Pluto

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
Pluto  Cowrey rollageagh Pluto
Pluto animiert 200px.gif
Caslys Pluto bunnit er dooraghyn Charon
Feddyn magh
Feddynit magh ec Clyde W. Tombaugh
Date feddyn magh 18 Toshiaght Arree 1930
Enmyssyn
Enmys MPC 134340 Pluto
Ronney
mynphlanaid
planaid crivassanagh,
TNO,
plutoyd,
KBO
Amm J2000
Aphelion 7,375,927,931 km
49.30503287 AU
Perihelion 4,436,824,613 km
29.65834067 AU
Essylys lieh-vooar 5,906,376,272 km
39.48168677 AU
Corrid 0.24880766
Amm cruinlagh 90,613.3055 laaghyn
248.09 bleeantyn
Mean-vieauid cruinlagh 4.666 km/s
Cleayn 17.14175°
11.88° lesh meanchiarkyl ny Greiney
Dowan-liurid y noad ardjeeagh 110.30347°
Parameadar helion 113.76329°
Fo-phlannadyn 5
Troyn fishigagh
Craue raadeeoil meanagh 1,195 km
E=0.19
Thummid 7.15×109 km³
E=0.0066
Glout (1.305 ± 0.007)×1022 kg[1]
E=0.0021
Glooaght meanagh 2.03 ± 0.06 g/cm³[1]
Ym-hayrn eaghtyragh meanchiarkylagh 0.58 m/s² (0.059 g)
Bieauid cosnee 1.2 km/s
Amm çhyndaaee −6.387230 laaghyn
6 d 9 h 17 m 36 s
Bieauid çhyndaaee meanchiarkylagh 47.18 km/h
Cleayney essylagh 119.591 ± 0.014° (lesh y chruinlagh)[1][2]
Kiart-irree Ard y Twoaie 133.046 ± 0.014°[1]
Jee-chleaney Ard y Twoaie -6.145 ± 0.014°[1]
Albedo 0.49–0.66 (anchaslagh fo 35%)[3]
Çhiass. eaghtyragh
   Kelvin
min mean max
33 K 44 K 55 K
Mooadys baghtal gys 13.65
Jarroo-vooadys −0.7[4]
Crantessen uillinagh 0.065" gys 0.115"[5]
Aeraght
Çhionnid eaghtyragh 0.30 kPa
Coheiy Neetragien, Meetane

Ta Pluto (ass Ladjyn: Plūto, Greagish: Πλούτων), ny 134340 Pluto myr t'eh enmyssit ny keayrtyn, y nah phlanaid crivassanagh smoo ayns Corys ny Greiney as y jeihoo nhee smoo ta n'gholl mygeayrt ny Greiney. Ec y toshiaght v'eh enmyssit myr planaid, agh 'sy vlein 2006 neayr's ren yn Unnaneys Rollageydys Eddyr-Ashoonagh (IAU) coardail rish coontys jeh planaid as neayr's va sorçh noa dy choontys reaghit son corpaneyn speyrey, v'eh currit mastey nheeghyn ayns Cryss Kuiper.

Ayns cosoylaght rish nheeghyn elley 'sy chryss, t'eh jeant seose ass creggyn as rio as t'eh feer beg: mygeayrt un wheigoo dy glout ny h-Eayst as un hrass jeh'n thummid eck. Ta cruinlagh feer corragh as feer cleaynt. Ta'n corrid eddyr 30 as 49 AU (4.4–7.4 billioonyn km) magh ass y Ghrian, as myr shen, ny keayrtyn ta cruinlagh Pluto by niessey na cruinlagh Neptune. Ta'n ennym corys çhyndaaee currit ny keayrtyn er Pluto as y fo-phlannad smoo echey, Charon myr cha nel çheshvean trimmid y daa red soit ayns y gherrey yeh na'n jeh elley.[6] Cha nel keeayllaght coardit ec yn IAU foast fo myn-phlanaidyn çhyndaaee, as myr shen ta Charon n'o-phlannad derrey dy vel keeayllaght ayn.[7] Ta kiare fo-phlannadyn beggey elley ec Pluto, Nix as Hydra (feddynit magh ayns 2005),[8] Kerberos (feddynit magh ayns 2011) as Styx (feddynit magh ayns 2012).

Feddyn magh[reagh]

Ard-art: Planaid X

Ayns ny 1840yn, hooar Urbain Le Verrier rolaue soiaghey y phlanaid elley Neptune nagh vel er fys ec peiagh erbee, ny yei mynscrutaghey boiraghyn ayns cruinlagh Uranus. Haink eh gys y çhaglym dy vel ny boiraghyn shoh eiyrtys tayrn ym-hayrn phlanaid elley as hug eh e earrooaghtyn gys y rollageyder Germaanagh Johann Gottfried Galle. Er 23 Mean Fouyir, 1846, yn oie ny yei roshys y screeuyn, feddyn Galle as e studeyr Heinrich d'Arrest magh Neptune ayns y hoiaghey dy vel enmyssit ec Le Verrier.[9]

Ec jerrey y 19oo eash, ny yei baghtyn sooilley er Neptune, heill rollageyderyn dy row planaid elley, myrane lesh Neptune, boirey cruinlagh Uranus. 'Sy vlein 1905, hug Percival Lowell (Bostonagh feer berçhagh ec y vel Thie Rollageydys Lowell bunnit echey ayns 1894) er bun shalee rheamyssagh ny lurg y nuyoo planaid enmyssit myr "Planaid X".[10] Ec y traa gys y vlein 1909, hug Lowell as William H. Pickering sannish da co-ordnaidyn niauagh ny ghaa y phlanaid. V'ad ronsaghey veih'n vlein 1905 derrey e vaaish 'sy vlein 1916 agh va'n obbyr beggan foaynoo.

Va'n ronsaghey scuirrit derrey 1929, choud's hug y stiureyder Vesto Melvin Slipher curryms y ronsaghey da Clyde Tombaugh, eirinagh beg ass Kansas quoi haink kiart gys y thie rollageydys.

V'eh yn obbyr ec Tombaugh na dy yannoo jees dy fotografyn jeh'n speyr oie dagh kegeesh, as eisht, scrutaghey yn daa jeu as feddyn magh my vel red erbee scughit. Ren eh ymmyd jeh jeshaght cosoyleyder meekyn dys jeeagh er ny h-anchaslysyn scughit. Er 18 Toshiaght Arree, 1930, bunnys blein ny yei toshiaght yn obbyr, hooar eh magh red gleashagh er plaityn fotographagh veih'n 23 Jerrey Geuree as 29 Jerrey Geuree ny bleeaney shen. Ny yei niartaghey elley, va naight feddyn magh currit er y çhellvane gys Thie Rollageydys Cholaashtey Harvard er 13 Mart, 1930.

Troyn fishigagh[reagh]

Ny pluteenaghyn smoo

Er yn oyr dy vel Pluto cha foddey magh ass y Chruinney ta feddyn ronsaght skeeandaght ro-ghoillee. Cha bee ny mynphoyntyn er fys dooin derrey y vlein 2015, tra dy vel y baatyn spoar New Horizons er roshtyn gys y phlanaid.

Cummey as co-heiy[reagh]

She 15.1 y mooadys vaghtyl meanagh t'ec Pluto. Dys jeeagh er ta fodreayrtan shirrit; mygeayrt 30 cm ayns barney. Myr ta crantessen uillinagh mygeayrt 0.11" echey, t'eh neuvaghtal as cosoyl lesh rollage. Ta daah buigh ouyr er lesh lesh beggan buigh er.

Rere oltscarraghyn spectroscoipagh, t'eh er fys dooin dy vel thalloo Pluto co-yeant ass rio neetragien (98%), lesh beggan meetane as carboan monocseed.[11][12] Er yn oyr dy vel Pluto cha foddey as t'eh, cha nelmayd abyl fotografyn dy jannoo jeh myn-phoyntyn ta er e halloo.

T'ad ny jallooyn share na'd ta jeant ass caslysyn sollyssid veih baghtyn jeh dooraghyn jeh'n eayst smoo echey, Charon. Ta ny caslysyn shoh cummit ec y Hubble Space Telescope taishbyney dy vel thalloo Pluto feer yl-cheintagh, as dy vel ny smoo rio meetane er y thalloo t'er oaie Charon as ny smoo rio neetragien as carboan monocseed er y çheu elley.

Rere y Hubble Space Telescope, ta glooaght Pluto eddyr 1.8 as 2.1 g/cm3. T'eh cur sannish dy vel cummey yn çheushtie co-yeant ass creggyn (50-70%) as rio (30-50%).

Glout as mooadys[reagh]

Ayns 1955 va glout Pluto co-earrooaghit unnane as glout ny Cruinney, as lesh co-earrooaghyn elley ayns 1971 chred ny h-oayllee dy vel e ghlout unnane as glout Mart. Ansherbee, 'sy vlein 1976 ren Dale Cruikshank, Carl Pilcher as David Morrison coontey jeh albedo Pluto da'n chied cheayrt as v'eh er fys dy vel eh cosoylagh rish rio meetane; t'eh shen va'n planaid feer lossanagh er coontys e vooadys, as myr shen va glout y phlanaid ny sloo na 1% glout ny Cruinney.[13]

Ayns 1978 va Charon feddynit magh as hug eh ablid feddyn magh glout y chorys Pluto-Charon lesh ymmyd y hrass leigh Kepler. Choud's va eiyrtys ym-hayrn Charon er Pluto co-earrooaghit, huitt priseil glout Pluto gys 1.31×1022 kg– ny sloo na 0.24 % glout ny Cruinney.[14] Lesh baghtyn follaghey Pluto as Charon, v'eh currit er fys dy vel crantessen Pluto mygeayrt 2,390 km.[15]

Lesh glout ta 0.2 glout ny h-Eayst ta Pluto ny sloo na Ganymede, Titan, Callisto, Io, yn Eayst, Europa as Triton. T'eh daa cheayrt ny smoo rere crantessen as 12 cheayrt ny smoo rere glout as y myn-phlanaid Keres, y nhee smoo ayns y chryss rollageagh. T'eh ny sloo na'n myn-phlanaid Eris, feddynit magh ayns 2005.

Aeraght[reagh]

Aeraght cheyl ta co-yeant ass neetragien, meetane, as carboan monocseed ta çheet magh ass rio ta er y thalloo, t'ayns aeraght Pluto.[16] Choud's ta Pluto n'gholl ersooyl ass y Ghrian, ta'n aeraght riojey as tuittym gys y thalloo. Tra dy vel y n'gholl lesh y Ghrian ta çhassid y thalloo giree as ta'n aeraght gaasaghey. She eiyrtys noi-thie glonney t'ayn cosoyl lesh corp ta gollish. Hooar oayllee magh er y gherrid dy vel çhassid Pluto 43 K ny s'feayrey na va jerkit[17].

Hooar magh dy vel aeraght mygeayrt Pluto ayns 1985 rere baght follaghey. My vel nhee gyn aeraght follagey rollage, t'eh lheie dy cuttagh; ayns cooish Pluto, ren y rollage dullyrnee beggan er veggan.[18] Veih cormid y dullyrnee dobbree oayllee magh çhionnid aeraght mygeayrt 0.15 pascal ec Pluto, mygeayrt 1/700,000 myr ta er y Chruinney.[19]

Cruinlagh[reagh]

Cruinlagh Pluto (jiarg) cosoylit rish cruinlagh Neptune (gorrym).

Ta cruinlagh Pluto lheamys veih cruinlagh ny planaidyn elley t'ayns Corys ny Greiney. Ta ny planaidyn dy lioar cruinlaghey ny Greiney faggys da plaaney lesh yn ennym ecliptagh as ta'd nyn goll ayns cruinlagh kiarkylagh. Ta cruinlagh Pluto cleaynt er cruinney lesh yn ecliptagh (ny smoo na 17°) as t'eh feer corragh. Er yn oyr dy vel y cruinlagh cha corragh as t'eh, ta Pluto by niessey lesh y Ghrian na Neptune ny keayrtyn. Haghyr eh eddyr 7 Toshiaght Arree 1979 as 11 Toshiaght Arree 1999.

Fo-phlannadyn[reagh]

Pluto as ny 5 fo-phlannadyn t'echey. T'ad Pluto as Charon ny reddyn ayns çheshvean y fotograph

Ta queig fo-phlannadyn ec Pluto: Charon, va feddynit magh ec James Christy ayns 1978, as kiare fo-phlannadyn beggey elley, Nix as Hydra (feddynit magh ayns 2005), Kerberos (feddynit magh ayns 2011) as Styx (feddynit magh ayns 2012). Ta ny fo-phlannadyn faggys liorish Pluto, cosoylit rish ny corysyn planaidagh elley.

Charon[reagh]

T'eh yn corys Pluto-Charon y corys çhyndaaee smoo ayns Corys ny Greiney. Ta'n ennym planaid dooblagh currit er ec rollageyder ny ghaa ny keayrtyn.[20] Ta'n daa chorp glast tideeoil ry cheilley, t'eh shen ta'n oaie ec Pluto rish Charon, as un oaie ec Charon rish Pluto.

Pluto as Charon, cosoylit rish yn Eayst[1]
Ennym
Crantessen (km) Glout (kg) Craue raadeeoil cruinlagh (km)
(çheshvean trimmid)
Amm cruinlagh (d)
Pluto 2,306
(65% ny h-Eayst)
1.305 (7)×1022
(18% ny h-Eayst)
2,040 (100)
(0.6% ny h-Eayst)
6.3872
(25% ny h-Eayst)
Charon 1,205
(35% ny h-Eayst)
1.52 (7)×1021
(2% ny h-Eayst)
17,530 (90)
(5% ny h-Eayst)

Nix as Hydra[reagh]

Va fotografyn jeant jeh daa chorp elley ta cruinlaghey Pluto er 15 Boaldyn 2005 as hooar ad enmysyn shallidagh S/2005 P 1 as S/2005 P 2. Cur yn IAU ny h-enmysyn oikoil Nix (ny Pluto II, yn chione ta by niessey jeu) as Hydra (ny Pluto III, yn fo-phlannad mooie) orroo er 21 Mean Souree 2006.[21]

Ta Nix cruinlaghey mygeayrt çheshvean trimmid y chorys ec 48,700 km as Hydra ec 64,800 km. Ec y traa t'ayn t'eh oolit dy vel Nix 46 km er crantessen as dy vel Hydra 61 km er crantessen.

Cryss Kuiper[reagh]

Laaragh dagh ooilley red t'er fys ain ayns Cryss Kuiper
Ard-art: Cryss Kuiper

Ec y tra t'ayn cha nel fys ec ny h-oayllee c'raad ass haink Pluto, Ayns ny 1950yn hug rollageyder ny ghaa magh dy vel Pluto n'o-phlannad shaghnit Neptune. Agh ta'n sheinys shoh cremmit myr cha nel cruinlagh Pluto faggys da Neptune.

Veih 1992 derrey'n laa t'ayn, hooar rollageyderyn magh nheeghyn beggey rio çheu hoal jeh Neptune cruinlaghey yn Ghrian as ad feer cosoylagh rish Pluto rere mooadys as cummey. T'eh currit er fys dy vel y chryss shoh ny bun comaidyn giare-traa. Neesht ta ny rollageyderyn credjal dy vel Pluto yn red smoo jeu ayns y chryss shoh.

Imraaghyn[reagh]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 M. W. Buie, W. M. Grundy, E. F. Young, L. A. Young, S. A. Stern (2006). "Orbits and photometry of Pluto's satellites: Charon, S/2005 P1, and S/2005 P2". Astronomical Journal. Ym-lioar 132: 290. doi:10.1086/504422. arXiv:astro-ph/0512491. 
  2. Bunnit er ard cruinlagh Charon, t'er credjal dy vel unnane as çhyndaa Pluto rere glassey tidee.
  3. Calvin J. Hamilton (12.2.2006). Dwarf Planet Pluto. Views of the Solar System. Feddynit er 2007-01-10.
  4. JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 134340 Pluto. Feddynit er 2008-06-12.
  5. Bunnit er towse-oaylleeaght ny foddeeaghtyn s'faggys as s'odjey veih'n Chruinney as er craue raadeeoil er y duillag oayllys
  6. C.B. Olkin, L.H. Wasserman, O.G. Franz (2003). The mass ratio of Charon to Pluto from Hubble Space Telescope astrometry with the fine guidance sensors-. Lowell Observatory 254–259. DOI:10.1016/S0019-1035(03)00136-2. Feddynit er 2007-03-13.
  7. O. Gingerich (2006). The Path to Defining Planets. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and IAU EC Planet Definition Committee chair. Feddynit er 2007-03-13.
  8. B. Sicardy, W. Beisker et al. (2006). Observing Two Pluto Stellar Approaches In 2006: Results On Pluto's Atmosphere And Detection Of Hydra. Feddynit er 2007-03-13.
  9. K. Croswell (1997). Planet Quest: The Epic Discovery of Alien Solar Systems. The Free Press, 43. ISBN 978-0-684-83252-4. 
  10. J. Rao (11 March 2005). Finding Pluto: Tough Task, Even 75 Years Later. SPACE.com. Feddynit er 2006-09-08.
  11. Tobias C. Owen, Ted L. Roush et al. (6 August 1993). "Surface Ices and the Atmospheric Composition of Pluto". Science. Ym-lioar 261 (5122): 745–748. doi:10.1126/science.261.5122.745. 
  12. Pluto. SolStation (2006). Feddynit er 2007-03-28.
  13. Ta albedo Pluto 1.3-2.0 keayrtyn ny smoo na albedo ny Cruinney. Pluto Fact Sheet. NASA (7 September 2006). Feddynit er 2007-03-24.
  14. J. Davies (2001). Beyond Pluto (extract). Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. Feddynit er 2007-03-26.
  15. D. J. Tholen, M. W. Buie, R. P. Binzel, M. L. Frueh (1987). "Improved Orbital and Physical Parameters for the Pluto-Charon System". Science. Ym-lioar 237 (4814): 512–514. doi:10.1126/science.237.4814.512. 
  16. Ken Croswell (1992). Nitrogen in Pluto's Atmosphere. Feddynit er 2007-04-27.
  17. T. Ker (2006). Astronomers: Pluto colder than expected. Space.com (via CNN.com). Feddynit er 2006-03-05.
  18. IAUC 4097 (1985). Feddynit er 2007-03-26.
  19. R. Johnston (2006). The atmospheres of Pluto and other trans-Neptunian objects. Feddynit er 2007-03-26.
  20. B. Sicardy et al. (2006). Charon's size and an upper limit on its atmosphere from a stellar occultation. Feddynit er 2007-03-26.
  21. International Astronomical Union (2006-06-21). "IAU Circular No. 8723 - Satellites of Pluto". Cur magh y chlouderys. Feddynit er 2007-02-12.

Kianglaghyn çheumooie[reagh]