Duillag

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
She organe lossreeyn bun-chooish y duillag shoh. My ta sym ayd ayns keeall elley yn 'ockle shoh, lhaih duillag (reddaghey).
Duillagyn faih

Ayns lus-oaylleeaght, she organe lossreeyn ta currit da co-haaghey sollysh eh duillag. Er son shen, ta duillagyn lhean as keyl son y chooid smoo. Ta'n lheanid shoh cur y duillag fo ny smoo soilshey as daa-ocseed charboan, agh t'eh coayl ny smoo ushtey na cummey cruinn. Rish yn Eash Devonagh, tra va co-chruinnaghey daa-ocseed charboan ymmodee keayrtyn ny smoo ta jiu, cha row duillagyn ny gish reaey ec lossreeyn. Ta oltyn rea lheaney ta co-haaghey sollysh ec ymmodee bryophyteyn, agh cha nee feer duillag t'ayn. Shen feer bentyn rish microphyllyn lycophyteyn myrgeddin. T'ad cur macrophyll, megaphyll as euphyll er duillagyn renniee, gymnospermyn as angiospermyn ny keayrtyn.

Ta trooid-ghaalaghey as bineal taghyrt ayns duillagyn, dy cadjin. T'ad tashtey bee as ushtey, as ta kuse jeu er nyn gaghlaa er son obbraghyn elley.

Ta duillagyn scanshoil myr bee beiyn as deiney.

Strughtoor[reagh]

Caslys giarrey tessen jeh duillag

Ta lane duillag angiospermagh jeant magh jeh cass duillag (gass y duillag), lhiann (y "duillag" hene) as stipuleyn (reddyn ta gaase ec çheughyn y chass duillag). Cha nel y tree jeu ec dagh dooie dy lus. Myr sampleyr, foddee nagh vel stipuleyn ayn; cha nel cass duillag ec dagh dooie; as cha nel duillagyn dagh dooie lhiannagh (jeant rea).

She olt lossreeyn eh duillag, as t'ad rheynn ad ayns tree stooghyn kirpey:

  1. Epiderm ta coodaghey ny h-eaghtyryn
  2. Mesophyll çheusthie
  3. Cuishlinyn duillag
Diagram strughtooragh jeh duillag.
1. Craaish
2. Epiderm s'ardjey
3. Mesophyll çhionn
4. Mesophyll thoagagh
5. Epiderm s'inshley
6. Stoma
7. Killagyn skaa
8. Sylem
9. Phloem
10. Dhossan cuishlagh

Epiderm[reagh]

Killagyn epidermagh

She coodagh dy chillagyn eh yn epiderm. T'eh geddyr-scarrey killagyn ny lus jeh'n teihll. T'eh coadey noi coayl ushtey liorish trooid-ghaalaghey, as stiurey co-cheaghley gas, taaley covestaghyn soe, as ny keayrtyn, maanalys ushtey. Ta strughtoor drommey-tarragh echey son y chooid smoo; dy ghra myr shen, cha nel yn eaghtyr s'ardjey gollrish yn eaghtyr s'inshley, as foddee obbraghyn er lheh ve oc.

Ta'n epiderm tarhoilshagh dy mennick (cha nel chloroplastyn ec killagyn epidermagh), as ta craaish kereagh ta lhiettal coayl ushtey. Ta craaish ny s'çhee ec duillagyn lossreeyn ass çhymbyllaghtyn çhirrym na ec adsyn ass çhymbyllaghtyn fliugh.

Caslys MLS jeh epiderm duillag Nicotiana alata. Ta trichromeyn (gollrish jialg) as stomata (scoltaghyn sooillagh, ry-akin ec cruinnys myn) ry-akin.

Ta stoo kirpey epiderm goaill stiagh ymmodee sorçhyn dy chillag er lheh: killagyn epidermagh, killagyn skaa, killagyn coonee as trichomeyn (renaigyn epidermagh). She killagyn epidermagh ad y chooid smoo jeu, as adsyn y chooid smoo bunneydagh.

Ta dorallyn (stomata) ayns yn epiderm. T'ad jeant magh jeh doral as killagyn skaa mygeayrt echey. Ta chloroplastyn ayns ny killagyn skaa. Ta daa dys kiare killagyn coonee gyn chloroplastyn mygeayrt oc. Dy cadjin, ta ny smoo stomata 'syn epiderm s'inshley na'n epiderm s'ardjey.

Ta'n chooid smoo jeh'n duillag eddyr yn epiderm jeant magh jeh stoo kirpey parenchyma ny chlorenchyma. T'ad cur "mesophyll" er ("mean duillag" 'sy Ghreagish). Shoh ynnyd smoo scanshoil 'sy lus dysf co-haaghey sollysh. She stoo kirpey cosoylaghey t'ayn; t'eh lheie stooghyn kemmigagh as jannoo soo kirpey jeu.

Mesophyll[reagh]

Killagyn mesophyll çhionn

Ta mesophyll renniee as angiospermyn er ny rheynn ayns daa vrat:

  • Brat s'ardjey dy chillagyn mesophyll çhionn. T'ad sheeynit dy jeeragh seose, rollianagh, as çhionn rish y cheilley. Ta'n brat shoh dy jeeragh fo yn epiderm s'inshley. Ta ram chloroplastyn ayn, as ad faggys da boallaghyn ny killag. T'ad reaghit ayns un dys queig straihyn. Ta'n oardagh shoh mooadaghey maanalys daa-ocseed charboan, as jannoo share jeh soilshey ny greiney. Er y fa nagh vel agh scarrey beg eddyr ny killagyn, foddee myn-eddanaght ymmyrkey ushtey eddyr oc. Ta mesophyll çhionn yl-vrattagh ec duillagyn lossreeyn ta currit da soilshey, as un vrat ec duillagyn lossreeyn ta currit da scaa.
Killagyn mesophyll thoanagh
  • Brat s'inshley dy chillagyn mesophyll thoanagh. Ta ny killagyn shoh ny s'cruinney as cha nel ad cho çhionn. Ta reamyssyn mooarey aer eddyr-chillagagh. Ta ny sloo chloroplastyn oc na ec killagyn çhionn.

Ta ny stomata fosley dys ny reamyssyn shoh.

Cha nel y daa vrat shoh ec dagh lus ushtagh. Ny keayrtyn, nagh vel eer epiderm ny mesophyll oc. T'adsyn jannoo ymmyd jeu aerenchyma co-cheintyssagh: killagyn as boallaghyn keylley oc, as reamyssyn mooar gassagh eddyr oc. Ta ny stomata oc er yn eaghtyr s'ardjey.

Cuishlinyn[reagh]

Ushylagh cuishlin dy ghuillag Hydrangea

Ta ny cuishlinyn nyn soie 'sy vesophyll thoanagh. T'ad jeant magh jeh:

Jalloo-oaylleeaght[reagh]

Oardagh er y ghass[reagh]

Ta ny duillagyn shoh er nyn reaghey dy piyral, as dagh piyr kern-uillinagh rish y nah phiyr ("croshagh"). Ta buinnaghyn aegey ry-akin 'syn aghlish raad ta'n chass duillag kianglt rish y ghass.
  • Maylartey — ta un duillag kianglt rish dagh noad, as ta ny duillagyn maylartey er y daa heu harrish y ghass.
  • Piyral — ta daa ghuillag kianglt rish adgh noad; t'ad croshagh my ta dagh piyr çhyndaait rere y phiyr roish; t'ad jeeragh my t'ad gaase ayns daa straih er yn un phlaaney.
  • Fainagh — ta tree ny ny smoo kianglt rish dagh noad er y ghass. Ny keayrtyn, ta'n 'ainey croshagh rere yn 'ainey roish.
  • Roseagh — ta ny duillagyn ayns cummey cront.

Lesh aase ny gass, ta duillagyn reaghey ad hene mygeayrt y ghass er son dy hareaghey ymmyd sollys. T'ad jannoo shlig chassee mygeayrt y ghass. Ta uillin ny duillagyn rere straih Fibonacci: 1/2, 2/3, 3/5, 5/8, 8/13, 13/21, 21/34, 34/55, 55/89. 'sy straih shoh, ta'n earrooder cowraghey yn earroo dy lane hymshal mygeayrt y ghass derrey vees duillag 'syn ynnyd toshee reesht. Ta'n enmysser cowraghey quoid dy ghuillagyn t'ayn. Myr shen:

  • ta duillagyn maylartey er uillin 180° (myr shen, 1/2 kiarkyl, hoal noi y cheilley)
  • 120° (1/3) : tree duillagyn ayns çhymshal
  • 144° (2/5) : queig duillagyn ayns daa hymshal
  • 135° (3/8) : hoght duillagyn ayns tree çhymshallyn

Ayrnyn y lhiann[reagh]

Ta daa horçh dy ghuillag ry-hoilshaghey bentyn rish rheynn y duillag. Ta lhiann neurheynnit ec duillag bunneydagh. Ny keayrtyn, ta cummey y duillag jeant jeh babbanyn, agh cha nel ny baarnaghyn eddyr oc roshtyn yn ard-chuishlin. Ta lhiann rheynnit ec yl-ghuillag, as dagh duillageen echey rheynnit er ard-chuishlin ny fo-chuishlin. Ny keayrtyn, t'eh jeeaghyn dy vel dagh duillageen ny ghuillag hene. Myr shen, she scanshoil eh dy chur tastey er raad ta'n cass duillag, dys cur enney er yl-ghuillag. T'ad cowreydagh jeh shiartanse dy chynneeyn er lheh, myr sampleyr, Fabaceae. T'ad cur rachis er cuishlin veanagh y duillag.

Troyn y chass duillag[reagh]

Ta cassyn duillag ro-vooarey rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) yn-ee.

Ta duillagyn as cass oc ayn, as duillagyn gyn cass myrgeddin. Adsyn gyn cass, ta'n lhiann kianglt dy jeeragh rish y ghass. Foddee y lhiann goll mygeayrt y ghass, as ny keayrtyn, t'eh jeeaghyn dy vel y ghass gaase ny trooid. Shen feer ec kuse jeu, as t'ad cur thiollit (ny perfoliata) orroosyn, m.s. Claytonia perfoliata.

Ec duillagyn peltata, ta'n cass duillag kianglt rish eaghtyr y lhiann, cha nel rish yn oirr echey.

Ta cass duillag lheanit ec shiartase dy ghooieyn Acacia, as t'ad jannoo obbyr lhiann. T'ad cur phyllodeyn orroo. Ny keayrtyn, ta duillag cadjin fedjagagh ec birr y phyllode.

Ta stipule, ry-akin ec ymmodee dicotyledonyn. She famman gollrish duillag beg t'ayn, as t'ad nyn soie ec çheuyn y chass duillag. Ta fir foddey beayn ayn nagh vel tuittym (m.s. ayns roseyn as poanraghyn), agh ta fir elley tuittym.

Oardagh ny cuishlinyn[reagh]

Cuishlinyn banglaneagh er çheu heese duillag taro.

Ta ram termeeaght er lheh bentyn rish cuishlinaght duillagyn.

Ta un aarheynn bentyn rish lheanid ny cuishlinyn:

  • craspedodromous (ard-chuishlinyn roshtyn oirr y duillag)
  • camptodromous (cha nel ard-chuishlinyn roshtyn oirr y duillag).

Son y chooid smoo, t'ad aarheynn duillagyn er bun cummey ny banglaneaght ny cuishlinyn.


Imraaghyn[reagh]