Algey

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
Algey
Rheam fossylagh: Eash Roie-Chambriagh - jiu
Laurencia.jpg
Laurencia, ny ghenus marrey Hawaiiagh dy algey jiarg.


Rang oaylleeagh
Ream: Eukaryota
Possanyn bentyn rish


She possan bea-oaylleeagh eh Algae (algaghyn). She bioagyn bunneydagh t'ayn, as ad hetra-veeagh liorish co-haaghey sollysh son y chooid smoo. Ta fir jeu un-chillagagh as fir elley yl-chillagagh, myr sampleyr, famlee vooarey. T'ad cur famlagh er ny fir varrey smoo dy cadjin.

V'ad cliaghtey goaill stiagh Cyanobacteria prokaryotagh myr algaghyn, agh rere eieyn cadjin jeianagh, t'ad ny s'faggys da bacteyryn.[1][2] Ta algaghyn çheet er bioagyn eukaryotagh ynrican jiu.[3] Myr shen, ta çheshvean as plastaidyn far-chrackanagh ec feer algaghyn rere'n eie t'ayn nish.[1][4] She possan paraphyletagh sa polyphyletagh t'ayn,[1] er y fa nagh vel eh goaill stiagh dagh cloan y çhennayr co-chadjin s'jerree as cha nel shennayr algagh co-chadjin ec dagh fer jeu. Ny yei shen, t'eh jeeaghyn dy vel co-vun ec y plastaidyn oc.[5]

Ta feanish fossyllagh ayn jeh algaghyn mysh 3 billioon blein er dy henney, 'syn Eash Roie-Chambriagh

Cha nel ymmodee oltyn lossreeyn thallooin ec algaghyn. Cha nel duillagyn, rhisoidyn ny fraueyn oc. Ta ymmydee jeu hene-veeagh, agh ta fir elley micsotrophagh (goaill bree liorish co-haaghey sollysh as liorish goaill stiagh carboan orgaanagh, myr sampleyr, liorish ee killagyn. Ta kuse dy ghooie un-chillagagh croghey er bree çheumooie as cha nel farrys co-haaghey sollysh oc. Dys geddyn sliught, ta fir jeu rheynn dy neucheintyssagh, agh ta saaseyn crampit sheelraghey keintyssagh ec fir elley.[6]

Ta farrys co-haaghey sollysh algey jeh Cyanobacteria 'sy toshiaght, as myr shen, t'ad cur magh ocsygien myr fo-hroar co-haaghey sollysh. Shen anchasley rish obbraghyn bacteyryn elley ta co-haaghey sollysh.

Rang-oardraghey[reagh]

Rere tradishoon, v'ad goaill stiagh Cyanobacteria myr algey. Rere'n eie t'ayn nish, t'ad cliaghtey dooney magh ad er bun anchaslyssyn mooarey; myr sampleyr, cha nel mynoltyn far-chrackanagh oc, ta un chroymasoom kiarkylagh, ta peptidoglycan 'sy voalley killag, as ribbosoomyn anchasley rish adsyn t'ec algaghyn.[7][8] Cha nel chloroplastyn oc, as t'ad co-haaghey sollysh er far-chrackan thylakoidjagh. Myr shen, ga dy vel currym eggoaylleeagh cosoylagh ec y daa, cha nel ad casley rish y cheilley.

Rere soilshaghey jeinagh, she eukaryoteyn t'ayn, as adsyn co-haaghey sollysh ayns chloroplastyn (nyn mynoltyn far-chrackanagh). Ta GDN kiarkylagh 'sy chloroplast, as ta'n mynolt gollrish Cyanobacteria. She shimboshee sthie jeelymagh t'ayn, foddee. Ta cummey er lheh ec chloroplastyn dagh clein. Ta'n taabyl heese soilshaghey magh cummey ny tree possanyn algagh smoo. Ta mooinjerys ry-akin 'sy diagram er y çheu yesh. Ta olteynyn ayns ymmodee possanyn nagh vel co-haaghey sollysh nish. Ta plastaidyn elley (cha nel chloroplastyn) ec fir jeu foast, as cha nel plastaidyn erbee ec fir elley.

Rang-oardraghey rere plastaidyn:[9]


Cyanobacteria




Cyanelles





Rhodophyta



Heterokontophyta




Cryptophyta



Haptophyta






Euglenophyta





Chlorophyta




Charophyta



Embryophyta





Chlorarachniophyta






Cochiangley far-phossan Olteynyn Shimboshagh sthie Giare-choontey
Primoplantae/
Archaeplastida
Cyanobacteria Ta daa 'ar-chrackan mygeayrt ny chloroplastyn oc. Er bun shen, ta oayllee credjal dy daink ad jeh shimboshee stiagh dy jeeragh. Ta chlorophyll a (as c dy mennick) as phycobilinyn ec Rhodophyta ("algaghyn jiargey"), as chlorophyll a as b ec chloroplastyn Chlorophyta ("algaghyn glassey"). Ta daah cosoylagh roo ec lossreeyn, as s'cosoylagh dy daafilley lossreeyn assjeu; myr shen, she co-hacson lossreeyn t'ayn. Ny keayrtyn, ta sleih cur ad myrane lesh y cheilley myr Viridiplantae.
Excavata as Rhizaria Chlorophyta

Ta chloroplastyn glassey oc, as chlorophyllyn a as b ayndaue.[7] Ta tree ny kiare far-chrackanyn mygeayrt oc, as s'cosoylagh dy daink ad jeh Chlorophyta er nyn ngoaill stiagh.

Ta nucleomorph beg ec Chlorarachniophyta, ('sy phylum Cercozoa), ny freiltagh çheshvean y chillag.

Ta Euglenoidea, 'sy phylum Euglenozoa, cummal ayns ushtey millish son y chooid smoo, as cha nel agh tree far-chrackan mygeayrt ny chloroplastyn oc. Foddee dy jagh ny chlorophyta oc er goaill stiagh liorish myzocytosis, cha nel liorish phagocytosis.

Chromista as Alveolata Rhodophyta

Ta chlorophyllyn a as c 'sy chloroplastyn oc, as phycobilinyn myrgeddin.

Ta kiare far-chrackanyn ec chloroplastyn Chromista, as nucleomorph ec ny Cryptophyta jeu; s'cosoylagh dy vel co-hennayr oc bentyn rish y daah, ga dy vel ourys ayn my ta Heterokontophyta, Haptophyta as Cryptophyta faggys-mooinjer er bun feanish elley.[10][11]

Ta tree far-chrackanyn ec chloroplastyn Dinoflagellata dy mennick, agh t'ad anchasley rish y cheilley. Foddee dy row ymmodee taghyrtyn shimbosh sthie 'sy phossan.[5] Ta plastaid neuventyn rish co-haaghey sollysh ec Apicomplexa, nyn sheadaneyn as faggys-mooinjer y phossan - shen apicoplastyn. Foddee dy vel co-vun ec apicoplastyn as chloroplastyn dinoflagellata.[5]

Imraaghyn[reagh]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Nabors, Murray W. (2004). Introduction to Botany. Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0805344160.
  2. (2007) ayns Guiry, M.D., John, D.M., Rindi, F & McCarthy, T.K: New Survey of Clare Island Ym-lioar 6: The Freshwater and Terrestrial Algae. Royal Irish Academy. ISBN 978-1-904890-31-7.
  3. Allaby, M ed. (1992). The Concise Dictionary of Botany. Oxford University Press.
  4. F. E. Round (1981). The Ecology of Algae. London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521225833.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Patrick J. Keeling (2004). "Diversity and evolutionary history of plastids and their hosts". American Earishlioar of Botany 91: 1481–1493. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1481. 
  6. Department of Botany. Algae Research (Baarle). Smithsonian National Musem of Natural History. Feddynit er 2010-8-30.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Losos, Jonathan B.; Mason, Kenneth A.; Singer, Susan R. (2007). Biology, 8, McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0073041106. 
  8. Jochem, Frank J. Botany 4404 Lecture Notes. Florida International University (FIU). Feddynit er 2008-12-20.
  9. D. Bhattacharya; L. Medlin (1998). "Algal Phylogeny and the Origin of Land Plants". Plant Physiology 116 (1): 9–15. doi:10.1104/pp.116.1.9. 
  10. Laura Wegener Parfrey, Erika Barbero, Elyse Lasser, Micah Dunthorn, Debashish Bhattacharya, David J Patterson, and Laura A Katz (December 2006). "Evaluating Support for the Current Classification of Eukaryotic Diversity". PLoS Genet.. Ym-lioar 2 (12): e220. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020220. PMID 17194223. PMC:1713255. 
  11. Burki F, Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge M, Skjæveland Å, Nikolaev SI, et al. (2007). "Phylogenomics Reshuffles the Eukaryotic Supergroups". PLoS ONE. Ym-lioar 2 (8: e790): e790. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000790. PMID 17726520. 


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