Reeriaght Unnaneysit

Ass Wikipedia.
(Aa-enmyssit ass Reeriaght Unnaneyssit)
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland[1]
Reeriaght Unnaneysit ny Bretyn Mooar as Nerin Hwoaie
Brattagh y Reeriaght Unnaneysit Armys reeoil y Reeriaght Unnaneysit
Brattagh Armys reeoil
Jarroo-raa"Dieu et mon droit"[2]  (Frangish)
"Jee as my chiart"
Arrane ashoonagh"God Save the Queen"[3]
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Preeu-valley
(as y balley smoo)
Lunnin
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Çhengey oikoil Baarle[4]
Çhengaghyn ardjynagh er enney Bretnish, Yernish, Ullanish, Baarle Albinagh, Gaelg Albinagh, Cornish[5]
Possanyn kynneeagh (2001) Fir bane: 92.1%
Aishanagh Yiass: 4.0%
Fir gorrym: 2.0%
Mestit: 1.2%
Aishanagh Hiar/elley: 0.8%
Reiltys Deynlaghys ard-whaiylagh as reeriaght vunraghtoil
 -  Benrein Ealisaid II
 -  Ard-vinishter David Cameron
Quaiyl Ard-whaiyl
 -  Quaiyl s'yrjey Quaiyl ny Çhiarnyn
 -  Quaiyl s'inshley Quaiyl Hostyn
Crooaght
 -  Aghtyn Unnaneys 1 Boaldyn 1707 
 -  Aght Unnaneys 1 Jerrey Geuree 1801 
 -  Conaant Anglo-Yernagh 12 Averil 1922 
Entreilys gys yn UO 1 Jerrey Geuree 1973
Eaghtyr
 -  Yn clane 244,820 km² (79-d)
94,526 mi ker 
 -  Ushtey (%) 1.34
Earroo yn phobble
 -  Ooley 2007 60,975,000[1] (22-oo)
 -  Coontey-pobble 2001 58,789,194[2] 
 -  Glooaght 246/km² (48-oo)
637/mi ker
LTS (CCK) Ooley 2006
 -  Yn clane $2.270 trillioon (6-oo)
 -  Yn dooinney $37,328 (13-oo)
LTS (ennymagh) Ooley 2007
 -  Yn clane $2.772 trillioon (5-oo)
 -  Yn dooinney $45,845 (9-oo)
Gini (2005) 34[3] 
ALD (2005) 0.946 (ard) (16-oo)
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Fo-screeuyn

She çheer ayns sheear hwoaie ny h-Oarpey Reeriaght Unnaneysit ny Bretyn Mooar as Nerin Hwoaie (Baarle: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) ny yn Reeriaght Unnaneysit, yn RU, yn Vretyn Vooar ny Çheer ny Goal ny keayrtyn. T'eh ny heer ellanagh[4][5] ta goll reish y Vretyn Vooar, shiar hwoaie Nerin, as ram ellanyn beggey. Cha nel joarey thallooin ayns y Reeriaght Unnaneysit agh ayns Nerin Hwoaie liorish Pobblaght Nerin.[6] Faagail magh y joarey shoh, ta'n RU caglit liorish y Cheayn Sheear, Mooir Hostyn, Mooir yn Eeaght, as Mooir Vannin. Ta'n ellan smoo, yn Vretyn Vooar, kianglt rish y Rank liorish Thiollane Vooir Eeaght.

Ta'n Reeriaght Unnaneysit ny steat unnaneagh as t'eh jeant seose jeh kiare çheeraghyn: Bretin, Nalbin, Nerin Hwoaie as Sostyn.[7] T'eh reillit liorish corys ard-whaiylagh lesh soiaghey yn reiltys ayns y preeu-valley Lunnin, agh ta tree reiraghyn ashoonagh jeeveanit ayns Beeal Feirshtey, Cayr Deeth as Doon Edin, preeu-valjyn Nerin Hwoaie, Vretin, as ny h-Albey. Ta'n RU ny reeriaght vunraghtoil lesh Benrein Ealisaid II myr ben hoshee y steat. She Croghaneyn-Crooin Ellanyn Vooir Eeaght as Mannin as cha nel ad nyn gooid jeh'n RU, agh t'ad jannoo conastey lesh.[8] Ta kiare thallooyn har mooir Goaldagh jeig ec yn RU,[9] as t'ad nyn remladyn jeh'n Impiraght Ghoaldagh, yn impiraght smoo ayns shennaghys y theihill. Ta'n Venrein Ealisaid II foast ny ben hoshee er Co-unnaneys ny h-Ashoonyn as ny ben hoshee er dagh ream co-unnaneysagh.

Shennaghys[reagh]

Er 1 Boaldyn 1707, va Reeriaght ny Bretyn Mooar[10][11] crooit rere unnaneys politickagh eddyr Reeriaght Hostyn (as eh goaill stiagh Bretin) as Reeriaght ny h-Albey. Va'n taghyrt shen ny eiyrtys jeh Conaant yn Unnaneys as eh fo-screeuit er 22 Jerrey Souree 1706,[12] as eh shickyrit liorish Ard-whaiyl Hostyn as Ard-whaiyl ny h-Albey lesh çheet Aght yn Unnaneys ayns 1707. Begnagh keead ny s'anmey, va Reeriaght Nerin kianglt rish Reeriaght ny Bretyn Mooar liorish çheet Aght yn Unnaneys 1800.[13] Faagail magh dy row Sostyn as Nalbin nyn steatyn anchaslagh roish 1707, v'ad ayns unnaneys persoonagh veih Unnaneys ny Crooinyn ayns 1603, tra va troyn Reeriaghtyn Hostyn as Nerin eirit ec Jamys VI Ree ny h-Albey as va'n cooyrt reeoil arraghit veih Doon Edin gys Lunnin.[14][15]

Yn Impiraght Ghoaldagh ayns 1897. Ayns 1920 haink urree dy ve ny h-impiraght smoo er y theihll.

'Sy chied cheead, va paart mooar ayns lhiasaghey eieyn heear y chorys ard-whaiylagh as va cohortysyn mooarey jeant ec y çheer ayns lettyraght, ellynyn as oaylleeaght.[16] Cheaghil y Çhyndaa Çhynskylagh y çheer as hug eh cooney er lhiasaghey yn Impiraght Ghoaldagh. Ec y traa shen, chammah as çheeraghyn mooarey elley, va paart ec yn RU ayns y choloinaghys, goaill stiagh cochionneeaght sleab yn Atlantagh, ga dy dy hie Aght Cochionneeaght Sleab 1807 ny hrooid. Va'n RU ny chied çheer dy chur jerrey lesh cochionneeaght sleabyn.[17]

Lurg traastagh Napoleon ayns ny Caggaghyn Napoleonagh, dirree yn RU dy ve ny phreeu-chummaght lhuingyssagh y 19oo eash as hannee yn stayd shen echey derrey yn 20oo eash meanagh. Daase yn Impiraght Ghoaldagh gys y cheim smoo ayns 1921, as hooar eh anney Leeg ny h-Ashoonyn harrish shen-choloinyn ny Germaan as yn Impiraght Turkagh lurg y Chied Chaggey Dowanagh.

She trooid çhionnidyn broie ayns Nerin, haghyr rheynn magh yn ellan ayns 1920, as seyrsnys Heyr Steat Nerin ayns 1922 ny lurg. Hannee Nerin Hwoaie lesh yn RU. Myr eiyrtys, ayns 1927, va ennym formoil ny çheerey çhyndaait gys y lhieggan roie, Reeriaght Unnaneysit ny Bretyn Mooar as Nerin Hwoaie.[18]

Cah ny Bretyn Mooar. Hannee yn RU ynrican, mastey çheeraghyn cochaarjagh Oarpagh y Nah Chaggey Dowanagh, seyr veih cumaltys ny Natsee.

Rish ny 1920yn, va'n BBC, kied ghreasane creeley eddyr-ashoonagh y theihll, currit er bun. Ren yn RU caggey rish y Ghermaan Natseeagh myr nane jeh cummaghtyn Cochaarjagh y Nah Chaggey Dowanagh as hug eh cooney da'n theihll heear-chaggeeagh. By chyndagh rish y Nah Chaggey Dowanagh va'n Reeriaght Unnaneysit jeeyllit rere argidys. Hug eeasaghtyn costallagh veih'n Chanadey as veih ny Steatyn Unnaneysit cooney da'n RU as eh geearree slaanaghey.

Ayns bleeantyn jeeragh ny lurg y chaggey, va'n steat lhiasee Goaldagh currit er bun, goaill stiagh Shirveish Ashoonagh ny Slaynt, nane jeh ny kied corysyn ooilley-ghoaillagh y torçh shen. Rere aggyrtysyn y claanaghey, haink earroo mooar dy 'leih veih'n Cho-unnaneys as va'n Vretyn Vooar yl-chynneeagh currit er bun. Faagail magh dy row joaraghyn heear-chaggeeagh noa phaart politickagh ny Bretyn Mooar shickyrit liorish Geyre-ghaue Huez ny bleeaney 1956, va sheeyney magh eddyr-ashoonagh ny Baarle çheet er cleayney beaynagh lettyraght as cultoor Goaldagh. Veih ny 1960yn hooar cultoor phobble Ghoaldagh cleayney ass y çheer.

Lurg keyllaghey tarmaynagh dowanagh as boirey çhynskylagh ayns ny 1970yn, va bishaghey çheetyn stiagh ooill Vooir Hostyn as lhiasaghey tarmaynagh ayns ny 1980yn. Car toshiaghys Margaret Thatcher va çhyndaa ayns troa politickagh as tarmaynagh y Reeriaght Unnaneysit; troa t'ayn derrey yn laa t'ain fo currym reiltys Phartee yn Lught Obbyr Noa fo stiurey Tony Blair as Gordon Brown veih 1997.

Va'n Reeriaght Unnaneysit nane jeh 12 chiaddeyder yn Unnaneys Oarpagh ec y toshiaght ayns 1992 lesh fo-screeuyn Conaant Vaastricht. Roish eh shen, v'eh ny oltey jeh'n çheshaght roish shen, Cohionnal Tarmaynagh ny h-Oarpey (CTO), veih 1973. Ta ymmyrkey reiltys Phartee yn Lught Obbyr rish mestey stiagh lesh y çheshaght mestit,[19] lesh ny Condaigee, yn Partee Cumaadagh, as ad shassoo er son freayltys cummaghtyn as cummeydysyn.[20]

Ec jerrey yn 20oo eash haghyr ceaghlaghyn mooarey ayns reiltys y Reeriaght Unnaneysit lesh bunneeaght reiltysyn ashoonagh jee-veanit da Nerin Hwoaie, Nalbin as Bretin ny lurg refraneyn roie-slattyssagh.[21]

Reiltys as politickaght[reagh]

Ta'n Reeriaght Unnaneysit ny reeriaght vunraghtoil: ta Benrein Ealisaid II ny ben hoshee er yn RU chammah as er queig çheeraghyn jeig y Cho-unnaneys, as eh cur yn RU ayns unnaneys persoonagh lesh ny steatyn shen. Ta ny Croghaneyn-Crooin Mannin, Jersee as Guernsey fo reealtys y Chrooin, as cha nel ad nyn gooid jeh'n Reeriaght Unnaneysit ga-reih ta cooishyn joarree as coadey fo stiurey reiltys yn RU.

Ta'n Reeriaght Unnaneysit nane jeh tree çheeraghyn y theihill lesh bunraght nagh vel currit ayns coad.[22] Ta Bunraght y Reeriaght Unnaneysit jeant seose, son y chooid smoo, jeh geillyn screeuit, goaill stiagh slattysyn, leigh caseyn briwnyssit, as conaantyn eddyr-ashoonagh. Er y fa nagh vel anchaslysyn eddyr slattysyn cadjin as "leigh bunraghtoil", foddee Ard-whaiyl yn RU "aachroo bunraghtoil" y yannoo rere çheet Aghtyn yn Ard-whaiyl ny hrooid, as myr shen ta niart echey geillyn screeuit ny neu-screeuit y vunraght dy cheaghley ny dy scryssey magh. Ansherbee, cha nel Ard-whaiylyn billaghyn goll er hrooid y yannoo as ad noi-cheaghlagh.[23]

Thallooin har mooir faagit y Reeriaght Unnaneysit

Ta corys ard-whaiylagh ec y Reeriaght Unnaneysit as eh bunnit er corys y Vannishter Heear, as t'eh eiyrtit mygeayrt ny Cruinney - sheckteraght yn Impiraght Ghoaldagh. Ta daa hie - Quaiyl Hostyn reiht as Quaiyl ny Çhiarnyn teihyssagh - ayns Ard-whaiyl y Reeriaght Unnaneysit as t'ad çheet ry-cheilley ayns Plaase y Vannishter Heear. T'eh ny reiltys slattyssagh jerrinagh 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit er y fa nagh vel ard-whaiyl jee-veanit ayns Nalbin as cruinnaghtyn jee-veanit ayns Nerin Hwoaie as Bretyn seyr as foddee reiltys yn RU adsyn y ghooney, faagail magh dy row ad currit er bun rere coontey theayagh ayns refraneyn.

Ta ynnyd yn Ard-vinishter, fir toshee y reiltys, bentyn da Oltey yn Ard-whaiyl quoi ec ta smaght echey er y chooid smoo ayns Quaiyl Hostyn. Dy cadjin ta'n Ard-vinishter ny 'er toshee er y phartee politickagh smoo 'sy thie. Ta'n Ard-vinishter as Lugh ny h-Airaghtyn enmyssit ec y Venrein dy chroo Reiltys yn Ard Ooashley. Ta olteynyn ny h-Airaghtyn reiht veih olteynyn partee yn Ard-vinishter ayns y daa hie slattyssagh, agh veih Quail Hostyn son y chooid smoo.

Er son reihysyn da Quaiyl Hostyn, ta'n RU rheynnit magh ayns 646 co-heiyderysyn, lesh 529 jeu ayns Sostyn, 18 ayns Nerin Hwoaie, 59 ayns Nalbin as 40 ayns Bretin,[24] agh bee 650 co-heiyderysyn veih'n Ard-reihys s'niessey. Ta un Oltey yn Ard-whaiyl reiht ec dagh co-heiyderys rere yl-raght neuchramp. Ta ard-reihysyn eieit ec y Venrein lurg coyrle yn Ard-vinishter. Cha nel çheorey er traa yn Ard-whaiyl, agh rere Aght yn Ard-whaiyl (1911) shegin reihysyn noa dy ve ayn çheusthie jeh queig bleeaney veih'n reihys jerrinagh.

T'ad Partee yn Lught Obbyr, y Partee Cumaadagh as y Partee Libraalagh Deynlagh ny tree parteeghyn politickagh smoo 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit, as va 616 ass 646 ynnydyn cosnit ec ny tree parteeghyn shen 'sy reihys jerrinagh. Va'n chooid smoo jeh ny h-ynnydyn faagit cosnit ec parteeghyn slystagh yn RU lheid as Partee Ashoonagh ny h-Albey (Nalbin ynrican), Plaid Cymru (Bretin ynrican), as Partee Unnaneysagh Deynlagh, Partee Soshiallagh Deynlagh y Lught Obbyr, Partee Unnaneysagh Ullee, as Sinn Féin (Nerin Hwoaie ynrican, agh ta olteynyn y phartee gleckey noi ynnydyn ayns Nerin myrgeddin). Ayns freggyrtys politickaght y phartee, cha ghow oltey erbee yn phartee ynnyd ayns Quaiyl Hostyn er y fa dy shegin daue guee er y Ree ny er y Venrein.[25]

Ta 78 OAEyn ec y Reeriaght Unnaneysit ayns ard-reihysyn da Ard-whaiyl ny h-Oarpey as t'ad reiht ayns 12 co-heiyderysyn.[26] Va feyshtyn er seyrsnys yn RU currit er oaie rere olteynys ny çheerey 'syn Unnaneys Oarpagh.[27]

Reirey ashoonagh jee-veanit[reagh]

Ta Ard-whaiyl ny h-Albey ny whaiyl ashoonagh ny h-Albey.

Ta reiltys ny kiannoortys ec Bretin, Nalbin as Nerin Hwoaie, as t'ad fo stiurey Kied-vinishter, as quaiyl un-hamyragh jee-veanit. Cha nel kiannoortys ny quaiyl jee-veanit ec Sostyn, y çheer smoo 'syn RU, as t'ee jeeragh fo reirey reiltys as parlamaid yn RU ayns dagh keisht. Ta'n stayd shen enmyssit myr Feysht Lodainn Heear as eh mychione y nhee dy vel OAyn veih Bretin, Nalbin as Nerin Hwoaie abyl votal, dy briwnyssagh ny keayrtyn,[28] er nheeghyn bentyn rish Sostyn quoi ta loaghtit liorish cruinnaghtyn jee-veanit da ny co-heiyderysyn oc hene.[29]

Ta cummaghtyn lheeadagh er dagh nhee nagh vel 'freaylt' ec Parlamaid yn RU ec Reiltys as Parlamaid ny h-Albey. Ta ny cumaghtyn shen goaill stiagh nheeghyn lheid as edjaghys, currym slaynt, leigh as gurneilys ynnydagh.[30] Lurg barriaght partee ashoonagh ny h-Albey, Partee Ashoonagh ny h-Albey, ayns reihys Parlamaid ny h-Albey, 2007, va reiltys mynlagh fo reirey yn PAA currit er bun fo stiurey yn 'er toshee, Alex Salmond, as haink er dy ve ny Chied-vinishter.[31]

Ta cummaghtyn ny s'jeorit na t'ayns Nalbin ec Reiltys Cruinnaght Vretin as Çhionnal Ashoonagh Vretin[32] agh ny lurg çheet Aght Reiltys Vretin 2006 ny hrooid, foddee yn Chruinnaght jannoo slattys er nheeghyn ennagh trooid Oardee Cummeydys Slattyssagh as ad giootit er bunneydys case er chase.[33] Va Reiltys Cruinnaght Vretin roie crooit shiartanse shiaghtinyn ny yei reihys da Çhionnal Ashoonagh Vretin, 2007, lurg traa giare reirey mynlagh. Ta'n reiltys roie ny cho-chiangley eddyr Plaid Cymru as Partee yn Lught Obbyr as she Kied-vinishter Rhodri Morgan.

Ta cummaghtyn begnagh myr ta jee-veanit ayns Nalbin ec Kiannoortys Nerin Hwoaie as Çhionnal Nerin Hwoaie. Ec y traa t'ayn ta Kiannoortys Nerin Hwoaie fo stiurey yn Chied-vinishter Peter Robinson (Partee Unnaneysagh Deynlagh) as y lhiass Chied-vinishter Martin McGuinness (Sinn Féin).[34]

Gurneilys ynnydagh[reagh]

Son ny smoo fys jeeagh-shiu er: Gurneilys ynnydagh ayns SostynGurneilys ynnydagh ayns Nerin HwoaieGurneilys ynnydagh ayns Nalbin, as Gurneilys ynnydagh ayns Bretyn
Halley Baljey Vanchuin, ymmydit ry hoi gurneilys ynnydagh ayns Manchuin.

Ta shennaghys gurneilys ynnydagh 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit cowrit liorish ceaghlaghyn beggey ayns reaghysyn roish yn Unnaneys derrey yn 19oo eash. Veih shen ta aafilley beayn ayns paart as obbraghey.[35] Cha haghyr ny ceaghlaghyn ayns oash cullee ayns Bretin, Nalbin, Nerin Hwoaie as Bretin as ta jee-veanaghey cummaght harrish gurneilys ynnydagh gys Bretin, Nalbin as Nerin Hwoaie keayllaghey nagh vel ceaghlaghyn ry-heet ayns oash cullee.

Ta reagheydys gurneilys ynnydagh ayns Sostyn co-chast, lesh livrey-ys obbraghey anchasley rere reaghysyn ynnydagh. Ta slattyssyn kianglt lesh gurneilys ynnydagh ayns Sostyn reaghit liorish parlamaid yn RU as reiltys y Reeriaght Unnaneysit, er y fa nagh vel parlamaid jee-veanit ec Sostyn. Ta'd ny h-aarheynnyn ayns Sostyn na ny nuy ardjyn oik y Reiltys ny ardjyn oik reiltys yn Unnaneys Oarpagh.[36] Ta cruinnaght as meoir jeeragh-reiht veih'n vlein 2000 ec un ard ny çheerey, Lught-reill Lunnin Vooar ny yei bhut er son y treealtys ayns refrane 'sy vlein 1998.[37] V'eh kiarit dy vel cruinnaghtyn ardjynagh ennagh ec ny h-ardjyn elley, agh va'n eie shen jiooldit ny yei refrane ayns Shiar Hwoaie Hostyn 'sy vlein 2004.[38] Heese veih'n leval ardjynagh, ta Lunnin jeant seose jeh 32 valley corpagh as ta'n chooid elley dy Hostyn jeant seose jeh coonseilyn coontae as coonseilyn ardjynagh ny lught-reill unnaneagh. Ta ny cooinseilee reiht ayns wardysyn un-oltey as wardysyn yl-oltey.[39]

Ta gurneilys ynnydagh ayns Nerin Hwoaie, veih'n vlein 1973, reaghit ayns 26 coonseilyn ardjynagh, as ad reiht liorish un-vote yn-astreeaghey lesh cummaghtyn ta jeorit da shirvishyn lheid as çhaglym smooirlagh, stiuree moddee, as meansalaght pairkyn as ruillickyn.[40] Er 13 Mart 2008, ansherbee, va'n kiannoortys ayns coardailys rish treealtysyn un choonseil jeig y chroo as ad y chur ayns ynnyd y chorys roie[41] as bee ny reihysyn s'niessey shlearit gys 2011 dy chooney lesh y çhyndaa.[42]

Ta gurneilys ynnydagh ayns Nalbin rheynnit er bunneydys 32 ard conseilagh lesh anchaslysyn mooarey ayns mooadys as earroo yn phobble. Ta ard-valjyn Glaschu, Doon Edin, Aberdon as Dùn Dèagh nyn ardjyn coonseilagh lhieu hene chammah as Cooinseil ny Gaeltaght as goaill stiagh un trass eaghtyr ny h-Albey agh lesh 200,000 cummaltee. Ta'n cummaght currymit ayns ny lughtyn-reill ynnydagh fo stiurey coonseilee reiht, as ta 1,222[43] jeu ec y traa t'ayn. T'ad geddyn çheet stiagh paart-emshiragh. Ta ny reihysyn gurneilit liorish un-vote yn-astreeaghey ayns wardysyn yl-olteynagh as ad reih tree ny kiare coonseilee. Ta Smaghteyr ny Symneyder reiht dy stiurey cruinnaghtyn. Ta ny coonseilee biallagh da coad aghtey as eh currit ayns bree liorish Commishoon Stundayrtyn ny h-Albey.[44] She Co-chruinnaght Lughtyn-reill Ynnydagh ny h-Albey (CLYA) sheshaght reihdagh coonseilyn ynnydagh ny h-Albey.[45]

Ta gurneilys ynnydagh ayns Bretin jeant seose jeh 22 choonseil unnaneagh, goaill stiagh ard-valjyn Cayr Deeth, Abertawe as Casnewydd, as ad nyn goonseilyn ynnydagh lheu hene.[46] Ta reihysyn ayn dagh kiare bleeaney liorish voteyn singil neu-astreeaghey.[47] Va ny reihysyn jerrinagh ayns Mee Voaldyn ny bleeaney 2008. Ta Sheshaght Gurneilys Ynnydagh Vretin soiaghey magh parteeasyn ny coonseilyn ynnydagh ayns Bretin.[48]

Çheer-oaylleeaght[reagh]

Boayloaylleeaght y Reeriaght Unnaneysit

Ta'n Reeriaght Unnaneysit mygeayrt 245,000 kilometeryn kerrinagh (94,600 mi ker) er eaghtyr slane as eshyn jeant seose jeh ellan ny Bretyn Mooar, çheu hiar hwoaie ellan Nerin (Nerin Hwoaie) as ellanyn beggey elley.[3] T'eh soit eddyr y Cheayn Sheear as Mooir Hostyn, as eh 35 kilometeryn magh veih slyst hwoaie ny Frank ec boayl unnaneagh. Eddyr y daa heer ta Mooir yn Eeaght.[3] Ta'n Vretyn Vooar soit ayns dowan-lheeadyn eddyr 49° as 59° Hwoaie (ta Shetlynn sheeyney magh da 61° Hwoaie), as ayns dowan-liuridyn eddyr 8° Heear gys 2° Hiar. She boayl meenaghey y Phreeu-linney Vunlaa Thie Rollageydys Reeoil Ghreenwich, faggys da Lunnin. Ta'n Vretyn Vooar beggan ny smoo na 1,100 km (700 mi) er liurid as begnagh 500 km (300 mi) er lheead ayns y boayl s'lhea, agh she 1,350 km (840 mi) yn 'oddeeaght s'liurey eddyr daa voayl as ee ny foddeeaght eddyr Penn an Wlas 'sy Chorn as Thie Yuan Ghroat ayns Gallaibh ny h-Albey. Ta'n joarey thallooin eddyr Nerin Hwoaie as Pobblaght Nerin 360 kilometeryn (224 mi) er liurid.[3]

Ta speyr tempreilagh 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit, lesh palçhid dy 'liaghee car ny bleeaney.[3] Ta'n çhiassid arraghey rish ny raiee, agh t'eh neuchadjin çhiassidyn ny sloo na -10 °C (14.0 °F) ny ny smoo na 35 °C (95 °F) dy gheddyn. Ta ny geayaghyn baardee çheet veih'n sheear yiass, as ad cur emshyr fliugh as bog lheu veih'n Cheayn Sheear.[3] Ta ny ronnaghyn hiar ny smoo fasteeagh veih'n gheay shoh, as myr shen t'ad nyn muill smoo çhirrym. Ta ny strooghyn Atlantagh, as adsyn çhiowit liorish Stroo yn Eearvooir, cur lheu geuraghyn boggey, ayns y çheu heear er lheh, raad dy vel ny geuraghyn fliughey, er thalloo ard er lheh. Ta ny souraghyn ny s'çhoe ayns shiar yiass Hostyn, as y boayl shen ny s'faggys da'n vooarheer Oarpagh, as ny s'feayrey ayns y twoaie. Ta'n ceau niaghtee jantagh 'sy gheurey as ayns arragh gheuree.

Ta lieh chooid eaghtyr y Reeriaght Unnaneysit jeant seose jeh Sostyn, as ee 130,410 kilometeryn kerrinagh (50,350 mi ker) er eaghtyr. Çheer injil t'aynjee son y chooid smoo agh ta çheer sleitagh ry gheddyn sheear hwoaie jeh linney Tees-Exe as goaill stiagh Sleityn Cumbria ayns Slyst ny Loghyn, Sleityn Pennine as cruink chlagh eayil ayns Slyst ny Binn, Exmoor as Dartmoor. She y Thaimish, y Severn as y Humber preeu-awinyn as inveryn Hostyn. She Scafell Pike (978 m er yrjid), as eh soit ayns Slyst ny Loghyn, y slieau s'yrjey. Ta ram baljyn as ard-valjyn mooarey ayns Sostyn as, rere Cryssyn Baljagh Mooarey, ta shey jeh ny 50 Cryssyn smoo yn Unnaneys Oarpagh soit aynjee.

She Beinn Nivish, ayns Sleityn Grampiagh ny h-Albey, yn slieau s'yrjey ayns ny h-Ellanyn Goaldagh.

Trass eaghtyr y Reeriaght Unnaneysit t'ayns Nalbin as ee 78,772 kilometeryn kerrinagh (30,410 mi ker) er eaghtyr[49] as t'ee goaill stiagh begnagh 800 ellanyn, çheu heear as hwoaie jeh'n vooarheer son y chooid smoo, ny h-Ellanyn Heear, yn Orkaid as Shetlynn er lheh. Ta boayloaylleeaght ny h-Albey cowrit liorish Scoltey Joaree ny Gaeltaght - scoltey creggey creg-oaylleeagh - ta goll harrish mooarheer ny h-Albey veih Balley Eaylee gys Cala na Creige. Ta'n linney scoltey rheynn magh daa ard anchasley; yn Ghaeltaght ayns y twoaie as y sheear as y Ghoaltaght ayns y jiass as y shiar. Ta'n Ghaeltaght chregganagh goaill stiagh y chooid smoo jeh çheer sleitagh ny h-Albey, goaill stiagh slieau s'yrjey ny h-Ellanyn Goaldagh Beinn Nivish as ee 1,343 m (4,406 tr) er yrjid.[50] Ta'n Ghoaltaght, y chryss cheyll eddyr Keyllys y Chleayee as Linne Foirthe enmyssit myr "y Chryss Veanagh", ny s'inshley as ny s'rea as ta'n chooid smoo dy 'leih nyn gummal ayn goaill stiagh Glaschu, yn ard-valley smoo ayns Nalbin, as Doon Edin, preeu-valley as ynnyd politickagh ny h-Albey.

Cha nel Bretin agh 20,758 kilometeryn kerrinagh (8,010 mi ker) er eaghtyr, ny jeihoo eaghtyr y Reeriaght Unnaneysit. Çheer sleitagh t'aynjee son y chooid smoo, agh cha nel Bretin Jiass cho sleitagh na myr t'ayns y twoaie. Ta ny preeu-ardjyn çhynskylagh as y chooid smoo dy chummaltee ayns jiass Vretin, as ee goaill stiagh baljyn slystagh lheid as Cayr Deeth (preeu-valley as ynnyd politickagh as tarmaynagh), Abertawe, Casnewydd as Glionyn Vretin Yiass. Ta ny sleityn s'yrjey ayns Bretin ayns Eryri (Baarle: Snowdonia) as t'ad goaill stiagh yr Wyddfa as eh 1,085 m er yrjid - y slieau s'yrjey ayns Bretin. Ta ny smoo na 1,200 km (750 mi) oirr ny marrey ec Bretin. Ta shiartanse ellanyn magh ass mooarheer Vretin, as t'eh Moan (Bretnish: Ynys Môn, Baarle: Anglesey) yn ellan smoo as eh soit sheear hwoaie veih'n çheer.

Çheer sleityn beggey t'ayns Nerin Hwoaie as ee 14,160 kilometeryn kerrinagh (5,470 mi ker) er eaghtyr. Ta Logh Nay, as eh 388 kilometeryn kerrinagh, ny logh smoo ayns ny h-Ellanyn Goaldagh.[51] She Slieau Dónairt (849 m) y slieau s'yrjey 'sy çheer.

Ard-valjyn as covaljyssyn[reagh]

T'ad preeu-valjyn ny çheeraghyn ennagh 'syn RU na: Beeal Feirshtey (Nerin Hwoaie), Cayr Deeth (Bretin), Doon Edin (Nalbin) as Lunnin (Sostyn); ta Lunnin ny phreeu-valley er y çheer slane.[3]

Rhenk Ard-valley Ynnyd Earroo yn phobble Rhenk Ard-valley Ynnyd Earroo yn phobble
1 Lunnin Lunnin 7,172,091 11 Coventry Mean ny Çheerey Heear 303,475
2 Birmingham Mean ny Çheerey Heear 970,892 12 Kingston upon Hull Sheer York as y Humber 301,416
3 Glaschu Nalbin 629,501 13 Bradford Sheer York as y Humber 293,717
4 Lerphoyll Sheear Hwoaie Hostyn 469,017 14 Cayr Deeth Bretin 292,150
5 Leeds Sheer York as y Humber 443,247 15 Beeal Feirshtey Nerin Hwoaie 276,459
6 Sheffield Sheer York as y Humber 439,866 16 Stoke-on-Trent Mean ny Çheerey Heear 259,252
7 Doon Edin Nalbin 430,082 17 Wolverhampton Mean ny Çheerey Heear 251,462
8 Bristol Sheear Yiass Hostyn 420,556 18 Nottingham Mean ny Çheerey Hiar 249,584
9 Manchuin Sheear Hwoaie Hostyn 394,269 19 Plymouth Sheear Yiass Hostyn 243,795
10 Leicester Mean ny Çheerey Hiar 330,574 20 Southampton Shiar Yiass Hostyn 234,224
Coontey-pobble 2001

T'ad ny covaljyssyn smoo na:

Sleih[reagh]

Ta coontey-pobble ayns dagh çheer yn Reeriaght Unnaneysit dagh jeih bleeaney.[52] Ta Oik ry hoi Staydraa Ashoonagh freggyrtagh er son çhaglym fysseree ayns Sostyn as Bretin, as ta Offish Chadjin Recortyssyn ny h-Albey freggyrtagh er son Nalbin as Jantys Staydraa as Ronsee Nerin Hwoaie er son Nerin Hwoaie.[53]

Earroo yn phobble[reagh]

Rere coontey-pobble ny bleeaney 2001, va 58,789,194 cummaltee 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit, y treeoo çheer smoo 'syn Unnaneys Oarpagh, y wheigoo çheer smoo 'sy Cho-unnaneys as y chied çheer as feed smoo er y theihll. Ec lieh vlein 2007, v'eh er credjal dy row 60,975,000 cummaltee 'sy çheer.[54] Ta'n inymmyrkey, yn leahys ruggyryn as jerkallys-vea ny share cur lesh bishaghey roie earroo yn phobble.[55] Hug staydraa shen er fys dooin, son y chied cheayrt, dy row ny smoo penshyneyryn na paitçhyn ny s'aa na 16 bleeaney d'eash.[56]

Rere staydraa ny bleeaney 2007, v'eh er credjal dy row 51.1 millioonyn dy chummaltee ayns Sostyn.[57] T'ee nane jeh ny çheeraghyn smoo clannit er feie ny cruinney lesh 383 cummaltee ayns dagh kilometer kerrinagh ayns 2003,[58] lesh co-ghlooaghey er lheh ayns Lunnin as y shiar yiass. Ta oolaghyn ny bleeaney 2007 cur sleih-earroo ny h-Albey ec 5.1 millioon dy chummaltee, Vretin ec 3 millioonyn as Nerin Hwoaie ec 1.8 millioonyn[57] lesh glooaghtyn foddey ny sloo na Sostyn. Cosoylit rish glooaght pobble Hostyn (383 cummaltee/km²) t'ad shoh ny h-earrooyn co-reggyrtagh: Bretin (142 cummaltee/km²), Nerin Hwoaie (125 cummaltee/km²) as Nalbin (65 cummaltee/km²).[58]

'Sy vlein 2007, v'eh mean-leahys slane troaraght (LST) harrish y Reeriaght Unnaneysit na 1.90 paitçhyn da dagh ben.[59] V'eh oolit 'sy vlein 2008 dy daase troaraght yn RU gys 1.91 paitçhyn ny ben.[60] Choud's ta'n leahys troaraght ta gaase cur lesh bishaghey earroo yn phobble, t'eh foddey ny sloo na binn "visheydys ny lhiennoo" ec 2.95 ayns 1964, [59], ny sloo na leahys son cur er ash (2.1), agh t'eh ny smoo na'n earroo ayns 2001 (1.63 - yn earroo s'loo).[59] She 1.92 as 1.90 ny leahysyn troaraght ayns Sostyn as Bretin, 1.73 ayns Nalbin, as 2.02 ayns Nerin Hwoaie.[59] Ta leahys ruggyryn ny s'yrjey mastey mraane joarree-ruggit na mraane Goaldagh, agh ta'n leahys gaase mastey mraane Goaldagh ynrican.[59]

Arraghey[reagh]

Ta kiart ec seyranee yn Unnaneys Oarpagh cummal as obbraghey 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit[61] agh ta oardee shallidagh currit ayns bree lesh Romaainee as Bulgeyree, çheeraghyn v'er heet stiagh ayns yn UO ayns Jerrey Geuree ny bleeaney 2007.[62]

Cosoylit rish çheeraghyn Oarpagh elley, ta'n inymmyrkey cur lesh bishaghey earroo yn phobble[63] as eh freggyrtagh er son lieh y visheydys ayns ny bleeantyn eddyr 1991 as 2001. Va nane ass shey jeh ny sthie-arree ass yn Oarpey Hiar, lesh y chooid vooar çheet ass çheeraghyn y Cho-unnaneys Noa.[64] Ta earrooyn oikoil taishbyney dy haink 2.3 millioonyn arree gleney[65] gys yn RU veih'n vlein 1997,[66] as va 84% jeu ass çheeraghyn çheumooie jeh'n Oarpey,[67] as ta 7 millioonyn ny smoo jeu jerkit roish ny bleeaney 2031.[68] Ta ny h-earrooyn by yerree (2006) taishbyney inymmyrkey glen gys yn RU fo 191,000, ny smoo na'n 185,000 'sy vlein 2005.[69][70][71] Ansherbee, rere yn arraghey magh, ta ny smoo na 5.5 millioonyn Goaldee nyn gummal ass y çheer,[72][73][74] as t'ad ny king jurnaa ennoil na'n Austrail, y Spaainey, y Rank, y Teelynn Noa as ny Steatyn Unnaneysit.[75][76]

Ansherbee, ta studeyrys liorish faaishneyder yn ard-valley soilshaghey magh nagh vel earrooyn yn inymmyrkey shoh heose barrantoil as va mygeayrt 400,000 sthie-arree gleney 'sy vlein 2005.[77] Ta coreir 'ir quaagh 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit beggan ny sloo na t'ayns çheeraghyn Oarpagh ennagh elley, ansherbee.[78] Bee yn inymmyrkey daa cheayrt ny smoo harrish y daa yeihaght ry heet gys 9.1 millioonyn, er coontey veih 31 Jerrey Geuree ny bleeaney 2008.[79]

Possanyn kynneeagh[reagh]

Ta pobble roie yn RU ny sluight jeh kynneeyn fuilleeaght anchasley, roie-Celtiee, Celtiee, Romanee, Anglo-Hostnee as Normanee son y chooid smoo. She sheckteraght kianglaghyn va crooit liorish yn Impiraght Ghoaldagh inymmyrkey soogh veih'n Affrick, y Charib as yn Aishey Yiass veih'n vlein 1945. Veih'n vlein 2004 haink mooarane dy 'leih veih'n Oarpey Veanagh as yn Oarpey Hiar, agh, ays 2008, ta'n troa goll ergooyl as ta ram jeh ny sthie-arree shoh goll er ash dy valley, as adsyn faagail mooadys ny kynneeyn shen gyn fys.[80] Rere coontey-pobble ny bleeaney 2001, va 92.1% sleih-earroo ny çheerey nyn vir baney as 7.9%[81] cur enney orroo hene myr fir mestit ny jeh mynlagh kynneeagh.

Possan kynneeagh Earroo yn phobble  % y clane*
Kynneeyn baney 54,153,898 92.1%
Kynneeyn gorryn 1,148,738 2.0%
Injinee 1,053,411 1.8%
Pakistaanee 747,285 1.3%
Kynneeyn mestit 677,117 1.2%
Bengaalee 283,063 0.5%
Aishanee elley (neu-Heenee) 247,644 0.4%
Sheenee 247,403 0.4%
Elley 230,615 0.4%
* % sleih-earroo yn RU

Ta'n neuchaslid kynneeagh anchasley harrish yn RU. Ayns Mean Souree ny bleeaney 2005, rere oolaghyn she possanyn kynneeagh neu-vaney 30.4% sleih-earroo Lunnin[82] as 37.4% sleih-earroo Leicester[83], raad nagh vel agh 5% sleih-earrooyn Hiar Hwoaie Hostyn, Vretin as Heear Yiass Hostyn jeh mynlee kynneeagh rere coontey-pobble ny bleeaney 2001.[84] 'Sy vlein 2007, va 22% scollagyn ny bun-scoillyn as 17.7% scollagyn ny mean-scoillyn ayns scoillyn pohlldit Hostyn jeh sluight kynneeagh mynlagh.[85][86]

Çhengaghyn[reagh]

Çheeraghyn as y Vaarle loayrit ayndaue myr çhengey oikoil de facto ny de jure.

Cha nel çhengey oikoil de jure 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit agh she Baarle, çhengey Ghermaanagh, preeu-çhengey ny çheerey. Myr eiyrtys yn Impiraght Ghoaldagh son y chooid smoo, ren y çhengey skeaylley tessen y dowan, as haink urree dy ve çhengey eddyr-ashoonagh dellal chammah as çhengey ynsit smoo lheeadagh.[87] Ta'n Vaarle Albinagh, çhengey ta çheet magh ass Mean-Vaarle Hwoaie, er enney ec y leval Oarpagh[88] as cha nel ee ny h-abbyrt jeh'n Vaarle. Ta kiare çhengaghyn Celtiagh ymmydit 'syn RU: Bretnish, Cornish, Gaelg Albinagh as Yernish. 'Sy vlein 2001 dooyrt 21% sleih-earroo Vretin dy row ad abyl loayrt trooid Bretnish,[89] earroo ta ny smoo na'n 18% ayns Coontey-pobble ny bleeaney 1991.[90] Chammah as shen, t'eh oolit dy vel 200,000 loayreyderyn ny Bretnish nyn gummal ayns Sostyn.[91] Va ablid ennagh ny Gaelg Albinagh ec 92,000 cummaltee ny h-Albey (ny begnagh 2% sleih-earroo ny h-Albey), goaill stiagh 72% dy chummaltee ayns ny h-Ellanyn Heear.[92] Ta'n Vretnish as y Ghaelg Albinagh loayrit mygeayrt ny cruinney lesh beggan Ghaelg foast ry-gheddyn ayns Nalbin Noa, y Chanadey, as y Vretnish ayns Patagonia ny h-Argenteen.

Harrish y Reeriaght Unnaneysit, dy chadjin t'eh eginagh da scollagyn studeyrys y yannoo er nah çhengey: gys 14 bleeaney d'eash ayns Sosyn,[93] as gys 16 bleeaney d'eash ayns Nalbin. T'ad Frangish as Germaanish ny nah çhengaghyn smoo ynsit ayns Sostyn as Nalbin. Ayns Bretin ta lesoonyn gys 16 bleeaney d'eash ynsit trooid Bretnish ny ta'n Vretnish ynsit myr nah çhengey.[94]

Craueeaght[reagh]

Ta tradishoonyn foddey ny Creestiaght 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit as ayns ny çheeraghyn er gholl roish crooaght yn RU as ta kiangley eddyr yn agglish as y steat foast ayn. Ta ronsee coyrlaghey dy vel credjue ayns Jee ec 38% sleih-earroo ny çheerey as dy vel 40% ny smoo credjal ayns 'spyrryd ny bea-lajerys'.[95] Ta'n pobble cur adsyn hene er enney lesh craueeaght er son cooishyn cultooragh as crauee as t'eh aahoilshit ayns meereggyraght eddyr earrooyn sleih as ad fockley magh credjue ayns Jee as sleih as ad cur adsyn hene er enney lesh craueeaght unnaneagh. Ta'n Chreestiaght ny preeu-chraueeaght: er Creearey Tearfund ny bleeaney 2007[96] dooyrt 53% dy reggyrtee dy row ad nyn Greestee as ny h-earrooyn shen cosoylit rish creearey British Social Attitudes Survey ny bleeaney 2004,[97] as rish Coontey-pobble ny bleeaney 2001 as eh gra dy vel 71.6% sleih-earroo ny çheerey nyn Greestee,[98] (faagail magh dy vel y feysht 'sy Choontey-pobble ny s'boggey). Ny yei'n Chreestiaght ta'n Islam, y Hindooghys, y Seeckaghys as yn Ewaghys rere earroo eiyrtyssee.

Creestiaght[reagh]

Ta Abban ny Mannishter Heear ymmydit da crooinaghey Reeaghyn as Benreinyn Goaldagh, nar t'ad jeant fir ny mraane toshee er Agglish Hostyn.

Ta Agglish Hostyn, quoi va scarrit magh veih Agglish ny Raue ayns 1534 (jeeagh er Aachummey Hostyn), ny h-Agglish 'steat' ayns Sostyn: ta'n agglish freayll tuarystallys ayns Parlamaid yn RU as ta'n ree ny yn venrein Goaldagh ny oltey jeh'n Agglish (shirrit fo Olt 2 jeh Conaant yn Unnaneys) chammah as ny Ard-chiannoort. Ayns ny bleeantyn shoh caie ta cummaght yeeragh ny h-agglish goll sheese agh ta kiart towseyn slattyssagh (bentyn rish reirey crauee) freaylt eck trooid yn Ard-choyrle Chadjin as foddee orroo dy v'er heet nyn drooid liorish y Pharlamaid.

Ta'n Agglish Albinagh (enmyssit dy neuformoil myr y Kirk), quoi va scarrit magh veih'n Raue ayns 1560 (jeeagh er Calveenaghys as Aachummey ny h-Albey) ny h-agglish Phresbyteyragh, as t'ee er enney myr agglish ashoonagh ny h-Albey, as cha nel ee fo smaght y steat. Ta'n venrein ny h-oltey chadjin jeh'n Agglish, as ta shirreydys urree guee er shickyrys ny h-Agglish y choadey ec y chrooinaghey. Ta Agglish Aspickagh ny h-Albey, quoi ta ny cooid jeh'n Chommeeys Anglicaanagh, goaill toshiaght veih bunneeaght yerrinagh ny Presbyteyraght ayns Nalbin ayns 1690 nar v'ee rheynnit magh veih'n Agglish Albinagh, as cha nel ee ny 'fo-agglish' Agglish Hostyn. Myr eiyrtys skeiltyn elley 'syn Agglish Albinagh, 'sy nuyoo eash jeig er lheh, va agglishyn Presbyteyragh anchasley elley, goaill stiagh Agglish Heyr ny h-Albey, currit er bun.

Ayns ny 1920yn, va'n Agglish ayns Bretin scarrit magh veih Agglish Hostyn as haink urree dy ve 'jee-vunnit'. Ta'n Agglish ayns Bretin foast 'sy Chommeeys Anglicaanagh. Ta'n Saasilaght as agglishyn seyrey elley troshtagh dy tradishoonagh ayns Bretin.

Va'n agglish Anglicaanagh, Agglish Nerin jee-vunnit 'sy nuyoo eash jeig. T'ee goaill stiagh ellan slane Nerin (Nerin Hwoaie hene as Pobblaght Nerin hene). Ayns Nerin Hwoaie, ta ny Protestoonee nyn mooar-chooid.[99] agh ta Agglish ny Raue ny h-Agglish smoo. Ta'n Agglish Phresbyteyragh ayns Nerin, as ee bentyn rish yn Agglish Albinagh rere jeeoilys as shennaghys, ny h-Agglish Phrotestoonagh smoo.

Ta Agglish ny Raue ny nah rheynn chredjue ny Creestiaght smoo 'syn RU. Lurg yn Aachummey Protestoonagh, va leighyn geyrey currit ayns bree nyn oi, agh v'ad scughit liorish leighyn Seyrey ny Catolee ayns 1829. Ta reiltysyn Catoleagh er lheh ayn da Sostyn as Bretin, Nalbin, as Nerin.

T'ad agglishyn Creestee mooarey elley na Saasilee, bunnit ec John Wesley ayns Lunnin, as Bashtee. Ta agglishyn Sushtallagh as Kingeeshagh aasagh chammah, as y chooid smoo jeu bishaghey lesh inymmyrkey veih'n Cho-unnaneys as çheu hoal. Ta ny h-agglishyn Kingeeshagh 'sy treeoo ynnyd ny yei Agglish Hostyn as Agglish ny Raue rere fieaumanys.[100]

Craueeaghtyn elley[reagh]

Mosk Lunnin Hiar, nane jeh ynnydyn ooashlee Islamagh smoo 'sy çheer.

T'eh er credjal dy vel mygeayrt 1.8 millioonyn Moslymee.[101] Ta moskyn ry gheddyn ayns dagh ard. T'ad ny possanyn islamagh smoo jeh'n sluight Pakistaanagh, Bengaalagh as Injinagh. Er y gherrid, ta kemmyrkee veih'n Tomaal, y Chyprys Hwoaie, ny Çheeraghyn Balkanagh as çheeraghyn Arabagh cur lesh bishaghey mooad ny Moslymee Goaldagh. Ta arganys ny bleeaney 2006 fo'n burqa, ayns cohaggloo liorish y pholitickeyr Jack Straw, aahoilshaghey scarrey eddyr Goaldee ennagh as ad cur feyshtyn er mestey stiagh ny Moslymee lesh y çheshaght Ghoaldagh, as ad t'er credjal dy vel ceau ny breid freggyrtagh lhee, 'syn RU.[102]

Ta craueeaghtyn Injinagh ry-gheddyn foast, lheid as Hindooghys, Seeckaghys, Buddhaghys as Jainaghys. Rere coontey-pobble ny bleeaney 2001, va mygeayrt 560,000 Hindooee as 340,000 Seeckee 'syn RU. Ta'n Buddhaghys cliaghtit ec 150,000 dy 'leih.[103] Ta un reagheydys neu-reiltysagh ooley dy vel 800,000 Hindooee 'syn RU.[104] Ta nane jeh ny çhiambleyn gonney çheu mooie jeh'n Injey soit ayns Leicester.[105]

Ta mygeayrt 270,000 Ewnyn 'sy Vretyn Vooar, rere coontey-pobble ny bleeaney 2001.[106]

Ta co-phobble anjee as meechredjuagh aasagh lesh mygeayrt 9.1 millioonyn dy 'leih (15% sleih-earroo yn RU) gaggyrt nagh vel craueeaght erbee oc ayns coontey-pobble ny bleeaney 2001.[107]

Tarmaynys[reagh]

Ta Lunnin ny ynnyd argidoil smoo ny h-Oarpey as nane jeh ny tree ynnydyn argidoil smoo er y theihll myrane lesh York Noa as Tokyo.[108]

Ta tarmaynys yn RU jeant seose (ayns oardagh lhargee mooadys) jeh tarmaynysyn Hostyn, ny h-Albey, Vretin as Nerin Hwoaie. Rere leahysyn coonree margee, ta'n Reeriaght Unnaneysit ny wheigoo tarmaynys smoo er y theihll[109] as ny nah harmaynys moo 'syn Oarpey lurg ny Germaan.

Hoshee yn Çhyndaa Çhynskylagh 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit lesh co-ghlooaghey toshee er çhynskylyn eddrymey lheid as troggal lhongyn, meaineyrys geayil, obbragh staillin, as çhynskyl ny feederaght. Chroo yn impiraght margey har mooir da troaryn Goaldagh, as eh lhiggey da'n RU jannoo kioneys er traght eddyr-ashoonagh 'sy 19oo eas. Ansherbee, lesh çhynskylaghey çheeraghyn elley, myrane lesh parail tarmaynagh ny yei daa chaggey dowanagh, hoshee yn Reeriaght Unnaneysit e vondeish chohirreydagh y choayl as haghyr parail ayns çhynskyl eddrym veggan as ny veggan, trooid y 20oo eash. Ta'n jantyssaght foast ny chooid trome-cheeallagh y tarmaynys, agh cha row eh coontit agh er son sheyoo y troar ashoonagh 'sy vlein 2003.[110] Ta'n çhynskyl gleashtanagh Goaldagh ny vooar-chooid jeh'n ronney shoh, agh haghyr pareil ayn lesh cohuittym yn MG Rover Group, ansherbee, as ec y traa t'ayn ta'n chooid smoo jeh'n çhynskyl fo shellooderaght colughtyn joarree. She BAE Systems, y colught Oarpagh EADS, shellooder Airbus, ny colughtyn smoo ayns obbragh etlanyn theayagh as coadee. Ta ronney mooar margee jeshaghtyn etlanys y theihill ec Rolls-Royce. Ta'n çhynskyl kemmigagh as potacareeagh lajer 'syn RU, lesh y nah as y sheyoo colught potacareeagh er y theihll, GlaxoSmithKline as AstraZeneca.[111]

Banc Hostyn; bank meanagh y Reeriaght Unnaneysit.

Ta ronney shirveishyn yn RU bishaghey, ansherbee, as nish t'eh freggyrtagh son 73% LTS ny çheerey.[112] Ta'n ronney shirveishyn jannoo kioneys er shirveishyn argidoil, ayns bancaght as urryssaght er lheh. Ta Lunnin ny ynnyd argidoil smoo er y theihll lesh Boorse Lunnin, Boorse Lunnin ry hoi Conaantyn ry-heet Argidoil as Reihyn Eddyr-ashoonagh (LIFFE), as y margey urryssagh Lloyd's of London bunnit ayns Ard-valley Lunnin. Ta Lunnin ny ynnyd scanshoil ry hoi dellal eddyr-ashoonagh as cochionneeaght as t'eh ny valley toshee er tree "ynnydyn anney" ry hoi y tarmaynys dowanagh (myrane lesh York Noa as Tokyo).[113] Ta'n co-ghlooaghey banglaneyn bancyn joarree smoo er y theihll ayn. 'Sy yeihaght jerrinagh, ta ynnyd argidoil trughanagh gaase ayns ny Lhonglannyn, lesh HSBC as Barclays Bank aahoiaghey ny h-ard-offishyn ayns shen. Ta mooarane colughtyn eddyr-ashoonagh nagh vel bunnit 'syn RU son y chooid smoo, lheid as Citigroup, aahoiaghey ny kione-cherrooyn Oarpagh gys Lunnin. Ta nane jeh ny h-ynnydyn argidoil smoo ny h-Oarpey 'sy phreeu-valley Albinagh, Doon Edin[114] as ta kione-cherroo yn Royal Bank of Scotland Group, nane jeh ny bancyn smoo 'sy dowan, soit ayn.

Ta ooill as gas Vooir Hostyn cur cooid da feme bree yn RU.

Ta'n turrysid feer feer scanshoil da tarmaynys y Reeriaght Unnaneysit. Lesh çheet ny smoo na 27 millioonyn turryssee 'sy vlein 2004, ta'n Reeriaght Unnaneysit rang-oardraghit myr y sheyoo kione jurnaa smoo scanshoil 'sy dowan.[115] Ta Lunnin, er oirr mooar, ny valley smoo shirrit 'sy dowan lesh 15.6 millioonyn keayrtee ayns 2006, roish Bangkok (10.4 millioonyn) as Paarys (9.7 millioonyn).[116]

Ta ny çhynskylyn crootagh freggyrtagh son 7% LTF ny çheerey ayns 2005 as daase eh er mean-leahys 6% 'sy vlein eddyr 1997 as 2005.[117]

Ta ronney eirinagh yn RU coontit er son 0.9% LTS ny çheerey.[3]

Ta tashtey beg geayil 'syn RU myrane lesh tashtaghyn tuittymagh[118] gas najooragh as tashtaghyn ooill. Ta ny smoo na 400 millioonyn thunnaghyn dy hashtaghyn geayil er enney 'syn RU.[119] 'Sy vlein 2004, va lane ymmyd geayil yn RU (goaill stiagh cooid kionnit stiagh) mygeayrt 61 millioonyn hunnaghyn,[120] as eh lhiggey da'n RU dy ve hene-haieagh ayns geayl er feie 6.5 bleeaney, ansherbee rere leahysyn tayrn magh roie, bee ny meainyn foast tayrn geayl magh ayns 20 bleeantyn.[119] She caghlaays lostit lectraghys gientyn geayl-lostit gasaghey geayil keillit (GGK). She tilgey stiagh gaal as ocsygien trooid towl meainey GGK, as eh tilgey magh gas veih'n gheayl as cur y mestey gys y thalloo - foddee saase seyrey geayil lesh towseyn injil carboan. T'eh er credjal dy vel eddyr 7 billioonyn as 16 billioonyn thunnaghyn GGK ayns eaghtyryn er çheer, foddee.[121] Er ymmyd roie geayil 'syn RU, ta ny towseyn shoh cowraghey tashtaghyn as ad abyl cour er feie 200 as 400 bleeantyn ec yn RU.[122]


Ta cassey yn reiltys 'sy tarmaynys fo stiurey Shansyleyr y Rheynn Argidys (Alistair Darling ec y traa t'ayn) as eh ny 'er toshee er Staaitchishtey yn AO, agh ta'n Ard-vinishter (Gordon Brown, MP ec y traa t'ayn) ny Chied-hiarn y Staaitchishtey; ta Shansyleyr y Rheynn Argidys ny Nah-hiarn y Staaitchishtey. Ayns ny bleeantyn jerrinagh, va'n RU stiurit ayns freggyrtys lesh prinsabylyn feoiltaghey margee as keeshyn as curmaghey injil. Veih'n vlein 1997, ta Bing Pholasee Argidoil Vanc Hostyn, fo stiurey Chiannoort Vanc Hostyn, freggyrtagh son lhie leahysyn use ec cormidyn as ad ymmyrçhagh dy chooilleeney lane deanyn bolgey da'n tarmaynys. Ta ny leahysyn shen currit nyn lhie ec y Shansyler dagh blein.[123] Ta Reiltys ny h-Albey, rere lowal rish Parlamaid ny h-Albey, abyl leahys bunneydagh keeshyn er çheet stiagh ry-eeck ayns Nalbin y chaghlaa rere 3 pingyn ny smoo ny ny sloo 'sy phunt, agh cha row y cummaght shen cliaghtit derrey yn laa t'ayn.

'Sy vlein 2007, va feeaghan reiltys yn RU fo 44% LTS.[3]

She punt Sostynagh, cowrit liorish y chowrey £ argid oikoil yn RU. She Banc Hostyn y banc meanagh as t'eh freggyrtagh er son cur magh yn argid. Ta bancyn ayns Nalbin as Nerin Hwoaie freayll kiart noteyn hene y chur magh, as ad smaghtit fo freaylley mie dy liooar noteyn Vanc Hostyn ayns tashtaghyn. Ec launshey yn euro v'eh reiht ec yn RU çheet lesh yn argid shen, as er yn Ard-vinishter Goaldagh, Tony Brown, ta olteynys y phossan argidoil reillt magh lesh ny bleeantyn ry heet. Dooyrt eh dy row eh ny vriwnys kiart da'n Vretyn Vooar as yn Oarpey.[124] Ren reiltys Tony Blair gioal refrane y ghoaill er olteynys y phossan argidoil my vel "queig prowalyn tarmaynagh" er n'gheddyn. Ayns 2005, va 55% sleih-earroo yn RU noi'n argid, as va 30% son yn argid.[125]

Edjaghys[reagh]

Son ny smoo fys jeeagh-shiu er: Edjaghys ayns SostynEdjaghys ayns NalbinEdjaghys ayns Bretin, as Edjaghys ayns Nerin Hwoaie

Ta edjaghys 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit ny red jee-veanit lesh corysyn er lheh ayns Bretin, Nalbin, Nerin Hwoaie as Sostyn.

Ta Screeudeyr y Steat ry hoi Lhiennoo, Scoillyn as Lught-thie as Screeudeyr y Steat ry hoi Noaid, Ollooscoillyn as Schleiyn freggyrtagh son edjaghys ayns Sostyn, agh ta Lught-reill Ynnydagh Ynsee freggyrtagh ry hoi stiurey laa dy laa as argid. Va edjaghys steat cadjin currit stiagh ayns Sostyn as Bretin 'sy vlein 1870 da scollagyn ny bunscoillyn as 'sy vlein 1900 da scollagyn ny meanscoillyn.[126] Ta'n edjaghys anneydagh da scollagyn eddyr queig bleeaney as shey bleeaney jeig d'eash (15 my vel ad ruggit ayns Jerrey Souree jeianagh ny Luanistyn). Ta'n chooid smoo dy scollagyn ynsit ayns scoillyn y steat, as coreir beg jeu reih scoillyn er bun ablid acadoil. Faagail magh dy row parail ayns earrooyn ny scollagyn as ad goll gys scoillyn preevaadjagh, ta coreir scollagyn ayns Sostyn ayns ny scoillyn shen ny yei er heet ny smoo na 7%.[127] Va beggan ny smoo na lieh-chooid dy scollagyn ny h-ollooscoillyn Chambridge as Aah yn Ollee nyn eear-scollagyn scoillyn y steat.[128] Ta shiartanse dy ny h-ollooscoillyn share er y theihll ayns Sostyn; ta Ollooscoill Chambridge, Ollooscoill Aah yn Ollee, as Ollooscoill Lunnin rang-oardit mastey ny 20 ollooscoilyn share ayns THES - QS World University Rankings ny bleeaney 2007.[129] Ansherbee, rere parail ayns earrooyn ny scollagyn ta gynsaghey çhengaghyn joarree, ta aggle ayn dy beagh eiyrtys jiooldagh er dellal, as nish ta yllee ayn tosheeaght ny smoo dy chur er çhengaghyn.[130]

Ta Screeudeyr Arrey ry hoi Edjaghys as Ynsaght Seihill freggyrtagh son edjaghys ayns Nalbin, agh ta Lught-reill Ynnydagh freggyrtagh ry hoi stiurey laa dy laa as argid. Ta paartyn ogheragh ayns edjaghys ny h-Albey ec colughtyn theayagh neu-rheynnagh: ta Lught-reill Qualleeaghtyn ny h-Albey freggyrtagh er son lhiasaghey, credjoonaght, scrutaght as teishtys qualleeaghtyn faagail magh keimyn as ad seyrit ayns mean-scoillyn, colaashtaghyn ynsee sodjey eear-vean-scoillaragh as ynnydyn elley;[131] as ta Learning and Teaching Scotland kiarail coyrle, cooid as lhiasaghey fwirran da'n lught ynsee dy cur lhiasaghey coorse er oaie as dy chroo cultoor noaid, gloyrvian as erbaghtallys.[132] Va ynsagh anneydagh currit ayns leigh ayns Nalbin 'sy vlein 1496.[133] Ta beggan ny smoo na 4% dy scollagyn ny h-Albey, agh ta'n earroo shen gaase ayns ny bleeantyn jerrinagh.[134]

Ta Arrey Ynsee, Caitríona Ruane (Sinn Féin) ec y traa t'ayn, freggyrtagh son edjaghys ayns NerinHwoaie,[34] agh er y leval ynnydagh t'eh fo stiurey queig Boayrdyn Ynsee as Lioarlannyn. Ta'n Cooinseil ry hoi Coorse, Scrutaght as Meihaghey freggyrtagh er son coyrle er coorse ny scoillyn ayns Nerin Hwoaie, stundayrtyn scrialtee as cur magh qualleeaghtyn.[135]

T'eh lesh Çhionnal Ashoonagh Vretin freggyrtys ynsee ayns Bretin. Ta mooarane dy scollagyn ynsit dy bollagh ny son y chooid smoo ayns Bretnish;ta lessoonyn ayns Bretnish anneydagh da scollagyn ny s'aa na 16 bleeaney d'eash. Ta planyn ayn bishaghey kiarail scoillyn Bretnish dy chur ayn as y plan shen ny choid jeh'n pholasee Bretin ghaa-hengagh y chroo.

Rere Claare ry hoi Scrutaght Eddyr-ashoonagh ny Scollagyn ta'n RU 'sy 14oo ynnyd ayns oaylleeaght, as eh ny s'yrjey na mean yn RCTL.[136]

Arraghey[reagh]

Heathrow Terminal 5. Ta ny smoo troailtee aeragh eddyr-ashoonagh goll trooid Purt Aeragh Lunnin-Heathrow na trooid purt aeragh elley erbee er feie ny cruinney.[137][138]
Ta Droghad Raad Yiarn Foirthe, Nalbin, ny cowrey jallooagh y voggyl raad yiarn.

Ta'n Jantys Raaidyn Mooarey ny jantys obbree ry hoi raaidyn mooarey as bayryn gleashtanagh ayns Sostyn faagail magh y raad preevaadjagh M6 Keesh.[139] Ta'n Rheynn Arraghey gra dy vel gloo traght nane jeh ny crampysyn traght smoo trome-chooishagh, as mannagh vel red erbee jeant ayn, bee eh costal Sostyn £22 villioon brash rere traa juaillit.[140] Rere tuarastyl y reiltys Eddington ny bleeaney 2006, bee yn tarmaynys jeeyllit liorish y ghloo traght, mannagh vel laue currit rish liorish priseil raaidyn as bishaghey yn voggyl arraghey.[141][142]

Ta Rheynn Treealys, Arraghey as Ynsaghey Beayn ny h-Albey freggyrtagh son moggyl arraghey ny h-Albey, as she Transport Scotland (Arraghey ny h-Albey) yn jantys ta freggyrtagh rish Screeudeyr Arrey Argidys as Bishaghey Yn-Ymmyrkey ry hoi raaidyn mooarey as moggylyn raaidyn yiarn ny h-Albey.[143] Ta mygeayrt 340 stashoonyn traenagh ayns moggyl raad yiarn ny h-Albey as 3,000 kilometeryn raaidyn yiarn lesh ny smoo na 62 villioon troailtee er dagh blein.[144]

Harrish yn RU, ta moggyl raaidyn lieh-chrantessenagh lesh 46,904 kilometeryn (29,145 mi) dy raaidyn mooarey as moggyl bayryn gleashtanagh ta 3,497 kilometeryn (2,173 mi) er lhiurid. Ta 213,750 kilometeryn (132,818 mi) dy raaidyn peamadit ayn foast. Ta'n moggyl raaidyn yiarn, ta 16,116 km (10,072 mi) er lhiurid 'sy Vretyn Vooar as 303 km (189 mi) er lhiurid ayns Nerin Hwoaie, ymmyrkey ny smoo na 18,000 traenyn troailtee as 1,000 traenyn traghtee dagh laa. Ta moggylyn raaidyn yiarn baljagh mie lhiasit ayns Lunnin as ayns baljyn elley. Va ny smoo na 48,000 km (30,000 mi) dy raaidyn yiarn 'syn RU, agh eddyr ny bleeantyn 1955 as 1975, va'n chooid smoo jeh'n voggyl leodit, as y leodaghey shen lurg tuarastyl liorish yn 'er-choyrlee reiltys Richard Beeching ayns ny mean 1960yn (currit er enney myr Giarrey Beeching). Ta'n lught reill smooinaghtyn er raaidyn yiarn ard-vieauid dy hroggal roish ny bleeaney 2025.[145]

Ta Purt Aeragh Lunnin-Heathrow, ta soit 24  km (15 mi) eear veih'n phreeu-valley, ny purt aeragh smoo tarrooagh 'syn RU as ta ny smoo troailtee eddyr-ashoonagh aynjee na t'ayns purt aeragh elley erbee er feie ny cruinney.[137][138]

Spoyrt[reagh]

Ghow spoyrtyn mooarey, goaill stiagh soccer, ruggyr, criggad, tennys as golf, toshiaght 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit. Rere co-earroo ny bleeaney 2006, she soccer y spoyrt smoo ennoil 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit.[146]

Er yn ardan eddyr-ashoonagh, ta Bretin, Nalbin, Nerin Hwoaie, as Sostyn cohirrey ayns ram sleih-ghammanyn, chammah as ayns Cloiaghyn y Cho-unnaneys, as ayns co-hecks spoyrt ta'n ennym ny h-Ashoonyn Thie currit orroo. Ta fwirranyn ashoonagh ayns bluckan bascaidagh as ayns ny Cloiaghyn Olympagh shassoo er son y Reeriaght Unnaneysit.

Bluckan coshey[reagh]

Staid Wembley noa ayns Lunnin. T'eh ny staid smoo deyr er feie ny cruinney.[147]
Pairk Hampden, Glaschu - staid sockyr ashoonagh ny h-Albey.

Ta sheshaght sockyr, fwirran ashoonagh as corys leeg ec dagh çheer yn RU, agh ta clubyn ennagh cloie magh veih ny corysyn ashoonagh oc er oyryn shendeeagh as losteeagh, ansherbee.

Ta Sostyn, Nalbin, Bretin as Nerin Hwoaie cloie myr çheeraghyn ennagh ayns cohirraghyn eddyrashoonagh as, myr eiyrtys, cha nel fwirran sockyr er lheh ec yn RU. Ta treealtysyn ayn fwirran ashoonagh sockyr da'n RU dy chroo ayns Cloiaghyn Olympagh ny bleeaney 2012 agh ta sheshaghtyn ny h-Albey, Vretin as Nerin Hwoaie ny yei commeeys y yiooldey, as ad credjal dy vel y stayd oc er nyn maggyrt - baggyrt ta feeraghit liorish eaghtyrane FIFA, Sepp Blatter.[148] Ta Sostyn ny fwirran ashoonagh smoo ladoosagh mastey ny çheeraghyn thie, lesh Cappan y Dowan ny bleeaney 1966 cosnit eck. Ta trughanys lajer ayns soccer eddyr Sostyn as Nalbin.

Ta corys leeg sockyr Hostyn goaill stiagh keeadyn dy leegyn eddyr-chianglt as ad jeant seose jeh thousaneyn dy rheynnyn. Ta Preeu-rheynn Hostyn (Premiership) ec baare y leeg ny leeg smoo ard-ghooagh er feie ny cruinney[149] as t'eh feer ennoil 'syn Aishey.[150] Sheese, ta'n Leeg Sockyr (The Football League) jeant seose jeh tree rheynnyn as ta rheynn ashoonagh ec y Football Conference lesh daa leeg ardjynagh artagh. Ny yei shen ta'n structoor ny smoo ardjynagh. Ta clubyn mooarey ennoil lheid as Liverpool, Manchester United, Chelsea, as Arsenal. Va clubyn Sostynagh feer ladoosagh ayns Cohirraghyn Oarpagh lheid as cosneyderyn y Chappan Oarpagh/Leeg Fenee UEFA: Liverpool (queig keayrtyn), Manchester United (tree keayrtyn), Nottingham Forest (daa cheayrt) as Aston Villa. Ta'n Cappan Oarpagh cosnit ec ny smoo clubyn Sostynagh na ec clubyn ass çheeraghyn elley (kiare fwirranyn cosoylagh rish tree ass yn Iddaal, y Ghermaan, as y Çheer Injil). Erskyn ooilley, ta Sostyn 'sy nah rhenk ayns rolley cosneyderyn cappanyn Oarpagh lesh 35 cohirraghyn cosnit oc (ta 36 ec clubyn ny h-Iddaal). Ta cohirrey yn Chappan Oarpagh çheet magh myr eiyrtys speeideilys club Sostynagh elley, Wolverhampton Wanderers noi clubyn Oarpagh mooarey[151] ayns ny 1950yn. She Staid Wembley, lesh soiagyn da 90,000 cronneyderyn, preeu staid spoyrtagh Hostyn.

Ta daa leeg ashoonagh ayns corys leeg sockyr ny h-Albey: Preeu-rheynn ny h-Albey, yn ard rheynn, as Leeg Sockyr ny h-Albey, lesh tree rheynnyn. Sheese jeu, ta tree leegyn ardjynagh ayn agh cha nel ad kianglt lesh ny leegyn ashoonagh: Leeg Sockyr ny Gaeltaght, Leeg Sockyr ny h-Albey Hiar as Leeg Sockyr ny h-Albey Yiass. Ta un chlub Sostynagh, Berwick Rangers, cloie ayns y chorys Albinagh. Ta daa chlub mooarey ard-ghooagh ayns Nalbin as enney orroo er feie ny cruinney, Celtic as Rangers. Ta clubyn Albinagh lesh speeideilys ayns Cohirraghyn Oarpagh goaill stiagh lheid as Celtic (y Cappan Oarpagh ayns 1967), Rangers (Cappan Cosneyderyn Cappanyn UEFA ayns 1972) as Aberdeen (Cappan Cosneyderyn Cappanyn UEFA ayns 1983 as Ard-chappan Oarpagh ayns 1983). Va Celtic ny chied chlub Goaldagh y Cappan Oarpagh y chosney.

Ta corys leeg sockyr Bretnagh goaill stiagh Preeu-rheynn Vretin as leegyn ardjynagh. Ta'n club Bretnagh The New Saints cloie nyn gloiaghyn er çheu Hostynagh y joarey ayns Oswestry. Ta ny clubyn Bretnagh Cardiff City F.C., Colwyn Bay F.C., Merthyr Tydfil F.C., Newport County A.F.C., Swansea City A.F.C. as Wrexham F.C. cloie 'sy chorys Sostynagh. She Staid y Villey Bleeaney ayns Cayr Deeth, lesh soiagyn da 76,250 cronneyderyn, preeu-staid spoyrtagh Vretin.

Ta corys leeg sockyr Nerin Hwoaie goaill stiagh Preeu-rheynn yn IFA. Ta un chlub ass Nerin Hwoaie, Derry City cloie nyn gloiaghyn çheu mooie jeh'n RU ayns corys leeg sockyr Phobblaght Nerin.

Spoyrtyn elley[reagh]

Ta ny Feniaghtysyn Wimbledon, tournamint Grand Slam, cloiet ayns Wimbledon, Lunnin ayns Mean Souree as Jerrey Souree
T'eh er credjal dy vel The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews "Thie Golf" y dowan.

Ta Ruggyr yn Unnaneys reaghit er bun er lheh da Sostyn, Nalbin, Bretin as Nerin as ta corys leeg as fwirran eddyr-ashoonagh er lheh oc, agh dagh kiare bleeaney ta fwirran ny Leionyn Goaldagh as Yernagh cloie 'syn Austrail, 'sy Teelynn Noa ny 'syn Affrick Yiass, as ny cloiederyn reiht veih ny h-Ashoonyn Thie. Va Cappan Ruggyr Unnaneys y Dowan cosnit ec Sostyn ayns 2003, agh she yn treeoo ynnyd y boayl s'yrjey ec Bretin, as y kiaroo ynnyd ec Nalbin. Cha jagh Nerin gys ny kerrooghyn-yerrinagh rieau. Ta bun Ruggyr y Leeg ayns Sostyn Hwoaie as va fwirran singyl 'ny Bretyn Mooar' cloie ayns Cappan Ruggyr Leeg y Dowan derrey 2008, tra chloie Sostyn, Nalbin as Nerin myr fwirranyn er lheh.[152]

Va'n criggad currit er bun ayns Sostyn as she fwirran criggad Hostyn, ta fo stiurey Boayrd Criggad Hostyn as Vretin,[153] fwirran ashoonagh ynrican 'syn RU lesh stayd prowallagh. Ta ny h-olteynyn çheet magh ass ny fwirranyn coontae mooarey, as t'ad goaill stiagh criggadee Sostynagh as Bretnagh. Ta'n criggad anchasley rish Soccer as Ruggyr c'raad dy vel fwirranyn ashoonagh er lheh cloie. Chloie criggadee Yernagh as Albinagh lesh fwirran Hostyn er y fa nagh vel stayd prowallagh ec Nalbin ny ec Nerin. Er y gherrid, hoshee ad cloie ayns Cloiaghyn Eddyr-ashoonagh Un-laa. Chloie Nalbin, Sostyn (goaill stiagh Bretin), as Nerin (goaill stiagh Nerin Hwoaie) ayns Cappan Criggad y Dowan, as raink Sostyn tree keayrtyn gys y kione-chloie. Ta feniaghtys leeg gerrymoil ayn c'raad dy vel clubyn ass 17 coondaeghyn Sostynagh as 1 choontae Bretnagh cohirrey.

Ta snooker nane jeh assphurtanyn ny Bretyn Mooar. Ta feniaghtysyn y dowan cloiet dagh blein ayns Sheffield. Ta'n spoyrt bishaghey er feie ny cruinney, lesh bishaghey mooar 'sy Çheen.

Va tennys currit er bun ayns Birmingham eddyr ny bleeantyn 1859 as 1865. Ta The Championships, Wimbledon ny taghyrtyn tennys ayns Wimbledon ayns jiass Lunnin dagh sourey as t'eh er credjal dy vel ad nyn daghyrt smoo ooashley ayns lioar imbee tennys ny cruinney.

Ta'n ratçhal cabbil fuilloilagh, lesh y bun echey fo Çhalse II Hostyn myr "spoyrt ny reeaghyn", feer ennymoil harrish yn RU lesh ratçhalyn mooarey lheid as y Grand National, yn Epsom Derby as Royal Ascot. T'eh er credjal dy vel Newmarket ny chree ratçhal Hostyn, er bun Coorse Ratçhal Newmarket.

Ta golf ny sheyoo spoyrt smoo ennoil, rere commeeys, 'syn RU as ta The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, ayns Nalbin, coorse thie yn spoyrt.[154]

Ta'n cammag Albinagh (ny camanachd) feer ennoil ayns Gaeltaght ny h-Albey, as ta thousaneyn dy chronneyderyn ec ram cloiaghyn, chammah as ec kione-chloie yn phreeu-hournamint, y Cappan Camanachd.[155]

Ayns Nerin Hwoaie, ta'n bluckaneyrys Gaelgagh as yn immanaght nyn sleih-ghammanyn ennoil, rere commeeys as cronneyderyn.

Cultoor[reagh]

Ta cultoor y Reeriaght Unnaneysit - y cultoor Goaldagh - çheet magh ass shennaghys y Reeriaght Unnaneysit myr çheer ellanagh lhiasit, reeriaght, cummaght impiroil as, son y chooid smoo, myr unnaneys politickagh jeh kiare çheeraghyn, lesh eiraght er lheh, oashyn as cosoyley. Myr eiyrtys ny h-Impiraght Goaldagh, ta cleayney Goaldagh ry-akin ayns çhengey, cultoor as corysyn leighoil ny shenn-choloinyn lheid as y Chanadey, yn Austrail, yn Injey as ny Steatyn Unnaneysit.

Scannaneaght[reagh]

Va'n Reeriaght Unnaneysit cummaghtagh ayns lhiasaghey ny scannaneaght, lesh Ealing Studios gaggyrt dy vel ad nyn seyrlanyn shinney er y theihll. Faagail magh dy vel shennaghys fillmyn scanshoil as ladoosagh 'syn RU, ta'n çhynskyl cowrit lesh resoonaght veayn er yn enney echey, as cleayney ny scannaneaght Americaanagh as Oarpagh.

Lettyraght[reagh]

Y cochaslys Chandos, as eh er credjal dy vel eh soilshaghey magh William Shakespeare.

Ta 'lettyraght Ghoaldagh' cur sheese da'n lettyraght ta kianglt lesh y Reeriaght Unnaneysit, Mannin as Ellanyn Vooir Eeaght, chammah as da'n lettyraght t'er heet magh ass Sostyn, Bretin as Nalbin roish crooaght y Reeriaght Unnaneysit. Ta'n chooid smoo jeh'n lettyraght Ghoaldagh ayns Baarle.

Tan bard as y screeudeyr cloie Sostynagh William Shakespeare ammyssit myr y dramadeyr share 'sy çhennaghys.[156][157][158] Ta Geoffrey ass Monmouth (12-oo eash), Geoffrey Chaucer (14-oo eash), as Thomas Malory (15-oo eash) mastey ny screeudeyryn Sostynagh s'lheah. 'Sy 18-oo eash, va Samuel Richardson treishtit lesh crooaght y noaskeeal noa-emshiragh. 'Sy 19-oo eash, haghyr noaidyn ny smoo liorish Jane Austin, ny shuyryn Brontë, yn troddanagh sheshoil Charles Dickens, y najooree Thomas Hardy, y bard ashlinagh William Blake as y bard romansagh William Wordsworth. Ta screeudeyryn y 20-oo eash goaill stiagh lheid as screeudeyr far-skeealyn skeeandagh H. G. Wells, D. H. Lawrence arganagh, y noa-emshiragh Virginia Woolf, y noa-skeealagh faaishnagh George Orwell as y bard John Betjeman. Er y gherrid ta screeudeyr lioaryn ny far-skeealyn sheiltynys paitçhyn Harry Potter liorish J. K. Rowling aachooinaghtyn er ennoilid J. R. R. Tolkien.

Ta cohortys ny h-Albey goaill stiagh y screeudeyr cronneydagh Arthur Conan Doyle, lettyraght romansagh liorish y Reejerey Walter Scott as contoyrtysyn Robert Louis Stevenson. Ta'n bard ennoil Robert Burns, chammah as William McGonagall ass Nalbin myrgeddin. Er y gherrid, hug ny noa-emshiree as yn h-ashooneyderyn Hugh MacDiarmid as Neil M. Gunn mooarane da Aavioghey ny h-Albey. Ta reayrt groamagh ry-gheddyn ayns skeealyn Ian Rankin as 'sy chloie shicklaagagh aitt-grayn liorish Iain Banks. Ta preeu-valley ny h-Albey, Doon Edin, enmyssit myr kied ard-valley ny lettyraght liorish UNESCO.[159]

'Sy vean-eash lheah, screeu screeudeyryn Bretnagh y Mabinogi. 'Syn eash noa-emshiragh, hug ny bardyn R. S. Thomas as Dylan Thomas cultoor Vretin gys y lught eaishtagh eddyr-ashoonagh.

Va cummal er screeudeyryn ass çheeraghyn elley, ass Nerin dy mynchooishagh, ny ass çheeraghyn y Cho-unnaneys, 'syn RU. Ta sampleyryn ennoil jeu goaill stiagh lheid as Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, Bram Stoker, George Bernard Shaw, Joseph Conrad, T. S. Eliot as Ezra Pound, as er y gherrid ughtaryn Goaldagh va ruggit ass y çheer lheid as Kazuo Ishiguro as y Reejerey Salman Rushdie.

Ayns theater, hug co-emshiree Shakespeare Christopher Marlowe as Ben Jonson ny smoo da. Er y gherrid ren Alan Ayckbourn, Harold Pinter, Michael Frayn, Tom Stoppard as David Edgar cochiangle ass elmintyn sur-rieughid, rieughid as fraueoilaght.

Kiaull[reagh]

Ta The Beatles nane jeh ny bannyn smoo scanshoil as ennoil er feie ny cruinney, lesh ny smoo na billioon recortyssyn er ny creck eu.[160]

Ta aghtyn eigsoylagh kiaull ennoil 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit, kiaull çheerey Hostyn, Nerin Hwoaie, Vretyn as ny h-Albey, as kiaull veain hrome ny mast'oc. Va cohortys Glaschu ayns kiaull currit er enney 'sy vlein nar v'eh enmyssit myr Ard-valley Kiaull jeh cooid ny h-Ashoonyn Unnaneysit, as eh nane jeh tree ard-valjyn ynrican er feie ny cruinney lesh yn aundyr shen.[161]

Va The Beatles, Pink Floyd, Eric Clapton, The Rolling Stones, Status Quo,[162] Slade,[163] Led Zeppelin, The Who, Queen, as Black Sabbath mastey ny cohoyrtee ayns ny 1960yn as ny 1970yn ayns lhiasaghey ny craa-chiaull. Haink kiaull veain hrome, craa-chiaul chraaee, craa-chiaull sponk as kiaull honn noa ny yei myr eiyrtys. Ayns ny 1980yn leah, haink rah er bannyn kiaull Romansagh Noa Goaldagh lheid as Duran Duran, Depeche Mode, Spandau Ballet, Soft Cell as Ultravox. Ayns ny 1990yn, va rah eddyr-ashoonagh fowit ec bannyn Britpop as kiaull electronica. Ta kiaulleyderyn Goaldagh jeianagh ayns pop-chiaull goaill stiagh The Smiths, Oasis, Amy Winehouse, Leona Lewis, Coldplay, as ny Spice Girls.

Ta cummeyderyn kiaull chlassicagh ennoil ass y Reeriaght Unnaneysit as ny çheeraghyn v'ayn roish goaill stiagh William Byrd, Henry Purcell, y Reejerey Edward Elgar, Gustav Holst, y Reejerey Arthur Sullivan (kiaulleyder ard-ghooagh er son yn obbyr echey lesh y screeuder levreag, y Reejerey W. S. Gilbert) Ralph Vaughan Williams, as Benjamin Britten, kioneraadagh y chiaulldramey Goaldagh noa-emshiragh.

Fallsoonys[reagh]

Ta enney share er y Reeriaght Unnaneysit er son y tradishoon "Treealaght Ghoaldagh", banglane jeh fallsoonys fys ta gra nagh vel fys gyn taghyrt breeoil. T'ad ny fallsoonee smoo scanshoil jeh'n tradishoon shen na John Locke, George Berkeley as David Hume. Ta enney share er y Vretyn Vooar er son çhoarym fallsoonys moralagh, Vondeishaghys, as eh ymmydit da'n chied cheayrt liorish Jeremy Bentham as, ny s'anmey, liorish John Stuart Mill 'syn obbyr giare echey Utilitarianism. Ta fallsoonee ard-ennymagh elley ass y Reeriaght Unnaneysit goaill stiagh Duns Scotus, William ass Ockham, Thomas Hobbes, Bertrand Russell, Adam Smith as Alfred Ayer. Ta fallsoonee quaagh as cummal orroo 'syn RU goaill stiagh Isaiah Berlin, Karl Marx, Karl Popper, as Ludwig Wittgenstein.

Oaylleeaght, jeshaghteyrys as noaid[reagh]

Y Reejerey Isaac Newton

Rug ram oaylleeyn as jeshaghteyryn as obbyr scanshoil jeant oc 'sy Reeriaght Unnaneysit. T'ad goaill stiagh lheid as;

Ellyn reayrtagh[reagh]

Ta'n Colaashtey Reeoil soit ayns Lunnin. Ta scoillyn mooarey ellyn elley goaill stiagh Slade School of Fine Art; ny shey scoillyn ayns Ollooscoill yn Ellyn Lunnin, as ad goaill stiagh Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design as Chelsea College of Art and Design; Scoill Ellyn Ghlaschu, as Goldsmiths, Ollooscoill Lunnin. Ta'n ventyr traghtee shoh nane jeh sheshaghtyn toshee ny Bretyn Mooar ayns ellyn reayrtagh. Ta ellyneyryn Goaldagh goaill stiagh y Reejerey Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, John Constable, William Blake, J. M. W. Turner, William Morris, L. S. Lowry, Francis Bacon, Lucian Freud, David Hockney, Gilbert as George, Richard Hamilton, Peter Blake, Howard Hodgkin, Antony Gormley, as Anish Kapoor. Rish ny 1980yn as ny 1990yn, hug y Saatchi Gallery ayns Lunnin possan ellyneyryn yl-cheirdagh gys arrey yn phobble as yn ennym Ellyneyryn Aegey Goaldagh currit orroo. Tan possan shoh goaill stiagh lheid as Damien Hirst, Chris Ofili, Rachel Whiteread, Tracey Emin, Mark Wallinger, Steve McQueen, Sam Taylor-Wood, as ny Braaryn Chapman.

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