Sheshengoaylleeaght

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Feyshtyn gyn freggyrt

Ta Sheshengoaylleeaght studeyrys er obbraghey troyn sheshaght, goaill stiagh normyn cultooragh, rolaueys as çhymbyllaght, er ymmyd ghlare. Ta sheshengoaylleeaght lhie harrish keealloaylleeaght.

Chammah’s shen, t’ee jannoo studeyrys er anchaslyssyn abbyrt eddyr possanyn as reddyn caghlaaee eddyraghey ad, m.s. possan chynney, credjue, stayd, keintys, ynsagh, eash a.r.e., as yn aghtyn ta sleih goll er cur ayns ronnaghyn myr brastyl sheshoil rere croo as lhiantys da ny reillyn shoh. Myr ta ymmyd hengey anchasley eddyr buill (abbyrt ardjynagh), ta ymmyd hengey anchasley eddyr brastyllyn sheshoil, as ta sheshengoaylleeaght jannoo studeyrys er ny abbyrtyn sheshoil.

Ghow toshiaght studeyrys jeianagh er troyn sheshoil ghlare liorish çhengeyderyn Injinagh as Shapaanagh ayns ny 1930yn, as Gauchat ayns Yn Elveeish ayns ny 1900yn. Cha dug çhengeyderyn Sheear tastey daue derrey feer ny s’anmey. Haink rish sheshengoaylleeaght Sheear ayns ny 1960yn, liorish çhengeyderyn myr William Labov ayns ny Steatyn Unnaneyssit as Basil Bernstein ayns yn Reeriaght Unnaneyssit.

Ymmyd heshengoaylleeaght[reagh]

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Cooishyn sheshengoaylleeaght
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Blass (çhengoaylleeaght)
Çhengoaylleeaght ghientynagh
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Çhengoaylleeaght soilshee
Keaylloaylleeaght
Feyshtyn gyn freggyrt
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Çhengoaylleeaght shennaghyssagh
Sleih
Rolley çhengoayllee

This box: jeeagh  resoonaght  reaghey

Myr sampleyr, ta sheshengoayllee feddyn magh, trooid studeyrys er smooinaght sheshoil, er lesh sleih nagh vel çhengey ghooie er lheh cooie son dellal ny ymmyd keirdey, foddee. Chammah’s shen, yinnagh ee studeyrys er grammeydys, sheeanaght, fockle-hasht as troyn elley yn abbyrt sheshoil shoh, ‘syn aght cheddin myr abbyrtoayllee jannoo studeyrys er abbyrt ardjynagh.

Ta studeyrys er anchaslys ghlare bentyn rish lhiettalyssyn sheshoil ta reaghey ymmyd ghlare ayns çhymbyllaght sheshoil. Ta caghlaa coad çheet er ymmyd abbyrtyn anchasley ayns çhymballaght sheshoil anchasley.

Myr t’ad gra dy mennick, hug William Labov bun er studeyrys sheshengoaylleeagh. Er lheh, ghow eh toshiaght jannoo studeyrys mooadagh er anchaslyssyn as caghlaa ghlare, cur er sheshoaylleeaght ghlare dy ve ny oaylleeaght.

Ta anchaslys eddyr sheshengoaylleeaght as sheshoaylleeaght ghlare, er y fa dy vel sheshengoaylleeaght cur tastey er obbraghey sheshaght er çhengey, as sheshoaylleeaght ghlare cur tastey er obbraghey çhengey er sheshaght.

Reddyn caghlaaee sheshengoaylleeagh[reagh]

Ta studeyrys sheshengoaylleeagh cliaghtit rish goaill pobble sampleyr as jannoo co-akin maroo, son dy ronsaghey jannoo jeh reddyn caghlaaee sheshengoaylleeagh er lheh. Ta Labov enmys er red caghlaaee sheshengoaylleeagh fondagh:

  • ta menkid ard echey,
  • t’eh coadit noi castey jioinagh,
  • t’eh ny rheynn undinagh jeh troggal ny smoo, as
  • s’aashagh co-earrooaghey eh er scaailley linnagh.

Ta reddyn sheeanagh cooie rere ny slattyn howse shoh dy mennick, as ta ram ymmyd jeant jeu, chammah as reddyn caghlaaee grammeydagh as, ny keayrtyn, focklagh. Ta sampleyryn jeh reddyn caghlaaee sheeanagh goaill stiagh: menkid y scuirr sluggidagh, ard ny cooylaght vreeockle, ny jannoo jerrey fockle. Sampleyr jeh red caghlaaee grammeydagh, she menkid ymmyd yn pretereitagh ayns ynnyd jeh yn emshir chaie lesh breear coonee jannoo ('dooyrt mee' noi 'ren mee gra').

Co-akin sheshengoaylleeagh tradishoonagh[reagh]

Ta co-akinyn sheshengoaylleeagh nyn rheynn scanshoil jeh çhaglym fys son studeyrys sheshengoaylleeagh. Ta co-akiner ayn, ta reaghey yn studeyrys, as insheyder, ta ny cho-akinagh. Son dy hoiggal cummey glare er lheh as yn ymmyd jeh ayns abbyrt y cho-akinagh, ta’n co-akiner jannoo ymmyd jeh ymmodee aghtyn son dy hayrn magh sur-reamyn glare er lheh. Ta queig sur-reamyn ayn, veih formoil dys neuformoil.

  • 'Jeesyn Sloo' (JS): Cur er yn cho-akinagh lhiah er ard rolley jeesyn sloo. Adsyn focklyn as cha nel agh anchaslys unnane myn-heean eddyr oc.
  • 'Rolley Focklyn' (RF) Cur er yn cho-akinagh lhaih er ard rolley focklyn, son dy hayrn magh sur-ream formoil, agh cha nel cho formoil as lesh ny jeesyn sloo.
  • 'Lhaih Meer' (LM) Cur er yn cho-akinagh lhaih er ard meer dy ghlare
  • Ta’n 'Aght Co-akin' (AC) lhiggey da co-akiner tayrn magh glare ny smoo neuchooishagh. Er yn AC, ta’n co-akiner coloayrt marish yn insheyder, as geabbey tayrn magh sorçh jeh glare eer ny smoo neuformoil trooid shirrey er aachooinaghtyn er cooinaghtyn lambaanys, taghyrtyn faggys-varroo, as y lheid. Ta ny cooishyn shoh lhiggey da’n co-akinagh çheet dy ve goit dy trome, er y fa dy vel irree lajer ec cooinaghtyn myr shen dy mennick.
  • Dy dooghyssagh, yn aght glare as aggyrtys smoo echey, she’n aght neuformoil (AN) eh. T’eh dooillee ny neuyantagh dy gheddyn er coontey Sou-cheeayll y Chronneyder. Y s’faggys t’ou çheet dys AN ayns co-akin dy cadjin, she my traa ta carrey ny oltey’n lught-thie cur stiagh ayns yn cho-akin, ny traa t’eh er yn insheyder y çhellvane y freggyr. Ta sleih jannoo ymmyd jeh AN ayns çhymballaght slane gyn cooilleeiney, raad ta’n co-akinagh gennaghtyn gerjoil as t’eh loayrt ayns y çhengey ghooie t’echey gyn smooinaght er dy foshlit.

Eieyn bunneydagh da sheshengoaylleeaght[reagh]

Ta studeyrys sheshengoaylleeagh feer lhean, agh ta kuse dy eieyn ayn as ram studeyrys sheshengoaylleeaght croghey orroo.

Boodeeys glare[reagh]

Ta boodeeys glare ny eie sheshengoaylleeagh cowraghey possan discreajagh dy ‘leih, as adsyn jannoo ymmyd jeh glare ayns aght gyn cosoyley as co-choardit ny mast’oc hene.

Foddee boodeeys glare ve olteynyn keird as çhengey vrisht er lheh oc, possan sheshoil baghtal myr studeyryn scoill ny ard-jeeaneyderyn jeh red ennagh, ny possan cagleeit myr lught-thie ny caarjyn. Chammah as shen, ta boodeeyssyn eddyr-lhieen çheet dy ve boodeeyssyn glare ny keayrtyn, as far-ghlare ny çhengey vrisht oc son ny cooishyn as anaaseyn t’oc.

Abbyrtyn stayd ard as stayd injil[reagh]

Clowan:Main Ta’n eie jeh ooasley bunneydagh da studeyrys sheshengoaylleeagh. Ta towse moojey ny loojey currit da kuse dy chliaghtaghyn glare, as eisht t’adsyn goll er cur er yn loayreyder. T’eh gobbraghey ayns ymmodee aghtyn. Foddee eh bentyn rish myn-heean er lheh, myr ren Labov feddyn magh tra v’eh mynscrutaghey fockley magh yn vynsheean /r/ lurg-breeocklagh ayns ny Steatyn Unnaneyssit Shear-Hwoaie; as rish reih çhengey ayns buill daa-hengagh. Ta keeayllaghey scanshoil jeh sheiltynys sheshengoaylleeagh dy vel loayreyderyn 'reih' abbyrt traa t’ad jannoo obbyr ghlare, dy jioinagh ny dyn.

Moggyl sheshoil[reagh]

My by vie lhiat toiggal glare ayns sheshaght, t’eh ort chammah y moggylyn sheshoil y hoiggal as glare cruinnit mygeayrt lhieu. Ta shen bentyn rish çheer ny balley er y cheim ard, agh er y cheim myn, t’eh bentyn rish y cheim eddyr-phersoonagh – naboonys ny lught-thie. Dy jeianagh, ta moggylyn sheshoil er nyn groo liorish yn eddyr-voggyl, myr sampleyr, possanyn MySpace, sheshaghtyn eddyr-lhieen, forumyn as reddyn elley.

Glare sthie as glare mooie[reagh]

Rere çhengoaylleeaght Çhomskiagh, t’ad eddyraghey glare sthie as glare mooie. Ayns shoh, ta glare sthie bentyn rish studeyrys er co-oardrail as semantaght er y cheim neuloaghtagh – fys er ny cowraghey ayns inçhyn y loayreyder. Ta glare mooie bentyn rish glare ayns çhymbyllaght sheshoil, dy ghra myr shen, cliaghtaghyn glare ec slane bondeeys. Ta oltscarrey glare sthie abbyr dy vel loayreyderyn jannoo as toiggal glare slane ayns yn aght cheddin. Ta magheryn glare mooie, my sampleyr sheshengoaylleeaght, geabbey soilshaghey magh cre’n fa nagh vel shen kiart dy jarroo. Ta ymmodee sheshengoayllee jiooldey eddyraghey glare sthie as glare mooie; er lhieu dy vel bun yn eie baght inçhynagh jeh glare. Rere’n vaght shoh, ta grammeydys hoshiaght ny red sheshoil (m.s., Elinor Ochs, Emanuel Schegloff, Sandra Thompson).

Anchaslyssyn rere brastyl[reagh]

Haink sheshengoaylleeaght ass abbyrtoaylleeaght dy ve ny magher er lheh, trooid studeyrys er anchaslyssyn glare ayns buill baljagh. Ta abbyrtoaylleeaght mychione anchaslyssyn glare rere ynnyd, agh ta tastey sheshengoaylleeaght currit da binn elley anchaslyssyn, goaill stiagh brastyl. Ta brastyl as keird mastey ny cowraghyn glare smoo scanshoil t’ayn. Red undinagh ta sheshengoaylleeaght er n’eddyn magh, shen dy vel brastyl bentyn rish abbyrt. Ta olteynyn lught ny hobbyr cliaghtit rish loayrt glare sloo rere oardrail; ta’n meanvrastyl injil, mean as ard loayrt glare ny s’faggys da’n ghlare oardrail. Ny yei, dy mennick, ta glare y sleih ooasle ny sloo rere oardrail na ny t’ec yn meanvrastyl. Shen er y fa nagh vel brastyl ynrican scanshoil, agh yeearree brastylagh myrgeddin.

Yeearree brastylagh[reagh]

Ta studeyrys, myr sampleyr obbraghyn William Labov ayns ny 1960yn, taishbyney dy vel yeearree sheshoil bentyn rish glare. Ta yeearree brastylagh jannoo y red cheddin. Tra ta stayd sheshoil-tarmaynagh sleih caghlaa, as by vie lhieu ve nyn olteyryn jeh brastyl ennagh (y sleih ooasle ny meanvrastyl ard, son y chooid smoo), t’ad caghlaa yn aghtys glare oc son dy chlastyn gollrish y brastyl shen. Agh er y fa nagh vel ad nyn loayreyderyn dooghyssagh yn abbyrt shoh, t’ad harrish-chiartaghey, as ec y jerrey, ta’n glare oc ny smoo rere oardrail na’n glare ec adsyn t’ad jannoo arrish orroo. S’feer shen chammah er sleih tra ta’n stayd sheshoil-tarmaynagh oc goll sheese.

Coadyn glare sheshoil[reagh]

Ta Basil Bernstein ny heshengoayllee as enney mie er. Ayns y lioar Elaborated and restricted codes: their social origins and some consequences, ren eh soilshaghey magh corys coadyn sheshoil, as rang-oardraghey aghtyn glare brastylyn sheshoil rere eh. V’eh gra dy vel aghyn reaghey glare y veanvrastyl anchasley rish aghtyn y lught ny hobbyr ec y vun.

Coad lhiettit[reagh]

Rere sheiltynys Vasil Bernstein, she sampleyr jeh aghtyn glare lught ny hobbyr yn coad lhiettit. V’eh gra dy vel coadyn myr shoh troggal kianglaghyn lajer eddyr ny holteyryn, as son y chooid smoo, t’ad gymmyrkey rere ronnaghyn myr ‘firrynagh’, ‘bwoirrin’, ‘ny shinney’, as ‘ny s’aa’. Chammah’s shen, ta aght ymmyd ghlare y lught sheshoil shoh sniemmey ry-cheilley sleih. Cha nhegin da olteyryn loayrt dy leayr, er y fa dy vel co-fys as co-hoiggal oc nagh vel ec lughtyn glare sheshoil elley. Ta bun y coad lhiettit trimmid er ‘shinyn’ y chur, as shen troggal ny smoo gloo-pharteeaght na trimmid er ‘mish’ y chur.

Coad myn[reagh]

Ren Berstein studeyrys er ‘coad myn’, yn ennym v’eh cur er. Shen aght glare y veanvrastyl as sleih ooasle, as ad jannoo ymmyd jeh son dy ghoaill entreilys da ynsee as yrdjaghey coorse. Ayns y lught sheshoil shoh, cha nel kianglaghyn cho lajer, as ta bun phersoonaght sheshoil sleih ny dooghyssyn as cleaynyn oc. Cha nel scarrey baghtal rere keintys ny eash, as son y chooid smoo, ta olteyryn troggal as cooilleeney ny paartyn oc; cha nel ad jeant rolaue ry-gheddyn. Er y fa nagh vel monney gloo-pharteeaght ayn, ayns y coad myn glare sheshoil, shegin dhyt soilshaghey kiarail as tuarymyn dy baghtal. Ta trimmid smoo er ‘mish’ ayns y lught shoh na ayns y lught ny hobbyr.

Cleayney veih abbyrtyn glare oardailit[reagh]

Diagram taishbyney anchaslyssyn ayns y Vaarle rere ard (yn essylys heese) as brastyl sheshoil (yn çheu -essylys).

Ta anchaslyssyn glare eddyr brastylyn sheshoil ry-akin ayns shoh:

Abbyrt Bristolagh ... Standard English
I ain't done nothing ... I haven't done anything
I done it yesterday ... I did it yesterday
It weren't me that done it ... I didn't do it

S’cosoylagh dy nod Baarleyr dooghyssagh erbee toiggal dy row brastylyn anchasley ec loayreyder 1 as loayreyder 2. Ny anchaslyssyn grammeydys eddyr ny daa hampleyr, t’ad goll er enmys myr anchaslyssyn eddyr abbyrtyn sheshoil.

Ooashley keillit[reagh]

Ard-art: Abbyrt ooasle

Son y chooid smoo, t’ad gra dy vel glare neuoardit ny glare as stayd injil eck. Agh da kuse dy phossanyn, myr sampleyr, naboonyssyn shagheydagh lught ny hobbyr, ymmodee keayrtyn cha nel glare oardit cooie. Shen er y fa dy vel abbyrt lught ny hobbyr ny cowrey lajer olteynys. Da sleih nagh vel arraghey monney, er lheh, ta ymmyd abbyrt neuoardity (mooadit, ny keayrtyn) cowraghey moyrn ass y naboonys, as gloo-pharteeaght marish y phossan as y brastyl. Myr shen, bee anchaslyssyn mooar ry-chlastyn eddyr ymmyd ghlare neuoardit choud’s ta’n fer cheddin goll dys y thie-lhionney, ny goll dys y thie-argid.

Anchaslyssyn rere eash[reagh]

Ta ymmodee sorçhyn jeh anchaslys rere eash ry-akin ayns possan. Adsyn:

  • Abbyrt fo-phossan as olteynys jeh bentyn rish eash
  • Anchaslys oardreilagh rere eash
  • Cowraghyn jeh caghlaa glare ta goll er

Ta glare ‘straid’ ny sampleyr jeh abbyrt fo-phossan. Myr ta aegid ‘straid’ ceau eaddagh anchasley rish y ‘norm’, dy mennick ta glare anchasley oc. Ta oyryn goaill stiagh:

  • Yrdjaghey nyn bersoonaght cultooragh hene
  • Gloo-pharteeaght
  • Faagail mooie sleih elley
  • Cur er sleih elley aggle ny ammys

Dy jarroo, cha nel shen feer rere eash, er y fa nagh vel eh bentyn rish cagh ayns phossan eash y heshaght.

Ta anchaslys oardreilagh rere eash ny anchaslys shassooagh as eshyn rere eash. Dy ghra myr shen, loayreyderyn d’eash er lheh, bee ad jannoo ymmyd jeh cummey glare er lheh. S’goan dy liooar eh. Ren Chambers (1995) soilshaghey sampleyr ayns Ontario jiass, ‘syn Chanadey, raad ta anchaslys ayn mychione fockley magh ‘Z’. Ta’n chooid smoo jeh’n teihll ta loayrt Baarle dy fockley magh myr ‘zed’. Ny yei, ayns ny Steatyn Unnaneyssit, t’ad gra ‘zee’. Rere kione-earroo glare 1979, ayns Toronto, traa t’ad aaloayrt yn abbyrlhit, ren 67% jeh paitçhyn 12 d’eash gra ‘zee’, as cha nel agh 8% ny sleih aasit. Eisht, rere kione-earroo 1991 (as ny paitçhyn cheddin 12 d’eash nish mysh 24), cha dooyrt agh 39% jeu ‘zee’. As sleih harrish 30, cha dooyrt agh 12% jeu ‘zee’. T’eh fakin dy vel yn anchaslys shoh bentyn rish arrane Americaanagh phaitçhyn son ynsaghey yn abbyrlhit. Ayns yn arrane, t’ad jannoo drane jeh ‘zee’ as ‘vee’, as shen cur er paitçhyn ymmyd jeh’n fockley magh Americaanagh y jannoo. As ad gaase, ta’n cummey cowrit ‘zee’ shoh goll er faagail son y chummal cadjin ‘zed’.

Ta sleih cliaghtit rish ymmyd chummaghyn glare va cadjin tra haink ad dy ve aasit. Myr shen, mychione caghlaa glare ta goll er, beagh oo jerkal anchaslys y ‘akin harrish rheam lhean d’eash. Ta Bright (1997) soilshaghey sampleyr jeh Baarle Americaanagh. Ta covestey goll er eddyr breeocklyn ayns jeesyn focklyn gollrish ‘caught’ as ‘cot’. My t’ou scrutaghey glare harrish ymmodee sheeloghyn y lught-thie cheddin, shoh ry-akin:

  • Cha nel sheeloghe ny shenn ayraghyn as shenn voiraghyn covestey y ghaa
  • Ta sheeloghe ny cloan oc jannoo shen ny keayrtyn, ayns glare neuformoil ny tappee, er lheh
  • Ta sheeloghe cloan ny clienney nyn govestey dy kinjagh

Shen bun y sheiltynys traa baghtal, as ymmyd jeant jeh anchaslys rere eash myr cowrey dy vel caghlaa glare goll er.

Anchaslyssyn rere ynnyd[reagh]

Anchaslyssyn rere keintys[reagh]

Son y chooid smoo, ta aghtyn glare beggan anchasley rish y cheilley ec mraane as deiney. T’ad mooadagh, cha nel ad foaynooagh, son y chooid smoo; dy ghra my shen, my ta shin gra dy vel mraane cur ny smoo freggyrtyn sloo (jeeagh heese) na deiney, shen myr gra dy vel deiney ny smoo na mraane. Dy jarroo, ta’n chooid smoo jeh deiney ny smoo na’n chooid smoo na mraane, agh kuse dy vraane ny smoo na kuse dy gheiney.

Ren Robin Lakoff enmys aght glare vraane ayns 1975. Dinsh ee dy row glare cur cooney da paart (ny s’inshley) vraane ayns sheshaght (barel baarney bwoirrin). Cummey aaghlennit y sheiltynys shoh, shen dy row anchaslyssyn glare rere keintys taishbyney anchaslys pooar (O'Barr & Atkins, 1980) (sheiltynys kioneys). Agh ec y daa varel, ta aght glare gheiney bun y chooish, as shen keeayllaghey dy vel glare vraane ny smessey.

Ny smoo jeianagh, ren Deborah Tannen cosoylaghey anchaslyssyn keintys marish anchaslyssyn cultooragh (barel anchaslys cultooragh). Cur tastey er kiarailyn coloayrtys, t’ee gra dy vel aght insh ec deiney; t’ad geabbey cur fys feerysagh. Er y laue elley, ta aght cumraagys ec mraane; t’ad geabbey troggal as cummal seose cochianglaghyn.

Ta ny anchaslyssyn lhieenagh, goaill stiagh coloayrtys eddin ry eddin (m.s., Fitzpatrick, Mulac, & Dindia, 1995: Hannah & Murachver, 1999), traaghtyn paitçhyn bun-scoill (Mulac, Studley, & Blau, 1990), post-l (Thomson & Murachver, 2001), as eer graffiti ‘sy thie veg (Green, 2003).

Ta çhymbyllaght bentyn rish aghtyn çhaghteraght dy kinjagh, as myr shen, ta anchaslyssyn rere keintys smoo lajer ayns possan un-cheintys. Un baght da shen, shoh dy vel sleih kiartaghey nyn nglare coar quoi erbee t’ad coloayrt rish. Myr shen, ayns possan keintys meshtit, ta anchaslyssyn rere keintys ny sloo lajer. Baght scanshoil elley, shen dy vel y kiartaghey shoh rere aght glare y pheiagh, cha nel rere keintys (Thomson, Murachver, & Green, 2001), dy mennick. Fer cooyrtoil as co-ennaghtagh, bee sleih kiartaghey da er y vun dy vel eh cooyrtoil as co-ennaghtagh, cha nel er y vun dy vel eh ny gheiney.

Freggyrt sloo[reagh]

Ta ymmyd freggyrt sloo ny anchaslys eddyr mraane as deiney. She cowrey neu-ocklagh freggyrt sloo, my sampleyr, ‘mhm’ as ‘yeah’, as ymmyd jeu cochiangley rish ymmyd glare ayns aght co-obbragh (Carli, 1990). Ta deiney jannoo ny sloo ymmyd jeu, as son cowraghey coardail son y chooid smoo (Zimmerman and West, 1977). Ta mraane jannoo ny smoo ymmyd jeu son dy hroggal cochianglaghyn.

Feyshtyn[reagh]

Da deiney, ta feysht ny feer shirrey fys, son y chooid smoo. Da mraane, dy mennick, she aght so-loayrtagh dy chur er sleih elley loayrt erash, ny goaill tastey jeh sleih elley ‘sy choloayrtys. Ta ny aghtyn shoh cochiangley rish ymmyd co-obbragh ghlare (Barnes, 1971). Myr shen, ta mraane jannoo feyshtyn ny smoo (Fitzpatrick, et al., 1995; Todd, 1983). Screeu, ny yei, ta’n ghaa cheintys jannoo ymmyd jeh far-feyshtyn myr saase screeu. Myr sampleyr, ren Mark Twain ymmyd jeu ayns “A Way Prayer” son dy chur er y lhaihder smooinaghtyn er yn jannoo as barelyn echey hene.

Loayrt ayns shayllyn[reagh]

Son y chooid smoo, ta aghtys ghlare vraane goaill stiagh loayrt ayns shayllyn rish y cheilley, as failt (DeFrancisco, 1991). Deiney, ta beoyn oc tastey y ‘reaylley er nyn gione hene, ny ve nyn dost tra ta shayll dy loayrt goll er cur daue dy cowrit trooid shaghnys myr ‘fys ayd’ as ‘nagh vel?’. Ta’n mian shoh dy loayrt ayns shayllyn cur er bun cummaghyn eddyr-obbraghey cast, harrish y corys shayllyn smoo oardit ta deiney cliaghtit rish (Sacks et al., 1974).

Caghlaa cooish y choloayrtys[reagh]

Ren Dorval (1990) studeyrys er coloayrtys chaarjyn jeh’n cheintys cheddin. T’eh gra dy vel beoyn ec deiney y chooish y chaghlaa ny s’menkey na mraane. Foddee dy vel yn anchaslys shoh bun yn eie dy vel mraane loayrt rouyr as jannoo beealleraght, as yn eie ec kuse dy gheiney foast. Shen cur er sleih ammys beg er mraane. Foddee dy row bun yn eie fyrryn-veanagh shoh y barel dy row tostid tro mie vraane, as eshyn ayn ayns ymmodee cultooryn. Rere shen, ta loayrtys erbee rouyr my she ben ta loayrt.

Hene-anchoodaghey[reagh]

Ta beoyn ec mraane hene-anchoodaghey, dy ghra my shen, soilshaghey magh ny doilleeidyn as taghyrtyn oc da sleih elley, dy mennick son co-ennaghtyn y chur (Dindia & Allen, 1992; Tannen, 1991:49). Ta beoyn deiney neu-anchoodaghey, as tra ta sleih soilshaghey magh doilleeidyn daue, t’ad geabbey cur erash coyrle ny feaysley.

Aggair beill[reagh]

Ta deiney ny smoo aggairagh ayns coloayrtys (Labov, 1972), as t’ad jannoo ny smoo ymmyd jeh baggyrtyn, guee mollaghtyn, yllaghey as nyn lheid. Er lesh mraane, ta’n lheid brishey y coloayrtys; cha nel eh ny aght dy chummal seose yn cheimeeaght ayd (Eder, 1990). My ta mraane guee mollaght, shen son dy haishbyney yn ymmyrkey cadjin t’oc (Eder, 1990), son y chooid smoo.

Clashtyn as geill[reagh]

T’eh fakin dy vel mraane cur monney trimmid er clashtyn na deiney, as ocsyn, ta pooar ec y chlashtynagh er y fa dy vel ad nyn gaarjyn coyrlee da’n loayreyder. Ta leahys cur stiagh er sleih ny sloo ec mraane (dy ghra myr shen, brishey’n coloayrtys lesh cooish nagh vel bentyn rish dy jarroo (Fishman, 1980)) as t’ad jannoo ny smoo ymmyd jeh freggyrtyn sloo na deiney (Zimmerman & West, 1975). Ta deiney cur stiagh er sleih ram ny s’menkey, er lheh ayns possan keintys meshtit (Zimmerman & West, 1975), as ta beoyn oc cur erash tostid da freggyrt sloo (DeFrancisco, 1991). T’eh fakin, er lesh deiney, dy vel coloayrtys son goaill tastey daue hene, goaill stiagh trooid cur stiagh, ny trooid cleiy fo ny ta mraane gra liorish gyn cur erash freggyrt neu-ocklagh.

Kioneys as biallys[reagh]

Jeeaghyn er ny ta heose, t’eh fakin dy vel ard-scarrey ayn eddyr mian firrynagh son kioneys ‘sy choloayrtys (Leet-Pellegrini 1980) as mian bwoirrin son commeeys. Rere Coates (1993: 202) ta ny smoo geill currit da deiney ‘sy shamyr scoill, er lheh ayns cooishyn çhaghnagh as oaylleeagh, as er y fa shoh, ta reddyn çheet lhieu ayns ny magheryn shen; as ayns sheshaght çhaghnagh-reiltys, ta ny smoo pooar oc. Agh son y chooid smoo, ta inçhynaght beill share ec mraane (Eysenck, 1966:4).

Cooyrtoilid[reagh]

Ta cooyrtoilid ghlare goll er taishbyney (Brown and Levinson, 1978) rere eddin moojey ny loojey. Ta eddin moojey çheet er barel y heshaght da ambee y pheiagh. Ta eddin loojey çheet er barel y heshaght da stayd y pheiagh. Ta bun eddin moojey sleih dy mie lhiat ad, as dy vel oo chur yindys orroo. Ta bun eddin loojey nagh vel oo cur orroo.

Ta mraane cur monney geill da’n ghaa, (Brown 1980, studeyrys er Tzeltal), kyndagh rish ennaghtaght da feme eddin sleih elley. Dy giare: son y chooid smoo, ta mraane ny smoo cooyrtoil na deiney. Agh ny keayrtyn, ta cooyrtoilid eddin loojey goll er toiggal myr glare faase, er coontey ny shaghnyssyn as feyshtyn famman (O’Barr & Atkins, 1980, mychione glare ‘sy whaiyl).

Glare moyllee[reagh]

Ta kiangley faggys eddyr moylley as cooyrtoilid (Coates, 1983), er y fa dy vel ad shirveish er femeyn eddin moojey.

Nodyn[reagh]

Enmyssyn[reagh]

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  • Bright, William (1997), Social Factors in Language Change, dg. 83 in Coulmas, Florian [ed] The Handbook of Sociolinguistics. Oxford, England: Blackwell.
  • Brown, Penelope (1980), How and why are women more polite: some evidence from a Mayan community, dg. 111-36 in McConnell-Ginet, S. et al. [re.] Women and Language in Literature and Society. Praeger, New York.
  • Brown, Penelope and Levinson, Stephen (1978), Universals in Language Usage: Politeness Phenomena, dg. 56-289 in Goody, Esther [re.] Questions and Politeness. Cambridge University Press. Reprinted separately in 1987 as Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage, ISBN 978-0521313551.
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  • Chambers, J.K. (1995), Sociolinguistic Theory, Oxford, England: Blackwell; dg. 206-208.
  • Coates, Jennifer (1983), Language and Sexism, LAUD Paper No. 173, University of Duisburg.
  • Coates, Jennifer (1987), Epistemic modality and spoken discourse, Transactions of the Philological Society, 110-31.
  • Coates, Jennifer (1993), Women, Men and language. London: Longman
  • Coates, Jennifer (ed.) (1998), Language and Gender: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • DeFrancisco, Victoria (1991), The sound of silence: how men silence women in marital relationships, Discourse and Society 2 (4):413-24.
  • Dindia, K. & Allen, M. (1992). Sex differences in disclosure: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 112, dg. 106-124.
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  • Tannen, Deborah (1991), You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation, London: Virago.
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  • Todd, Alexandra Dundas (1983), A diagnosis of doctor-patient discourse in the prescription of contraception, dg. 159-87 in Fisher, Sue and Todd, Alexandra D. [re.] The Social Organization of Doctor-Patient Communication, Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington D.C.
  • Zimmerman, Don and West, Candace (1975) Sex roles, interruptions and silences in conversation, dg. 105-29 in Thorne, Barrie and Henly, Nancy [re.] Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House
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Lioaryn[reagh]

  • Connor, Ulla M. (1996), Contrastive Rhetoric: Cross-cutural aspects of second-language writing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lakoff, Robin T. (2000). The Language War. Berkely, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-21666-0
  • Meyerhoff, Miriam. (2006). Introducing Sociolinguistics. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-39948-3
  • Trudgill, Peter. (2000). Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society(4th Ed.). London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-028921-6
  • Linguistics for a New African reality, traaght liorish Owen Alik Shahadah ec y chohaggloo Chiekh Anta Diop.

Kianglaghyn mooie[reagh]