Shennaghys Vannin

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Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee

Ta Ellan Vannin ny voayl da cummaltys deiney veih jerrey yn Eash Rioee Yerrinagh ny smoo na 10,000 bleeantyn er-dy-henney. Haink ram soiagheryn as traghtalee gys yn ellan harrish ny bleeantyn. Ny yei coloinaghys yn ellan lesh sleih ass Nerin 'sy chied villey bleeaney, haink y Chreestiaght gys yn ellan as ny yei shen va'n ellan currit da soiaghyn liorish ny Loghlynee ass Norlynn. Ny yei ard-çhiarnys fo stiurey Norlynn myr cooid jeh Reeriaght Vannin as ny h-Ellanyn, haink er Mannin dy ve ny shellooders ny crooinyn Albinagh as Sostynagh.

Veih'n vlein 1866, va Mannin ny Croghane-Crooin as ta hene-reiltys deynlagh eck.

Roie-hennaghys[reagh]

Clagh Ogham ass Mannin ta taishbyney yn dreeym 'sy çheshvean. Ta'n teks lhaih BIVAIDONAS MAQI MUCOI CUNAVA[LI]; ayns Gaelg: Bivaidonas, mac yn eggys Cunava[li].

Haink er Mannin dy ve ny h-ellan mygeayrt 85,000 bleeantyn er-dy-henney traa ren ardjidyn irree ny marrey liorish ny h-awinyn rioee lheie giarrey yn Vretyn Vooar veih'n Oarpey Vooarheeragh da'n cheayrt jerrinagh. Va droghad thallooin ayn eddyr Mannin as Cumbria roish y date shen, agh cha nel boayl as toshiaght y droghad shen mie er fys.[1]

Ta cowraghyn leah taishbyney cummaltys er Mannin veih'n Eash Chloaie Veanagh. Va ny kied cummaltee nyn gummal ayns keiltynyn najooragh beggey as ad shelgey, geeasteyraght as çhymsaghey er son nyn mee. Ren ad ymmyd ass greienyn beggey va jeant jeh claghyn grillinagh, as adsyn er gheddyn faggys da'n choose. Ta scaanee jeh ny meeryn shenndeeagh shen freaylt ayns Thie Tashtee Vannin.

Lesh yn Eash Chloaie Noa haink fys ny share er eirinys, greienyn cloaie ny share as pasheydys. V'eh 'syn eash shen va ny cowraghyn cooinaghtyn, ta ry-gheddyn er feie yn ellan, troggit. Ta sambylyn jeh'n eash shen ry-akin ayns Cashtal yn Ard faggys da Skyll Maghal, Ruillick Ree Gorree ayns Laksaa as Kiarkyl ny Meayll faggys da Creneash. Cha row agh cultoor ny Mooar-chlaghyn ayn, agh cultooryn Roonysvaie as Bann chammah.

Car yn Eash Ooha, va carnaneyn oanluckee beggey currit ayns ynnyd ruillickyn co-chadjin mooarey ny Mooar-chlaghyn. Va corpaneyn currit stiagh ayns ruillickyn va scheimmeigit lesh claghyn chammah as cummeydaneyn jesheenagh.

V'eh yn Eash Yiarn toshiaght chleaney y chultoor Cheltiagh. Haink er doonyn crink dy ve troggit er binn, as haink er doonyn meayll dy ve troggit rish ny h-eayninyn slystagh, choud's va thieyn clowanagh aamaid cruinn troggit chammah.

T'eh cosoylagh dy row ny kied h-eggyssyn Celtiagh jeh'n torçh Brythonagh. T'eh er credjal dys haink Yernee dys yn ellan mygeayrt ny bleeaney 700 BNJ as va'n cur stiagh shen ny vun jeh ny kied cummaltee Manninagh. T'eh shen ry-akin ayns ceaghley ny çhengey ymmydit ayns cowraghyn grainnit Ogham. Ta gloo-chiangley foast eddyr Gaelg Vanninagh, as Gaelg Albinagh as Gaelg Yernagh (Yernish).

Kioneys Brythonagh[reagh]

Ta shennaghys neuvonnagh Vanninagh car yn eash Brythonagh tannaghtyn gyn fys. Cha nel agh recortys ynrican er taghyrt erbee roish çheet ny Loghlynee, as t'eh currit gys lieh Váetán mac Cairill, ree Ullee, ec jerrey yn sheyoo eash (agh t'eh er credjal ec sleih ennagh dy vel y taghyrt shen cowraghey Manau Gododdin eddyr Keyllys y Chleayee as Linne Foirthe).

Ayns jerrey y chied villey bleeaney BNJ haink coloinee ass Nerin gys Mannin as ren ad cummaltys er yn ellan. Ta'n Ghaelg, ta ny çhengey Ghaelgagh, ny feanish jeh'n choloinaghys shen. Ansherbee, ta feanish leah cur sannish dy row sleih Brythonagh nyn gummal er yn ellan roish çheet ny Gaeil.

Dy tradishoonagh, hug Noo Maghal (Maccul), sushtallagh Yernagh lesh yn ennym echey currit er ennym skeerey, y Chreestiaght gys yn ellan. Ta ennym yn ellan çheet magh ass Manannán, jee Brythonagh as Gaelgagh ny marrey.

Kioneys Loghlynagh[reagh]

Ta daa amm car eash chioneys ny Loghlynee - y chied amm roish barriaght Vannin liorish Gorree Crovan ayns 1079, as yn amm elley ny yei. Va'n amm s'leah cowrit lesh caggey as gurneilys neuhickyr; va'n nah amm cowrit lesh shee son y chooid smoo.

Eddyr ny bleeantyn 800 BNJ as 815 haink ny Loghlynee gys Mannin er son roosteyrys, agh eddyr ny bleeantyn 850 as 990, raad dy row ad toshiaghey cummal y yannoo er yn ellan, haink Mannin fo stiurey ny Reeaghyn Loghlynagh ayns Divlyn. Eddyr ny bleeantyn 990 as 1079, hie yn ellan fo stiurey Eearlaghyn ny h-Orkaid.

Va mwyllin argid er Mannin eddyr ny bleeantyn 1025 as 1065. Va'n bwoalley argid jeant jeh kiaddey ping Yernagh-Loghlynagh ass Divlyn jeh'n sorçh 2 as eh ymmyrkit stiagh. Va bwoalley argid Yernagh-Loghlynagh bwoallit da'n chied cheayrt fo reirey Ree Ghivlyn, Sihtric. T'eh shen taishbyney foddee dy row Mannin fo reirey Ghivlyn ec y traa v'ayn.

Va fer ny barriaght, Gorree Crovan, ny 'er cronnalagh, agh cha nel mooarane er fys ain mysh. Rere Chronicon Manniae, chur eh Divlyn fo chosh, chammah as meeryn mooarey jeh Lion. Ta cooinaght yn 'er shen tannaghtyn harrish ny bleeantyn ayns tradishoon, as t'eh er credjal dy row eh ny 'er ta comoyrit ayns shenn-skeealyn Vannin fo ennym Ree Gorree ny Ree Gorry (King Gorse ny King Orry ayns Baarle). Chur eh Reeriaght Vannin as ny h-Ellanyn er bun mygeayrt ny bleeaney 1079; va'n reeriaght shen goaill stiagh ellanyn heear yiass ny h-Albey (Sodor) derrey 1164, raad dy row daa reeriaght currit er bun ass thalloo y çhenn-reeriaght.

Va ny h-ellanyn fo'n stiurey echey enmyssit myr ny Suðr-eyjar (ny h-ellanyn yiass ayns cosoylaght rish ny Norðr-eyjar, ny ny h-ellanyn hwoaie, t'eh shen yn Orkaid, Shetlynn, ny h-Ellanyn Heear as ram ellanyn beggey ayns sheear ny h-Albey, lesh Mannin. Va'n enmys Ladjynagh, Rex Manniae et Insularum ny Ree Vannin as ny h-Ellanyn, currit er ny h-eiyrtyssee echey). Va preeu-valley yn reeriaght soit er Ellan Noo Perick, raad dy row Cashtal Phurt ny h-Inshey troggit er boayl mannishter Cheltiagh.

Va pooar geiltagh ec Ree Olave, mac Ree Gorree, as rere y Recortys, dreill eh cochaarjyssyn faggyssagh lesh reeaghyn Nerin as ny h-Albey. Rere ny cochaarjyssyn shen, cha ren peiagh erbee soiaghey er yn ellan car y lhing reiragh echey (1113 - 1152). Ansherbee, chaill y mac echey, Ree Gorree V (lhing reiragh 1153 - 1158), quoi v'er ny ree er Divlyn er feie am giare, ny h-ellanyn beggey magh veih coose Oirr ny Gaeil 'sy vlein 1156 myr eiyrtys er arganeys lesh Somerled (fer toshee er Oirr ny Gaeil). Haink kiondeeaght neuchroghagh er y daa rheynn jeh'n reeriaght echey.

Ayns ny 1130yn hug yn Agglish lught sushtallagh gys Ellan Vannin dys aspickys y chur er bun, as va Wimund reiht myr y chied Aspick. Giare ny yei, hug eh seose y paart echey myr "easteyr fir", as haink er dy ve ny "helgeyr fir". Hie eh lesh lught eiyrtyssee er coorse dunverys as spooilley er feie ny h-Albey as ny h-ellanyn mygeayrt moee.

Ta'n chied choontys jeh cur stiagh Sostynagh ayns cooishyn Vannin recortyssit 'sy 13-oo eash leah, nar hug Ree Ragnald (lhing reiragh 1187 - 1229) ammys da Ree Juan Hostyn (lhing reiragh 1199 - 1216). Agh va eash fo stiurey ny h-Albinee ayn roish bunneeaght ghurneilys slane ny Sostynee, ansherbee. Car yn eash Loghlynagh va ny h-ellanyn fo stiurey ennymagh reeaghyn Norlynn, agh cha shass ad seose er nyn son lesh creeoilid agh ny keayrtyn. Hass Harral Haarfager seose er nyn son da'n chied cheayrt mygeayrt ny bleeaney 885. Ny yei shen, hass Magnus Barfod er nyn son mygeayrt 1100: ren y daa jeu barriaght er ny h-ellanyn. Veih'n 12-oo eash meanagh derrey 1217 hannee yn kiondeeys Norlynnagh dy ve scaadooagh. Agh ny yei'n date shen haink er dy ve ny rieughid as, myr eiyrtys, hie Norlynn ayns covuilley lesh niart ny h-Albey.

Eddyrchloiaghyn Albinagh[reagh]

Er-jerrey, ayns 1261, hug Alistair III ny h-Albey çhaghteryn gys Norlynn gys barganey er son coyrt seose ny h-ellanyn, agh cha row ny h-eabyn oc rahoil. Myr shen, chur eh noidanysyn ayns toshiaght, as myr eiyrtys haghyr Cah ny Lhargeeyn Goaldagh oin flod Norlynnagh ayns 1263. Ansherbee, hooar y ree Norlynnagh, Haakon Haakonsson baase 'sy gheurey ny yei, as lhig eh shen da ree Alistair jerrey rahoil y chur er y chaggey. V'eh er Magnus, Ree Vannin as ny h-Ellanyn (lhing reirey 1252 - 1265), quoi v'er çheu ny Norlynnee, ny h-ellanyn, er-lhimmey jeh Mannin, y lhiggey seose, as v'eh er ammys y chur da ny h-Albinee. Daa vlein ny yei hooar Magnus baase as ayns 1266 lhig Magnus VI Norlynn seose ny h-ellanyn, goaill stiagh Mannin, gys Nalbin rere Conaant Pheairt er leagh 4,000 margyn as bleeanaght 100 margyn. Agh cha row reirey Albinagh er Mannin shickyrit derrey 1275, tra chaill ny Manninee Cah Roonysvaie, faggys da Balley Chashtal.

Kioneys Sostynagh[reagh]

'Sy vlein 1290 va Mannin ayns shelloo Ree Edard I Hostyn, as hannee ee ayns ny laueyn echey derrey 1313, nar ghow Raibeart I ny h-Albey ee ny yei çhionney stiagh er Cashtal Rosien er feie queig bleeaney. Ny yei shen, derrey 1346 nar ren Cah Nevile's Cross briwnys er y strepey eddyr Nalbin as Sostyn ayns foayr Hostyn, va Mannin ny keayrtyn fo stiurey Hostyn, keayrtyn elley fo stiurey ny h-Albey.

Mygeayrt ny bleeaney 1333 hug Edard III Hostyn Mannin dys William de Montacute, y 3-oo Barran de Montacute, (ny s'anmey y 1-d Eearley er Salisbury), myr shellooderys slaneid, gyn freilltys er currym shirveishagh dasyn. Ayns 1392 va'n ellan creckit liorish y mac echey goaill stiagh y kiondeeaght da'n Reejerey William le Scrope. Ayns 1399 va le Scrope jee-chionaghit liorish Ree Inry IV er y fa dy row le Scrope er çheu Rickad II. Haink er yn ellan ayns shelloo ny Crooin, as v'ee giootit da Henry Percy, 1-d Eearley Northumberland, agh ny s'anmey 'sy vlein 1405, v'ee giootit, lesh patroonys yn aspickys eck, da'n Reejerey Juan Stanlagh. Ayns 1406 va'n gioot sheeynit da eiraghyn as enmyssee Yuan. V'eh yn tailley ec y ghioot shen na ammys as daa hawk y choyrt da dagh Ree Hostyn ry-heet er laa y chrooinaghey oc.

Lesh çheet ny Stanlee gys y troyn hie Mannin stiagh dys eash ny s'reajit. Faagail magh nagh row ny shellooderyn noa er yn ellan agh ny keayrtyn, chur ad yn ellanfo stiurey kiannoortyn. Mastey olteynyn y lught thie shen, va'n cleayney ny smoo er yn ellan ec y Reejery Juan Stanlagh (1414 - 1432), Jamys Stanlagh, 7-oo Eearley Derby (1627 - 1651) as Jamys Stanlagh, 10-oo Eearley Derby (1702 - 1736). Chur y chied jeu cribban er niart ny barranyn spyrrydoil, chur eh cooish leigh rere bing ayns ynnyd cooish leigh rere caggey, as va ny leighyn screeuit sheese. Ta enney share ayns shennaghys Vannin er y nah 'er, as eh enmyssit myr y Stanlagh Mooar, as y ven heshee echey, Charlotte de la Tremoille (ny Tremouille).

Caggey Theayagh Hostyn as yn Eddyr-reill[reagh]

Ayns 1643 va Jamys Stanlagh, 7-oo Eearley Derby oardit liorish Çhalse dys goll dys Mannin, raad dy row yn sleih ayn baggyrt er irree magh, as adsyn cleaynit lesh ny taghyrtyn ayns Sostyn ec yn am.

Lesh çheet y Stanlagh, lesh sidooryn Sostynagh, va stap currit er irree magh erbee. Ren eh caarjys lesh y sleih ayns liorish y choarid echey, liorish çheet Sostynee as ad gynsagh laue-cheirdyn, as ren eh eiyrtys ny h-eirinee y chooney lesh lhiassaghey cabbil Manninagh, as 'syn am cheddin, chur eh teoraghyn er currymyn ny h-Agglish, agh cha row seyrysnys ny sloo ec ny Manninee na fo stiurey yn Stanlagh. Va'n sleih currit fo keeshyn ardey; va sidooryn currit ayns aaghtyn orroo; as v'eh orroo soiaghey jeh barganeyn soiagh er feie tree seihill ayns ynnyd shellooderys y thalloo rere cummaltys coonlee as eh credjit myr unnane as eirys cadjincliaghtagh.

Shey meeghyn ny yei baase Çhalse (30 Jerrey Geuree 1649), hooar y Stanlagh symney veih'n Ghineraal Ireton dys ny h-ellanyn y livrey seose, red nagh lhiggey eh. Ayns Mee Luanistyn ny bleeaney 1651 hie eh gys Sostyn lesh sidooryn ennagh, as 300 Manninee nyn mastey oc, dys coyrt ry cheilley lesh Ree Çhalse II, as va'n barriaght oc er ny Reeoilee ayns Cah Worcester rheynnit nyn mastey oc. V'eh taarit, currit ayns pryssoon ayns Cashtal ny Caayr as deyrit liorish quaiyl armee. V'eh currit dys baase ayns Bolton.

Irree magh[reagh]

Giare ny yei baase y Stanlagh, dirree Sidooryn Çheerey Vannin, fo kioneys William Christian (ny ny share er fys myr Illiam Dhone), magh ayns oi ny Ben eearley as va dagh doon faagail magh Rosien as Purt ny h-Inshey gowit oc. V'ad currit ry cheilley lesh armee Ard-whaiylagh fo kioneys Curnal Duckenfield. Ny yei sthaagey giare, hug y Ven eearley seose.

Va Thomas Fairfax reiht ec Oliver Cromwell myr Çhiarn Vannin as ny h-Ellanyn ayns Mean Fouyir, as hannee Mannin fo reiltys ard-reeagh, as hannee yn cochiangley lesh Sostyn myr v'ayn hannah.

Aachouyr ny Stanleeyn[reagh]

Va'n reiltys Stanlagh aachurrit er yn ellan ayns 1660. V'eh yn chied slattys jeh'n Çhiarn noa, Çhalse Stanlagh, 8-oo Eearley Derby, na Illiam y chur er cooish leigh. V'eh jeant oolee as v'eh currit dys baase. Mastey sleih elley v'ayns yn irree magh cha row agh troor jeu er-lhimmey jeh'n phardooney cadjin. Agh, rere Oardagh-ayns-Coonseil, v'ad pardoonit liorish Çhalse II, as va ny briwnysyn va freggyrtagh son deyrey Illiam kerrit.

Hooar Çhalse Stanlagh baase ayns 1672, as haink y mac echey Illiam Rickad Shorys Stanlagh, 9-o Eearley Derby ny yei derrey yn baase echey ayns 1702.

Aaphooaraghey[reagh]

Hooar Ree Jamys baase ayns 1736, as hie ard-çhiarnys yn ellan gys James Murray, y Nah Duic Atholl, dooinney mooinjerey as eirey echey. Ayns 1764 haink yn un lhiannoo echey Charlotte Murray, Bendiuic Atholl ny yei, as y fer sheshee eck, John Murray. Haink er Murray dy ve ny Çhiarn Vannin. Mygeayrt ny bleeaney 1720 haghyr bishaghey ayns traght contravanney. Ayns 1726 v'eh currit fo streeaney liorish y Parlamaid, agh car ny jeih bleeaney jerrinagh jeh ream Atholl (1756 - 1765) v'eh cha mooar dys, ayns sym y çheet stiagh Impiroil, v'eh streeanit. Dys eh shen y yannoo, va kiartyn ny h-Athollee myr Çhiarnyn Vannin kionnit fo £70,000 as va bleeantaght currit da'n Duic as y Vendiuic. Va ny kiartyn mannoragh, patroonys yn aspickys, as dooraghtyn ennagh elley freilt oc, derrey v'adsyn creckit fo $417,144 ayns 1828.

Derrey yn aaphooaraghey, va leighyn as slattyssyn crooit ec Tinvaal as adsyn bentyn rish gurneilys yn ellan ayns dagh cooish as va reirey harrish yn argidys eck, as ad fo-viallys da lowal rish Çhiarn Vannin. Lurg yn aaphooaraghey, ny ny share, lurg çheet lesh Slattys Drogh Hraghtey 1765 (ny keayrtyn enmyssit myr y Slattys Olkyssagh liorish ny Maninee), ren Parlamaid y Reriaght Unnaneysit leighyn er keeshyn-marrey, purtyn as lhuingys traghtalagh, as ny keayrtyn chur eh stiagh oltyn as ad cur kied da jeeaney kerraghyn ayns brishey nyn slattyssyn oc. Ghow y Parlamaid obbyr er hene er stiurey keeshyn-marrey ellanagh myrgeddin. Ren ny caghlaaghyn shen, gyn fockle er astraghey yn ard-çhiarnys gys Ree ny Bretyn Mooar as Nerin, kiartaghey da bunraght (neuscreeuit) Ellan Vannin. Hannee ny shenn-leighyn as cummaltyssyn neuloaghtit, agh ayns ram coishyn ren yn aaphooaraghey foalsidyn mooarey aynjee. Cha row Çhiarnyn Vannin nyn vir hoshee sampleyragh er yn ellan, agh va rheynn persoonagh ec y chooid smoo jeu 'sy reiltys eck, as va sym mooar oc ayns gien-mie ny fir vaghee aynjee. Agh nish, haink er ny cooishyn aynjee dy ve nyn obbyr jeh fir oikagh as adsyn smooinaghtyn nagh row 'syn ellan agh edd paittoil drogh hraghtalee.

Haghyr sorçh eddrymaghey jeh'n stayd shen eddyr ny bleeantyn 1793 as 1826 nar va John Murray, 4-oo Duic Atholl ny Chiannoort. Faagail magh dy row arganeysyn eddyr eh as y Kiare as Feed ren eh eiyrtyssyn lhiass yn ellan y chur er oaie. Ny yei'n immeeaght echey, ghow ny fir hoshee toshiaght reesht er nyn miallee oc, agh va ny smoo tastey soilshit magh oc na v'ayn hannah. Harrish shen, er y fa nagh row drogh hraghtey cha mennick na dy row eh roish, as er y fa dy row fooillagh bishee ec çheet stiagh Manninagh, hug lught y chioneys sooill ny share harrish Mannin. Booise da'n nhee shen as da çhaghteryssyn ny Manninee lesh ny h-arraghyn Goaldagh ayns 1837, 1844 as 1853, hooar ee custym ny sloo geyre as cooney keayrtagh ry hoi shassoo obbraghyn pobbylagh naggyr ayn.

Yn Eash Noa-emshiragh[reagh]

Lurg ny bleeaney 1866, nar hooar Mannin hene-reiltys ennymagh, ren ny Manninee goll er oai, as ec y traa t'ayn t'ad nyn go-phobble raahagh, lesh staydys pargys-keesh.

Va Ellan Vannin ymmydit myr bun-ynnyd ry hoi campyn da Pryssoonys Fir Quaagh 'sy Chied Chaggey Dowanagh (1914-18) as 'sy Nah Chaggey Dowanagh (1939-45). Car y Chied Chaggey Dowanagh va daa champ ayn: va'n chied champ ny ynnyd seyrey femoilysagh ayns Doolish as va'n nah champ troggit er lheh ayns Skeerey Pherick. Car y Nah Chaggey Dowanagh va ram campyn ny sloo ayns Doolish, Purt ny h-Inshey, Purt Çhiarn as Rhumsa.

'Sy 20-oo eash leah haghyr aavioaghey ayns kiaull, daunse, as çhengey Vannin, agh cha row eh feer raahoil er y fa dy hooar y Gaelgeyr jerrinagh ayns ny 1970yn. Ayns cooid veanagh jeh'n feedoo eash haink y Taoiseach Éamon de Valera dys yn ellan, as haink er dy ve lhag-chreeagh lesh neu-phohlldey da'n Ghaelg as hug eh daa van recortyssagh dys yn ellan. Ny yei immeeaght yn eash, hie yn tarmaynys turryssagh sheese, ec yn am dy row ny Sostynee as ny Yernee gys y Spaainey er laaghyn seyrey bundeilagh. Ren y reiltys briwnys dys pargys-keesh y chroo er yn ellan. Choud's va eiyrtyssyn vondeishagh er tarmaynys Vannin, ta ram cooyl-caayntee ayn as ad jeeraghey er sollaghey-laue 'sy çhynskyl argidagh as nieeaghyn-argid. T'eh shen er chur garrey mooar da ashoonaghys Manninagh ayns ny bleeantyn jeianagh. Va ny parteeghyn politickagh ashoonagh Mec Vannin as Partee Ashoonagh Vannin currit er bun myr eiyrtys, chammah as y possan cragheydys anvio Fo Halloo.

Ayns ny 1990yn as ny 2000yn ta enney ny share ry akin ayns cultoor dooghyssagh Vannin, lheid as y chied vunscoill Ghaelgagh, chammah as aareayrtys er tarmaynys yn ellan.

Jeeagh er neesht[reagh]

Imraaghyn[reagh]

  1. A New History of the Isle of Man Volume 1 - The Evolution of the Natural Landscape. reaghit liorish Richard Hiverrell as Geoffrey Thomas pp295-296 (1-d Chlou)(2006) Liverpool University Press ISBN 0-85323-587-2

Kianglaghyn mooie[reagh]