son y chooid smoo, cha nel liorish ny focklyn. Dyn y wooise da shen, ta’n daa genre goll harrish y cheilley. Ta’n chooid smoo jeh caslys-skeealyn cur ry-cheilley focklyn as caslyssyn, as ta glare er ny taishbyney ayns bolgan glare dy mennick, agh ta caslys-skeealyn gyn focklyn ayn myrgeddin, myr sampleyr, The Little King. Chammah as glare, ta focklyn meenaghey ny caslyssyn dy cliaghtagh (myr fo-heidylyn), agh ny keayrt t’ad neuchosoyley ry-cheilley.[1]

Little Sammy Sneeze (1904-06) liorish Winsor McCay

Ayns shennaghys jeianagh, va caslys-skeealyn scheimyn aitt son y chooid smoo; agh ta’n reaym oc er lheanaghey dy ghoaill stiagh dagh genre. Roish shoh, va sampleyryn jeh ellyn eiyrtyssagh ry-akin ayns ellyn y çhenn teihll, myr sampleyr, caslyssyn lhiaghtyn Eajiptagh, as adsyn goaill stiagh shennaghys reeaghyn as feayn-skeeal.

Ta sleih cliaghtit rish gra dy vel caslys-skeealyn nyn ellyn injil, ga dy vel kuse dy lhimmaghyn ayn, lheid as Krazy Kat as Barnaby.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] Anmagh ‘sy feedoo eash, ghow sleih toshiaght geabbey cur bree noo da’n saase.

Ta roie-haghyryn caslys-skeealyn jeianagh goaill stiagh Colloo Trajan as obbyr William Hogarth. Myr saase cadjin jeianagh, ghow caslys-skeealyn toshiaght ayns y Reeriaght Unnaneyssit anmagh ‘sy 19oo eash, tra hie Ally Sloper's Half Holiday er soilshaghey. Va’n cochiangle jeh goan as jallooyn mie lesh sleih, as ren eh skeaylley er fud y heihll. Lurg tammylt beg, va scheimyn aitt myr shoh er ny haglym myr lioaranyn neugheyr; haink lioaryn caslys-skeeal noa dy gerrid. Jiu, ta caslys-skeealyn ry-akin ayns pabyryn-naight, earishlioaryn, lioaryn as er yn eddyr-voggyl.

Haink rish resoonaght cremeydagh er yn saase cho leah as ny 1920yn, agh va studeyrys smooinaghtagh goan derrey anmagh ‘sy 20oo eash.[9][10][11]

Hie cliaghtey cadjin anchasley rish y cheilley er giennaghtyn mygeayrt y chruinney: manhua Sheenagh, manga Shapaanagh, bandes dessinés Frangagh, caslys-earishlioaryn ayns ny Steatyn Unnaneyssit, as earlishlioaryn skeealyn çhaglit ayns yn Europey.

Ga dy nod ellyneyryn chaslys-skeealyn shaghney lhiettalys çhaghnys, t’ad jannoo ymmyd dy mennick jeh kiaddaghyn as aghtyn cliaghtagh son dy haishbyney insh as glare, ny son dy greesaghey freggyrtyn ennaghtagh ny foalley ennagh. Ta saaseyn myr bolganyn glare as kishtaghyn cowrey magh glare as cur magh fys bunneydagh, as ta kerrinyn, oardagh duillag, jeegyn as linnaghyn arraghey cur cooney da fosley y skeeal. Foddee caslys-skeealyn jannoo ymmyd jeh focklyn, daa-cheayllaght, cosoyley, keirdeeaght screeu, saase meshtit as keirdaghtyn ellynagh elley son dy hroggal fo-eks ‘sy skeeal.[12]

Cummaghyn[reagh]

Yn ghaa chummey shinney as smoo cadjin, t’ad yn cartoon as yn scheim aitt. Dy tradishoonagh, ta cartoon çheet er caslys craidoilagh ny aitt as focklyn echey, myr sampleyr, cartoonyn tuarym ayns pabyryn-naight. Ta scheim aitt çheet er scheim jeh caslyssyn eiyrtyssagh ta taishbyney skeeal ennagh. T’ad ry-akin ayns ymmodee pabyryn-naight as earishlioaryn. Ta sampleyryn jeu goaill stiagh Calvin and Hobbes, Peanuts, ny ‘sy Ghaelg, Mish as Orree (as shen ny scheim aitt ynsee).

Ayns yn RU, ren cartoonyn as scheimyn aitt tannaghtyn ny smoo scanshoil, as yn ennym comics currit daue. Ta earishlioaryn myr The Beano y cummey smoo cadjin, as rere’n eie cadjin, cha nel agh son paitçhyn ta caslys-skeealyn.

Ny yei, ayns yn Europey, haink rish y cummey Frangagh bande dessinée. Neuchasley rish y fockle comic Baarle, cha nel keeayl aitt ec y fockle shoh. T’ad coontit dy ve feer chummey ellyn, as t’ad goaill stiagh skeealyn da paitçhyn as da sleih aasit. Cummey cadjin, she ligne claire, rere obbyr Hergé. T’eh goll er cowraghey liorish linnaghyn baghtal, gyn scaaghyn-doo, as cha nel ad jannoo monney ymmyd jeh saaseyn myr linnaghyn arraghey. Ta’n tradishoon Frangagh-Belgagh lajer, as cha nel caslys-skeealyn Americaanagh ny Goaldagh feer ennoil ayns ny çheeraghyn shoh, er coontey ny anchaslyssyn eddyr yn daa tradishoon.

Ayns ny SUA, haink rish y cummey pulp, eiyrtyssagh da noaskeealyn dime as lioaryn penny dreadful. V’ad son sleih aasit, as v’ad ard-haghyrtagh, goaill stiagh çhibbag, druggyn as raghlid. Ec y toshiaght, cha row agh beggan caslyssyn son taishbyney y skeeal. Va’n lheid er ny clou er pabyr garroo, as myr shen, cha nod ellyneyr jannoo ymmyd jeh linnaghyn keyl. Va scaaghyn crosh-ghrainnit as goan, as cha row daah ayn, er y fa dy row neugheyrsnys bun y lheid. Va fenee feer scanshoil da’n genre shoh, as magh ass eh haink y genre caslys-skeeal Americaanagh ard-feniagh. Ghow Action Comics toshiaght ayns 1938 as Superman ayn. Va’n karracteyr cho ennoil, haink y genre shoh dy ve y smoo ayns America. Ta’n genre shoh jannoo ymmyd jeh saaseyn gollrish y scheim aitt, goaill stiagh linnaghyn arraghey as, er lheh, sheeanyn screeut (thump as bang). Myr shen, va daa genre feer anchasley rish y cheilley ayn: scheimyn aitt, doo-as-bane lesh linnaghyn baghtal son y chooid smoo, as y comic book, lesh daah, caslyssyn rieughagh as cooishyn trome. Ga dy row y tradishoon lajer shoh ayn, ta’n eie cadjin dy liooar dy vel caslys-skeealyn ny sloo feeu, ny son paitçhyn.

Ta manhua Sheenagh cummey rieughagh, as dy mennick t’eh slane daahit. Ta cummaght er ec caslys-skeealyn Americaanagh as manga Shapaanagh.

Ayns yn Çhapaan, ta’n cummey cadjin manga. Hug Osamu Tezuka bun er y chummey shoh lurg y Nah Chaggey Mooar, es cummaght er ec bio-chaslys Disney. Son y chooid smoo, ta manga doo-as-bane, as t’eh cur ry-cheilley caslyssyn, as kerrinyn ny smoo rere cliaghtey. T’eh jannoo ymmyd jeh saaseyn cowreydagh myr ellyn chibi, cammaghey corpyn as cosoyley (myr sampleyr, ta bine ollish cowraghey nearey ny colg). Ta manga goaill stiagh cooishyn myr far-skeealyn, graih, as bea cadjin, chammah as shenn skeealyn (myr sampleyr, Buddha, manga mychione bea Vuddha) as skeealyn trome-chooishagh (myr sampleyr, Hadashi no Gen (Gen Cass Rooisht (はだしのゲン?)), mychione mayrnee y vleaystan Hiroshima). Ta manga goll er soilshaghey magh myr lioaryn jeh ymmodee keead duillagyn, dy cadjin. Ta kiangley lajer eddyr manga as anime, bio-chaslys Shapaanagh, as ta ymmodee ellyneyryn gobbraghey ayns y ghaa ec y traa cheddin.

Caslys-noaskeealyn[reagh]

Ta caslys-noaskeeal ny 'lane skeeal ta goll er taishbyney trooid caslyssyn. Va obbyr Hergé ny Uderzo as Goscinny sampleyryn leah jeh’n chummey, as dagh lioar Asterix ny Tintin ny ‘lane skeeal. Ta’n cummey shoh smoo cadjin ayns yn Europey, er coontey y tradishoon lajer caslys-skeealyn. Ta skeealyn ard-ghooagh myr The Hobbit ry-gheddyn ayns cummey caslys-noaskeeal nish.

Caslys-skeealyn eddyr-voggyl[reagh]

Ta caslys-skeealyn eddyr-voggyl ry-lhaih er yn eddyr-voggyl. Ta kuse jeu goll er clou chammah, agh cha nel y chooid smoo jeu. Ta caslys-skeealyn eddyr-voggyl goaill stiagh y slane vagher, veih cartoonyn as scheimyn aitt dys manga ny noaskeealyn caslys.

Imraaghyn[reagh]

  1. Teresa Grainger (2004) "Art, Narrative and Childhood" Literacy 38 (1), 66–67. doi:10.1111/j.0034-0472.2004.03801011_2.x
  2. Gilbert Seldes, The 7 Lively Arts, Harper, 1924, ASIN B000M1MMBC
  3. Dowd, Douglas Bevan; Hignite, Todd (2006). Strips, Toons, and Bluesies: Essays in Comics and Culture. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 1568986211.
  4. Varnedoe, Kirk; Gopnik, Adam (1990). Modern Art and Popular Culture: Readings in High & Low. Abrams in association with the Museum of Modern Art. ISBN 0870703560.
  5. Bollinger, Tim (2000). ayns Nga Pakiwaituhi o Aotearoa: New Zealand Comics, Horrocks, Dylan (ed.): Comics in the Antipodes: a low art in a low place. Hicksville Press. ISBN 0-473-06708-0.
  6. Gold, Glen David (2005). ayns Masters of American Comics, Carlin, John, Karasik, Paul & Walker, Brian (ed.): Jack Kirby. Yale University Press, 262. ISBN 030011317X.
  7. Fielder, Leslie [1955] (2004). ayns Arguing Comics: Literary Masters on a Popular Medium, Heer, Jeet & Worcester, Kent (ed.): The Middle Against Both Ends. Univ. Press of Mississippi, 132. ISBN 1578066875.
  8. Groensteen, Thierry (2000). ayns Comics & Culture: Analytical and Theoretical Approaches to Comics, Anne Magnussen & Hans-Christian Christiansen (ed.): Why are Comics Still in Search of Cultural Legitimization?. Museum Tusculanum Press. ISBN 8772895802.
  9. Gilbert Seldes, The 7 Lively Arts, Harper, 1924, ASIN B000M1MMBC
  10. Martin Sheridan, Comics and their Creators, Ralph T. Hale and Company, 1942, ASIN B000Q8QGC2
  11. Dez Skinn, Comic Art Now, Collins Design, 2008, ISBN 978-0-06-144739-6.
  12. Scott McCloud, Understanding Comics, Harper, 1994, ISBN 978-0060976255

Lioaryn[reagh]

Ny smoo ry-lhaih[reagh]

Kianglaghyn mooie[reagh]