Renniagh (lus)

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
She billey bun-chooish y duillag shoh. My ta sym ayd ayns keeall elley yn 'ockle shoh, lhaih Renniagh.
Renniagh
Athyrium filix-femina.jpg


Rang oaylleeagh
Reeriaght: Plantae
Rheynn: Pteridophyta
Linnaeus
Rang[1]

She lus erbee 'sy rheynn Pteridophyta eh renniagh ny faarney. Ta mysh 12 000 dooie ayn.[2]. Ta sylem as phloem oc, as myr shen, she lossreeyn cuishlagh t'ayn. Ta gass, duillagyn as fraueyn oc, agh cha nel rassyn ny blaaghyn; t'ad geddyn sliught liorish sporragyn.

She Polypodiopsida possan smoo ny renniee, agh ta renniee goaill stiagh gollianee, renniee scuitçhee, Marattiopsida, as Ophioglossales.

Haink rish renniee 'sy recortys fossylagh 'syn Eash Charboniferagh, agh cha row ny dooieyn jeianagh ayn derrey anmagh 'syn Eash Chretaceagh son y chooid smoo.

Cha row monney feu tarmaynagh ec renniee, agh ta sleih troarey kuse jeu er son bee, jeshanaghey, ny er son yeehrullaghey thalloo sollit. Ta kuse jeu nyn sarkylyn scanshoil.

Bea[reagh]

Gametophyte Onoclea sensibilis

She lossreeyn cuishlagh ad renniee. T'ad anchasley rish lycophyteyn (lossreeyn ny s'bunneydaghey) er y fa dy vel feer duillagyn oc. T'ad anchasley rish lossreeyn sheelagh (gymnospermae as angiospermae) er y fa nagh vel blaaghyn ny rassyn oc. Ta'n bea oc maylartey sheelogheyn; ta keim sporophytagh daaphloid as keim gametophytagh unphloid oc. Anchasley rish gymnospermyn as angiospermae, she bioag seyr eh gametophyte renniagh.

Corys bea renniagh cadjin:

  1. Ta keim sporophytagh (daaphloid) cur magh sporraghyn unphloid liorish meiosis.
  2. Liorish mitosis, ta'n sporrag gaase dys gametophyte - ny prothallus ta co-haaghey sollysh, son y chooid smoo.
  3. Ta'n gametophyte cur magh gameteyn (sheel as ooh er y phrothallus cheddin, dy mennick) liorish mitosis.
  4. Ta sheel raghidey flagellagh torraghey ooh, as ish kianglt rish y phrothallus.
  5. She sygote daaphloid eh yn ooh nish, as liorish mitosis, t'ee gaase dys sporophyte (feer "renniagh").

Eggoaylleeaght Renniee[reagh]

Renniee ec Muir Woods, California

Ga dy vel renniee cummal ayns cooillyn boggey scaadooagh rere'n eie chadjin, t'ad ry-akin ayns ymmodee çhymbyllaghtyn elley, goaill stiagh sleityn, ushtey, carrickyn eaynagh, as magheryn. Son y chooid smoo, she sur-lossreeyn t'ayn, as t'ad gaase dy mie ayns oayllyn oirragh raad troyn ny çhymbyllaght cur lhiettal er lossreeyn blaaghey. Ta kuse jeu mastey ard-sarkylyn ny cruinney, as t'adsyn goaill stiagh renniagh vooar ny thalloo sleitoil, as Azolla ny loghyn grianchryssagh; ta'n daa ghooie jannoo coloinyn mooar ta skeaylley dy tappee.

T'ad ry-akin ayns kiare oayllyn erskyn ooilley: keylljyn boggey scaadooagh; scaanaghyn ayns carrickyn; curree gheayragh; as er biljyn grianchryssagh, raad ta ymmodee dooieyn nyn epiphyteyn.[3]

Ta ymmodee renniee croghey er co-obbraghey lesh fungyssyn mycorrhisagh. Cha daasee ad agh sthie rheam pH er lheh. Myr sampleyr, cha daasee y renniagh drappee Lygodium (America Hwoie) agh ayns thalloo vog as feer gheayragh; ta rheam y renniagh Cystopteris bulbifera lhie harrish rheam Lygodium, agh cha nel eh ry-akin agh er clagh eayil alkalaihagh.

Strughtoor renniee[reagh]

Sporophyteyn[reagh]

Ta sporophyteyn renniee, myr lossreeyn rassagh, jeant magh jeh:

  • Gass: She raisoam fo-halloo t'ayn son y chooid smoo, agh ny keayrtyn, she stolon harrish-thalloo ny corp fuyghagh t'ayn. Myr sampleyr, ta stolon ec Polypodiaceae, as corp fuyghagh ec Cyatheaceae.
  • Duillagyn: Rheynn geayney co-haaghey sollysh y lus. Ta duillagyn noa lheanaghey liorish neufilley caslagh çhionn. Ta tree sorçhyn dy ghuillag ec renniee:
    • Trophophyll: Duillag nagh ver magh sporragyn. T'ee currit da jannoo shugyr liorish co-haaghey sollysh. T'ee corrym rish duillagyn geayney cadjin lossreeyn rassagh.
    • Sporophyll: Duillag verys magh sporragyn. T'ee corrym rish crottyl ayns bearkan juys, staimyn ayns gymnosperm, ny pistil ayns angiosperm. Anchasley rish ny daa s'jerree, cha nel y sporophyll slane currit da jannoo sporragyn. T'ee gollrish trophophyll, as t'ee co-haaghey sollysh 'syn aght cheddin.
    • Brophophyll: Duillag verys magh mooarane dy sporragyn.
  • Fraueyn: Ta fraueyn goaill stiagh ushtey as beaghey ass y thalloo. She corys fraue snaueaneagh t'ec renniee, as t'eh casley rish fraueyn lossreeyn rassagh.

Gametophyteyn[reagh]

Ta gametophyteyn renniee anchasley rish gametophyteyn lossreeyn rassagh. Ta'n gametophyte renniagh cadjin jeant magh jeh:

  • Prothallus: Ny strughtoor geayney, un chillag er çheeid, ta co-haaghey sollysh. T'eh jeh cummey chree ny aarey dy cadjin, mysh 3–10 mm er lhiurid, 2–8 mm er lheead. T'eh jannoo gameteyn liorish:
    • Antheridia: Nyn strughtooryn beggey cruinney ta jannoo sheel flagellagh.
    • Archegonia: Nyn strughtooryn jeh cummey flagoon ta jannoo un ooh ec y chass. Ta'n sheel roshtyn ish liorish snaue sheese y wannal.
  • Rhisoidyn: Nyn strughtooryn fraueagh (cha nel nyn veer 'raueyn) jeh killagyn ynrican er nyn sheeyney dy mooar. Ta'n clane strughtoor soo stiagh ushtey as sollanyn meainagh. Ta ny rhisoidyn greimmey y prothallus 'sy thalloo.

Ymmyd tarmaynagh[reagh]

Cha nel renniee cho scanshoil as lossreeyn rassagh dy tarmaynagh, agh ta ymmyd jeant jeh kuse jeu. Ta sleih gee shiartanse dy renniee, myr sampleyr duillagyn beggey renniagh vooar (Pteridium aquilinum), Matteuccia struthiopteris, Osmunda cinnamomea, ny Diplazium esculentum. T'ad caigney Polypodium glycyrrhiza er son y vlass mie eck.

Ta renniee 'sy ghenus Azolla nyn lossreeyn beggey snaueagh nagh vel gollrish renniee chadjin. Ta ymmyd jeant jeu er son lhiasaghey ayns magheryn reise yn Aishey hiar-yiass, er y fa dy vel ad tashtey nitrageen as jannoo beaghey lus jeh.

Shimmey renniagh t'ad gaase myr lossreeyn çheer-yallooagh, er son duillagys jesheenagh, as myr lossreeyn thie. T'adsyn goaill stiagh renniagh Voston (Nephrolepis exaltata), Asplenium nidus, as y ghenys Platycerium.

Ta fir elley nyn sarkylyn nieunagh ny dooieyn ruegeydagh. T'adsyn goaill stiagh Lygodium japonicum as Onoclea sensibilis. Ta renniagh ushtey vooar (Salvinia molesta) mastey sarkylyn smessey ushtee ny cruinney.

Ta'n renniagh Pteris vittata ard-haglym arsnick ass y thalloo.[4]

T'ad jannoo ymmyd jeh renniee villagh ayns ardjyn grianchryssagh.


Imraaghyn[reagh]

  1. Smith, A.R.; Pryer, K.M.; Schuettpelz, E.; Korall, P.; Schneider, H.; Wolf, P.G. (2006). "A classification for extant ferns". Taxon 55 (3): 705–731. Feddynit er 2008-02-12. 
  2. Chapman, Arthur D. (Mean Fouyir 2009). Numbers of Living Species in Australia and the World. Canberra, Yn Austrail: Australian Biological Resources Study.
  3. Schuettpelz, Eric (2007). "Fern Phylogeny Inferred from 400 Leptosporangiate Species and Three Plastid Genes", (PDF) The Evolution and Diversification of Epiphytic Ferns. Traaghtys, Duke University.
  4. Lena Q. Ma; Kenneth M. Komar, Cong Tu, Weihua Zhang, Yong Cai & Elizabeth D. Kennelley (2001-02-01). "A fern that hyperaccumulates arsenic" (Baarle). Nature: Brief communications 409 (579). doi:10.1038/35054664. 

Imraaghyn elley[reagh]

  • Pryer, Kathleen M., Harald Schneider, Alan R. Smith, Raymond Cranfill, Paul G. Wolf, Jeffrey S. Hunt and Sedonia D. Sipes. 2001. Horsetails and ferns are a monophyletic group and the closest living relatives to seed plants. Nature 409: 618–622 (abstract here).
  • Pryer, Kathleen M., Eric Schuettpelz, Paul G. Wolf, Harald Schneider, Alan R. Smith and Raymond Cranfill. 2004. Phylogeny and evolution of ferns (monilophytes) with a focus on the early leptosporangiate divergences. American Earishlioar of Botany 91:1582–1598 (online abstract here).
  • Moran, Robbin C. (2004). A Natural History of Ferns. Portland, OR: Timber Press. ISBN 0-88192-667-1.
  • Lord, Thomas R. (2006). Ferns and Fern Allies of Pennsylvania. Indiana, PA: Pinelands Press. [1]


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