Nerin

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
She yn ellan 'syn Oarpey bun-chooish y duillag shoh. My ta sym ayd ayns y çheer neuchroghagh t'er enney fo'n ennym cheddin, lhaih Pobblaght Nerin.
Jalloo feer-ghaait er Nerin, jeant ec NASA er 4 J. Geuree, lesh y Cheayn Sheear da'n sheear as Mooir Vannin da'n shiar
Soiaghey Nerin 'syn Oarpey

Ta Nerin (Yernish: Éire, Baarle: Ireland, Ullanish: Airlann) yn trass ellan smoo 'syn Oarpey as ny feedoo ellan smoo 'sy Chruinney.[1] T'ee ny soie ayns sheear hwoaie ny h-Oarpey as t'ee cruinnit lesh keeadyn dy ellanyn as ellaneenyn. Ta'n Vretyn Vooar soit da'n shiar as ish scarrit veih Nerin liorish Mooir Vannin. Ta Pobblaght Nerin coodaghey 5/6 dy eaghtyr yn ellan. Ta Nerin Hwoaie, cooid jeh'n Reeriaght Unnaneysit, coodaghey'n chooid elley, as t'ee ny soie ayns shiar hwoaie yn ellan. Ta'n ellan jeant seose jeh cruink as sleityn injil ta cruinnlaghey strah rea lheeadagh as ta awinyn yn-shiaulley sheeyney stiagh çheu sthie. Ta glasseraght rank 'syn ellan - troar jeh'n speyr faarkagh vog ayn. Va çheshvean yn ellan coodit liorish keylljyn gloo derrey ny 1600yn agh jiu t'ee ny h-ard smoo jee-cheyllit 'syn Oarpey.[2] Ta shey sheeintee ghooghyssagh as feed ayns Nerin. Ta'n shynnagh ruy, yn arkan sonney, as y broc so-akin dy mennick, agh ta'n mwaagh Yernagh, y feeaih ruy as kiyt ny miljyn ry-gheddyn chammah.

T'eh oolit dy vel 6.2 millioonyn dy 'leih ayns Nerin. Ta beggan ny sloo na 4.5 millioonyn dy 'leih cummal ayns Pobblaght Nerin as ta beggan ny sloo na 1.8 millioonyn dy 'leih cummal ayns Nerin Hwoaie.[3] Ta ny h-earrooyn shen taishbyney bishaghey mooar ayns sleih-earroo yn ellan veih'n 4.2 millioonyn va cummal ayn ayns ny 1960yn, agh t'eh foddey ny sloo veih'n 8 millioonyn va cummal er yn ellan ayns ny 1840yn leah roish çheet y Ghortey Mooar.[4]

Ayns ny Mean Eashyn haink ny Normanee dys Nerin as fo-yerrey haink jerrey lesh y lhing Normanagh as toshiaght lesh y chioneys Sostynagh ayns ny 1500yn. Ayns ny 1600yn, va corys dy chioneys Sostynagh Protestoonagh er ny chummey dys neuvondeish dy chur er y vooar chooid Chatoleagh Raueagh as Phrotestoonagh yiooldagh, as v'eh sheeynt car ny 1700yn. Ayns 1801, haink er Nerin dy ve ny cooid jeh'n Reeriaght Unnaneysit. Rere caggey er son seyrsnys 'sy 20-oo eash leah haink er y çheer dy ve rheynnit ayns daa ayrn - Steat Seyr Nerin as Nerin Hwoaie. Haink er Steat Seyr Nerin dy ve ny smoo seyr harrish ny jeihaghtyn agh hannee Nerin Hwoaie lesh y Reeriaght Unnaneysit. Haghyr boirey theayagh ayns veih ny 1960yn jeianagh derrey ny 1990yn. Huitt y mooadys dy voiraghyn lurg conaant politickagh ayns 1998. Ayns 1973, hie'n daa ayrn jeh'n ellan stiagh 'sy Voodeeys Tarmaynagh Oarpagh (yn Unnaneys Oarpagh jiu). Haghyr bishaghey tarmaynagh neusampleyrit ayns Pobblaght Nerin veih ny 1990yn meanagh derrey'n gheyre-ghaue argidoil Yernagh ayns 2008-2010.[5]

Shennaghys[reagh]

Son shennaghys Nerin veih'n vlein 1921, jeeagh-shiu er Shennaghys Phobblaght Nerin as Shennaghys Nerin Hwoaie.

Y roie-hennaghys as yn eash vean-eashagh[reagh]

Va'n chooid smoo dy Nerin coodit lesh rio derrey jerrey ny h-eash rioee jerrinagh ny smoo na 9,000 bleeantyn er dy henney. Va yrjidyn marrey ny s'inshley ec y traa shen as va Nerin, myrane lesh y nabooys eck y Vretyn Vooar, kianglt rish yn Oarpey vooar-heeragh as cha row ad nyn ellanyn. Haink sleih mean chlaghagh car Eash ny Claghyn gys yn ellan mychione ny bleeaney 8,000 RC as haink yn eirinys ny yei lesh çheet yn Eash-Chloaie Noa mychione 4,500 derrey 4,000 RC tra va kirree, goair, ollagh as grineyn currit stiagh veih lieh-innys ny h-Ibeir. Ayns Achaidh Chéide, ta corys rheaymyssagh dy vagheryn, y corys shinney 'sy dowan foddee, freilt fo coodagh dy voaney ayns Coontae Vay Eo noa-emshiragh,[6] as ta'n corys shen çheet ass y lhing shen, ny beggan ny yei. Ta'n corys shen jeant seose jeh rheynnagyn beggey ta scarrit veih nyn geilley liorish boallaghyn cloaie-çhirrym, as va ny magheryn lhiassit er feie shiartanse dy cheeadyn eddyr 3,500 as 3,000 RC. V'ad curnagh as oarn ny troaryn smoo scanshoil. Hoshee yn Eash Ooha – ta meenit liorish ymmyd meain – mychione ny bleeaney 2,500 RC tra va'n çhaghnoaylleeaght caghlaa seihill y phobble car y lhing shen liorish noaidyn lheid as y wheel, goaill greienys er dew, jannoo fidderaght er eggaghyn feeit, gimbylagh alcoal, as obbyr-veainey schleioil, cur magh greieyn caggee as greieyn noa, as jesheenaghey airh vraew as cliejeeneydys, lheid as jialgyn broghil as torcyn.

Ta'n Eash Yiarn ayns Nerin kianglt dy tradishoonagh rish sleih t'er enney myr ny Celtiee. V'eh er credjal dy cadjin dy ren ny Celtiee coloinaghey Nerin ayns straih dy ruegyssyn eddyr y 8-oo as y 1-d cheead-bleeaney RC. V'eh raait, dy ren ny Gaeil, y straih yerrinagh jeh ny Celtiee, rheynn magh yn ellan ayns queig ny ny smoo reeriaghtyn lurg y choloinaghey j'ee oc. Ansherbee, ta ard-schoillaryn jiu cur foayr ayns reartys ta cur trimmid da skeaylley dy chultoor veih ardjyn çheumooie jeh'n ellan as nagh haghyr coloinaghey cahnagh.[7][8] Ta feddynyn magh lheid as Fear Chluain Uí Chaomháin taishbynit myr feanish jeh'n reayrtys shen.

Ta ny recortyssyn screeuee s'leah er Nerin çheet ass çheer-oaylleeyn classicagh Greagagh-Raueagh. Ta Ptolemy ayns yn Almagest echey çheet er Nerin myr Mikra Brettania (Y Vretyn Veg), ayns cosoylaght rish yn ellan smoo, va enmyssit Megale Brettania echey (Y Vretyn Vooar).[9] Ayns yn obbyr ny s'anmey echey, Geographia, ta Ptolemy çheet er Nerin myr Iwernia as er y Vretyn Vooar myr Albion. Va ny h-enmyn "noa" shen goit ass enmyn dooghyssagh er ny h-ellanyn ec y tra shen. Va ny shenn-enmyn, ayns neu-chosoylaght, crooit roish cur fys dy jeeragh rish sleih ynnydagh.[10] Ren ny Rauee ny s'anmey çheet er Nerin lesh yn ennym shen chammah agh ayns y chummey Ladjynaghey, Hibernia,[11] ny Scotia.[12] Ta Ptolemy recortyssey shey cleinyn jeig va cummal ayns dagh ayrn dy Nerin 'sy vlein 100 BNJ.[13] Cha nel eh baghtal cre'n torçh dy chiangley v'ayn eddyr yn Impiraght Raueagh as ny cleinyn ayns Nerin henndeeagh. Ta screeuyn moyllee er çheu mooie er mayrn çheet ass screeuyn Raueagh, er wheesh dy vel coontyssyn dooghyssagh çheet ass feeleeaght as feayn-skeealleydaght Yernagh. Agh, ta mooarane dy chooinaghyn Raueagh er ny gheddyn ayns Nerin, myr sampleyr ayns Sí an Bhrú.[14]

Va Nerin ny mestey jeh cleinyn trughanagh agh, goaill toshiaghey 'sy 7-oo cheead-bleeaney BNJ, va sheiltynys dy reeoilaght ashoonagh oltit dy keimagh trooid yn eie jeh Ard Ree Nerin. Ta lettyraght Yernagh vean-eashagh soilshaghey straih begnagh gyn baarney jeh Ard Reeaghyn ta sheeyney sheear harrish millaghyn dy vleeantyn, agh ta screeuderyn shennaghys noa-emshiragh credjal dy row yn sleim shen cummit 'sy 8-oo cheead-bleeaney dy chur trimmid er staydys ny possanyn politickagh troshtagh as ad croghey bun y reill oc jeeragh stiagh ayns ny traaghyn shenndeeagh.[15] V'eh raait dy ren yn Ard Ree reirey ny reeriaghtyn queiggagh va jannoo seose Nerin. Va ree er lheh ec dagh fer jeh ny reeriaghtyn shen agh v'ad fo-viallys da'n Ard Ree ayns ennym er y chooid sloo. Haink yn Ard Ree magh ass ny reeaghyn queiggagh as ren eh reirey reeriaght ny Mee, lesh preeu-valley jesh-chliaghtagh ayns Teamhair. Cha daink er yn eie dy ve ny feerid agh ayns Eash ny Loghlynee agh cha row ee ny h-eie chohassooagh erbee.[16] Agh va reill ynrican dy leigh ayns Nerin: y corys briwnagh screeuee va enmyssit ny Leighyn Briwnagh, as va reirit ec lught keirdey dy leigh-oaylleeyn va enmyssit briwnyn.[17]

Ta Recortys Nerin recortyssey da daink yn Aspick Palladius gys Nerin er mishoon sushtal 'sy vlein 431 BNJ veih Paab Celestine II dys ny Yernee dy hushtallaghey, agh tra haink eh gys Nerin va'n pobble "credjal ayns fockle Chreest" hannah[18] Ta'n recortys hene recortyssey dy daink Noo Perick, yn ard-noo Yernagh share er enney, 'sy vlein lurg shen. Ta resoonaght foast ayn er mishoonyn Phalladius as Pherick, agh ta co-choardailys ayn er taghyrt y daa vishoonyn[19] as ta shickyrys ayn er tuittym y hradishoon druaiaghtagh shinney noi'n chredjue noa.[20] Va ny schoillaryn Creestee Yernagh nyn sur-schoillaryn ayns Ladjyn as Greagish as ayns jeeghtys Creestee. 'Sy chultoor maynaghoil lurg goaill Creestee Nerin, va studeyrys er y Ladjyn as y Ghreagish freilt ayns Nerin car ny Mean Eashyn Leah ayns neu-chosoylaght rish buill elley 'syn Oarpey, raad haghyr ny h-Eashyn Dorraghey lurg tuittym yn Impiraght Raueagh.[20][21] Haghyr blaaghey ayns ny h-ellynyn, lheid as daahghey laue-screeuyn, obbyr-veainey as jallooderys as va tashtee lheid as Leabhar Cheanannais troarit, myrane lesh cliejeeneydys ornaidagh as shiartanse dy croshyn cloaie grainnit[22] ta foast ry-akin er feie'n ellan jiu.

Veih'n 9-oo eash, ren straihyn dy ruegyssyn Loghlynagh craghey mannishteryn as baljyn Yernagh.[23] Chur ny ruegyssyn shen lesh taghyrt cadjin dy chraghey as caggey va ry-gheddyn dy dowin ayns Nerin hannah.

Ruegyssyn Normanagh as Sostynagh[reagh]

Tholtanee Caisleáin Bhaile Átha Troim veih'n 11-d cheead-bleeaney ayns Coontae ny Mee, y cashtal Normanagh smoo ayns Nerin.

Er 1 Boaldyn, 1169, haink turrys-contoyrtys dy reejereeyn Bretnagh-Normanagh er y çheer ec Cuan an Bhainbh ayns Coontae Logh Garman lesh sheshaght chaggee va jeant seose jeh mygeayrt shey keead dy hidooryn. Va'n turrys stiurit liorish Richard de Clare, as eh enmyssit Strongbow ("bow troshtagh") rere y lajerid echey myr sideyr.[24] Va'n ruegys shen, va taghyrt ec tra cheddin jeh bishaghey Normanagh noa, jeant ec cuirrey Diarmait Mac Murchada, ree Lion.

'Sy vlein 1166, hie Mac Murchada gys Anjou, y Rank lurg caggey lesh Tighearnán Ua Ruairc, veih Breifne, as ren eh shirrey er cooney veih'n ree Angevin, Inry II, as eh geearree e reeriaght dy aaghoaill. 'Sy vlein 1171, haink Inry gys Nerin dy yannoo aavriwnys er immeeaght chadjin y hurrys-contoyrtys. V'eh geearree kioneys reeoil dy aachur er y ruegys as eh bishaghey magh veih'n smaght echey. Ren Inry chur kioneys er Strongbow as ny çhiarnyn-caggee Bretnagh-Normanagh reesht, as ren eh cleayney er ny reeaghyn Yernagh eh dy ghoaill rish myr ard-hiarn, red va shickyrit ayns Conaant Windsor 'sy vlein 1175.

Va'n ruegys lowit liorish kiarailyn y Vulley Paabagh Laudabiliter, va soilshit magh liorish Adrian IV 'sy vlein 1155. Ren y bulley cur creeaght er Inry dy ghoaill greim er Nerin son aa-reaghey argidoil as reiragh yn Agglish Yernagh as e mestey stiagh 'sy chorys Agglishagh Raueagh dy oaseiraghey. Va aastrughtoorey er ny toshiaghey hannah ec keim agglishagh lurg Ard-choyrle Cheanannais 'sy vlein 1152. Ta arganys ayn mychione y vulley, agh ta'n varrantoilid echey goit dy mie jiu.[25] Hug eh çhiarnys er Nerin gys Inry ayns ennym y phaabaght.[26] 'Sy vlein 1172, ren y paab noa, Alistair III, cur creeaght er Inry son yn Agglish Yernagh dy ghoaill stiagh ny smoo lesh yn Agglish Raueagh. V'eh lhiggit da Inry jaghee dy phing 'sy çhiollagh myr contoyrtys bleeanagh dy chur er y phobble. Ta'n jaghee shen, va enmyssit pingyn Pheddyr, foast ry-akin ayns Nerin myr toyrtys arryltagh. Reir garraghyn, ghow Inry lesh yn enmys Çhiarn Nerin ren Inry bronney er e vac aeg, John Lackland, 'sy vlein 1185. Ren eh cur sheese y steat Yernagh myr Çhiarnaght Nerin. Tra hooar eiyrtyssagh Inry baasedy doaltattym ayns 1199, ren John eiraghey crooin Hostyn as dreill eh Çhiarnaght Nerin.

Harrish y cheead-bleeaney lurg shen, ren leigh Normanagh cur stiagh ayns ynnyd y Leigh Briwnagh as ec jerrey y trass eash jeig yeianagh va corys feudagh Normanagh currit er bun er feie'n chooid smoo dy Nerin liorish ny Normanee Yernagh. Va buill chummaltit cowrit liorish bunneeaght ny barranaghtyn, ny mannoryn, ny baljyn as toshiaght y chorys coontae noa-emshiragh. Va lhieggan jeh'n Çhiart Vooar (Çhiart Vooar Nerin), soilshit magh 'sy vlein 1216, as eh cur Divlyn ayns ynnyd Lunnin as yn Agglish Yernagh ayns ynnyd Agglish Hostyn, as va Parlamaid Nerin bunnit 'sy vlein 1297.

Ansherbee, veih mean y 14-oo eash, lurg y Ghorley Doo, hie buill chummaltit Normanagh ayns Nerin stiagh ayns lhing voalaghey. Ren reileyderyn Normanagh as sleih mullee Yernagh dooghyssagh eddyr-phoosey as haink er ny h-ardjyn fo smaght ny Normanee dy ve jeant Gaelgagh. Ayns ayrnyn ennagh, dirree cultoor Yernagh-Normanagh mestit ayn. Myr freggyrt da shen, va Slattyssyn Cheeill Chennee currit er bun ayns 1367 liorish y Pharlamaid Yernagh. Va ne leighyn shen nyn bossan dy leighyn va cummit dy chur lhiettal er lheie ny Normanee stiagh ayns sheshaght Nerin as ren ad cur feme er y theay Sostynagh ayns Nerin y Vaarle dy loayrt, cliaghtaghyn Sostynagh dy ghoaill rish, as gow rish y leigh Hostynagh.[27] Ansherbee, ec jerrey y 15-oo eash va'n kioneys Sostynagh meanagh begnagh immeeit as va cultoor as çhengey Yernagh aanoa, lesh cleanaghyn Normanagh, ayns yn ard-voayl reesht. Agh hannee stiurey fo Crooin Hostyn gyn brishey gyn crampys ayns ard mygeayrt Divlyn as yn ard shen enmyssit y Phaal as fo conaantyn Leigh Poyning veih'n vlein 1494, va slattys jeh'n Pharlamaid Yernagh fo-viallys da lowal rish Parlamaid Hostyn.

Va reill Sostynagh aaniartit as bishit 'sy 16-oo eash, ansherbee, as ren eh shen leeideil gys aaghoaill Hiudaragh Nerin. Va ruegys begnagh slane cooilleenit roish toshiaght y 17-oo eash lurg Caggey ny Nuy Bleeaney as Immeeaght ny h-Eearlaghyn. Va'n gurneil shen niartit car ny caggaghyn (lheid as Caggaghyn ny Tree Reeriaghtyn as y Caggey Illiamagh) as y choloinaghey Sostynagh as Albinagh (Plandailyn Nerin) 'sy 17-oo eash. T'eh er credjal dy hooar 20,000 sidooryn Yernagh baase car Caggey ny Tree Reeriaghtyn, as t'eh oolit dy hooar 200,000 shivoilee baase myr eiyrtys er cochiangle jeh gonney, scughey, gastid cheylley as paitt car y chaggey. Va 16,000 shivoilee elley prowit as shiaullit myr sleabyn gys ny h-Injyn Sheear. Ta screeuderyn shennaghys ennagh gooley dy hooar seose gys lieh-chooid dy sleih-earroo Nerin baase myr eiyrtys jeh'n chaggey.[28]

Ren kestalyn crauee jeh'n 17-oo eash cur rheynn scarreydagh ayns Nerin. Ren ammys crauee feddyn magh y tastid 'sy leigh er y leighaltys da'n Ree as da'n Pharlamaid Yernagh. Lurg goaill rish y Test Act 1673 as lesh barriaght ny forseyn jeh'n reeriaght ghooblit jeh Illiam as Moirrey harrish ny Jamyssee, va lhiettrimys currit er Catolee Raueagh as er Protestoonee Neuchoardailagh anchochredjuagh rish soie myr olteynyn ayns Parlamaid Nerin. Fo ny leighyn kerree, va cairyn deiney ny smoo as ny smoo goit ass ny Catolee Raueagh as ny Protestoonee Neuchoardailagh goaill stiagh cairyn da eirys. Va tooilley slattyssyn kerree cooyllagh currit rish ayns ny bleeantyn 1703, 1709 as 1728. Ren eh creaghney corys slane dy chur neuvondeish er Catolee Raueagh as Neuchoardailee Phrotestoonagh, as lhig ny slattyssyn shen lhiasaghey sleih mullee jeh Coardailee Anglicaanagh.[29] Va'n lught reill Anglo-Yernagh shen enmyssit Eaghtyrys Protestoonagh.

Yn unnaneys rish y Vretyn Vooar[reagh]

Lieh-chroghey deyrit da Yernee Unnaneysit fo ouyrys

Ren emshir neuchadjin, myrane lesh çheet lheeah praase veih America Hwoaie, cur failleil ny praaseyn er bun. Myr eiyrtys jeh shen, haghyr gonney 'sy vlein 1740. T'eh er ooley dy hooar mychione 250,000[30] baase (mychione un 'er ayns dagh hoght fer jeh'n phobble) rere y phaitt as yn asslaynt ny lurg. Ren y reiltys Yernagh cur lhiettrimys er assphurtal arroo as va'n çheshaght chaggee freilt ayns nyn marrickyn oc, agh cha ren ad ny smoo na shen.[30][31] Ren sleih ooasle as reagheydyssyn jeirk kiarail couyr agh cha row ad jaral cur streeaney er y vaasoilid ny lurg.[30][31] 'Syn eiyrtys lurg y ghonney, ren bishaghey ayns troarey çhynskylagh as freayney ayns traght cur rish troggalys 'syn ellan. Haghyr mooadaghey mooar ayns earroo yn phobble 'sy lieh jerrinagh jeh'n eash shoh as va leggad ard-obbrinagh Horshagh Nerin troggit. 'Sy vlein 1782, va Leigh Poynings mooghit as hug eh shen da Nerin far-heyrsnys slattysagh veih'n Vretyn Vooar da'n chied cheayrt veih tra'n ruegys Normanagh. Ansherbee, va'n kiart freilt ec y reiltys Goaldagh reiltys Nerin dy enmys harrish co-choardail y pharlamaid Yernagh.

'Sy vlein 1798, haink olteynyn jeh'n tradishoon Protestoonagh Neuchoardailagh (Presbyteyree son y chooid smoo) ry-cheiley lesh ny Catolee Raueagh ayns irree magh pobblaghtagh va cur ardsmooinaght da as stiurit ec Sheshaght ny Yernee Unnaneysit as v'eh yn dean oc steat seyr dy chur er bun ayns Nerin. Dyn y wooise da'n chooney veih'n Rank, va'n irree magh currit fo chosh liorish ny reiltyssyn Goaldagh as Yernagh as liorish forseyn kern. 'Sy vlein 1800, hie Slattys Unnaneys trooid ny parlamaidyn Goaldagh as Yernagh, as haink eh stiagh ayns bree er 1 Jerrey Geuree 1801. Ren eh unnaneysey Reeriaght Nerin as Reeriaght ny Bretyn Mooar stiagh ayns reeriaght hingil va enmyssit Reeriaght Unnaneysit ny Bretyn Mooar as Nerin. Va shiaulley yn Slattys 'sy Pharlamaid Yernagh jeant liorish y vooar-chooid, agh cha hie eh trooid y Pharlamaid 'sy chied cheayrt ayns 1799. Rere docamadyn jeh'n traa as scrutaghey shendeeagh, hie eh trooid y Pharlamaid lesh cooney sollaghey laueys, lesh cooney argid va kiarit liorish Oik y Çhirveish Folliaghtagh Ghoaldagh, as liorish bronney ooashlidyn, buill as onnoryn son voteyn dy hickyraghey.[32] Lesh shen, haink er Nerin dy ve ny cooid jeh'n Reeriaght Unnaneysit heeynt, va reirit dy jeeragh veih'n pharlamaid 'sy Vannishter Heear ayns Lunnin. Va shirveishaght lhiass-reeoil currit er bun myrane lesh yn Ard-Scrudeyr ec Cashtal Ghivlyn.

Emigrants Leave Ireland ("Arragheryn Magh Faagail Nerin"), grainney liorish Henry Doyle ta soilshaghey magh yn arraghey magh gys America lurg y Ghortey Mooar ayns Nerin

Hooar mychione un villioon Yernee baase 'sy Ghortey Mooar car ny 1840yn as daag ny smoo na un villioon deiney elley.[33] Rish jerrey ny jeihaght, va lieh-chooid jeh sthie-arraghey gys ny Steatyn Unnaneysit çheet ass Nerin. Haink er yn arraghey magh dy ve ny chooid ghowin jeh'n aigney as ren y sleih-earroo tuittym gys mean y 20-oo eash. Jeeragh roish y ghortey, va'n coontey-pobble recortyssey 8.2 millioon dy 'leih 'syn ellan.[34] Agh cha nel earroo yn phobble er roshtyn gys ny h-earrooyn shen veih'n traa shen.[35] Huitt earroo yn phobble gys ny 1961 as ayns 2006 ren y coontae jerrinagh (Coontae Lheeahtrim) y chied irree ayns sleih-earroo veih'n vlein 1841.

Dirree eie yn ashoonaghys Yernagh, mastey Catolee Raueagh son y chooid smoo, car y 19-oo as y 20-oo eash. Va Daniel O'Connell ny ghooinney ard-cheimnagh mastey ny fir jeh'n eie shen. V'eh reiht myr oltey yn pharlamaid son Innys ayns eiyrtys yindyssagh ga nagh vel eh jargal e hoiag y ghoaill er oyr dy row eh ny Chatoleagh Raueagh. Ren O'Connell stiurey troddan breeoil va goit ec Ard-Vinishter Duic Wellington, va ny hidoor as ny steateyr va ruggit ayns Nerin. Ren eh stiurey yn Slattys trooid pharlamaid ny Mannishter Heear, lesh cooney veih'n ard-vinishter ry heet Robert Peel, as ren Wellington geddyn barriaght er Shorys IV y billey dy fo-screeu as dy fockley magh myr leigh. Ren ayr Horys goll noi plan yn eear-Ard-Vinishter, Pitt the Younger, e lheid billey dy chur stiagh 'sy pharlamaid lurg yn Unnaneys 'sy vlein 1801 er yn oyr dy row eh credjal dy row eh ayns contraartys rish Slattys Coloinaghey 1701.

Cha row y troddan eiyrtyssagh son mooghey yn Slattys Unnaneysey ec O'Connell raahoil. Ny s'anmey 'sy cheead-blein, ren Charles Stewart Parnell as fir elley troggal troddan er son hene-reiltys çheu-sthie 'syn Unnaneys, ny "Reill Thie". Va ny h-Unnaneyseyryn, goaill stiagh ad 'sy chooid hwoaie jeh'n ellan er lheh, noi eie yn Reill Thie, er yn oyr dy row ad credjal dy beagh y sorçh reill shen fo kioneys anaaseyn Catoleagh.[36] Lurg shiartanse dy eabyn billey Reill Thie dy hiaulley trooid y pharlamaid, v'eh begnagh kinjagh dy beagh fer goll trooid y pharlamaid 'sy vlein 1914. Son lhiettrimys dy chur er shen, va Arryltee Ulley currit er bun 'sy vlein 1913 fo stiurey Çhiarn Carson. Va Arryltee Nerin currit er bun myr eiyrtys er shen 'sy vlein 1914, as y dean oc son y Billey Reill Thie dy hickyraghey as eh goll trooid y pharlamaid. Hie'n Slattys trooid y pharlamaid lesh shaghney "shallidagh" er ny shey coondaeghyn ayns Queiggey Ulley. Ansherbee, roish lowal y Slattys v'eh currit tayrnit magh car y Chaggey Mooar. Va Arryltee Yernagh rheynnit ayns daa phossan. Ghow y vooar-chooid, mychione 175,000 dy 'leih, fo John Redmond, yn ennym Arryltee Ashoonagh as chur ad cooney da cassey Nerin 'sy chaggey. Dreill y vyn-chooid, mychione 13,000 dy 'leih, yn ennym, Arryltee Nerin, as v'ad goll noi cassey Nerin 'sy chaggey.[37]

Va Irree Magh anraahoil y Chaisht 'sy vlein 1916 stiurit liorish y possan shen jerrinagh, as ren y freggyrt Goaldagh, cur gys baase jeh ny fir hoshee, caghlaa yn teaym ashoonagh gys Reill Thie. Hooar y partee currit rish seyrsnys, Sinn Féin, screeuyn-drommey mooarey ayns Ard-Reihys ny bleeaney 1918 as 'sy vlein 1919 va parlamaid as reiltys lhieu hene fogrit magh - Pobblaght Nerin. Ren ny h-eaghtyryssyn Goaldagh eab y doolane shen dy chur fo chosh, agh haghyr caggey keylley myr eiyrtys veih'n vlein 1919 derrey Jerrey Souree ny bleeaney 1921, as y caggey shen creaghney ayns scuirr caggee.[38] Va'n Conaant Anglo-Yernagh creaghnit eddyr y Reiltys Goaldagh as çhaghteryn jeh'n Chied Dáil (Çhionnal Nerin) 'sy vlein 1921. Hug y conaant slane seyrsnys da Nerin ayns cooishyn thie as begnagh slane seyrsnys ayns polasee joarree. Ansherbee, lhisagh da dagh çhaghter Yernagh jean loo ammys da'n Chrooin Ghoaldagh. As va steat reill thie jeant jeh Nerin Hwoaie çheu sthie jeh Steat Seyr Nerin noa, agh va olt reih magh eck, olt va jeant jeeragh ny lurg.[39] Ren arganeyssyn mychione ny kiarailyn rheynn 'sy ghleashaght ashoonagh as haghyr caggey theayagh eddyr y reiltys noa 'sy Steat Seyr as adsyn va goll noi'n chonaant, as ad stiurit liorish Éamon de Valera. Haink jerrey oikoil lesh y chaggey theayagh ayns Mee Voaldyn 1923 tra ren de Valera fogrey magh oardagh er scuirr-chaggee.[40]

Reiltys[reagh]

Son ny smoo fys jeeagh-shiu er: Shennaghys NerinPolitickaght Phobblaght Nerin, as Deyn-oaylleeaght as politickaght Nerin Hwoaie
Coontae Cherree Coontae Aontrym Coontae Ghoirrey Coontae yn Doon Coontae Ard Maghey Coontae Lhoo Coontae Heer Eoin Coontae Logh Garman Coontae Ghivlyn Coontae Cheeill Mantan Coontae Vuinaghan Coontae Ghoon ny Ghoal Coontae 'er Managh Coontae Phurt Largey Coontae Chorkee Coontae Limmeragh Coontae yn Chlaair Coontae Cheatharlach Coontae Cheeill Chennee Coontae Leesh Coontae Hybbyrt Aarey Coontae ny Mee Coontae Cheeill Darey Coontae yn Chavan Coontae Lheeahtrim Coontae Shliggee Coontae Ros Comain Coontae ny Galliu Coontae yn Lhongfort Coontae ny h-Eearvee Coontae Uíbh Fhailí Coontae Vay Eo Coontae Vay EoCaslys-çheerey Nerin ta taishbyney joaraghyn coondae tradishoonagh as enmyn lesh coondaeghyn Nerin Hwoaie daahit ayns daah ruy, as dagh coontae elley ayns daah glass
Caslys-çheerey jeh'n 32 choontae tradishoonagh Nerin. Ta ny 26 coondaeghyn ayns Pobblaght Nerin taishbynit ayns eayney dorraghey, as ta ny 6 coondaeghyn ayns Nerin Hwoaie taishbynit ayns eayney gial. Ta dagh fer jeh ny coondaeghyn nyn giangley yn-chriggaragh dys yn art fo'n ennym cheddin.

Ta Nerin rheynnit ayns daa unnidyn politickagh:

  • Pobblaght Nerin, shickyrit er 21 Jerrey Geuree 1919 as currit er bun dy h-oikoil er 6 Nollick 1922, (Ireland ny Éire ("Nerin") dy h-oikoil), steat seyr ta coodaghey 5/6 dy eaghtyr yn ellan. She Divlyn e preeu-valley.
  • Nerin Hwoaie, currit er bun er 3 Boaldyn 1921, cooid jeh'n Reeriaght Unnaneysit ta coodaghey 1/6 dy eaghtyr yn ellan. She Beeal Feirshtey e preeu-valley.

Dy tradishoonagh, ta Nerin rheynnit stiagh ayns kiare queiggaghyn: Queiggey Connaghtey (sheear), Queiggey Lion (shiar), Queiggey Mooan (jiass), as Queiggey Ulley (twoaie). Rere corys v'er ny lhiassaghey eddyr y 13-oo as y 17-oo eashyn,[41] ta daa choontae tradishoonagh jeig as feed ayns Nerin. Ta shey coondaeghyn as feed jeu nyn soie ayns Pobblaght Nerin as ta shey coondaeghyn nyn soie ayns Nerin Hwoaie. Ta dagh fer jeh ny shey coondaghyn ayns Nerin Hwoaie soit ayns Queiggey Ulley myrgeddin (as nuy coondaeghyn 'sy wheiggey 'sy clane). Lesh shen, ta'n ennym Ullee currit dy mennick er Nerin Hwoaie myr co-cheayllagh, ga nagh vel y daa enmys co-chagliagh.

Ayns Pobblaght Nerin, ta ny coondaeghyn jannoo bunneydys da corys gurneilys ynnydagh. Ta ny coondaeghyn Divlyn, Corkee, Limmeragh, Galliu, Purt Largey, as Çhybbyrt Aarey er nyn rheynn magh ayns unnidyn reiragh ny sloo. Agh, t'ad coontit myr coondaeghyn er son cooishyn cultooragh as cooishyn reiragh ennagh, lheid as shirveishyn postagh as Ordnance Survey Ireland, ansherbee. Cha nel ny coondaeghyn ayns Nerin Hwoaie coontit ymmydit er son cooishyn gurneilys reiragh,[42] agh, myrane lesh y Phobblaght, ta ny joaraghyn tradishoonagh ymmydit ry hoi cooishyn neu-formoil lheid as leegyn spoyrt as ayns co-hecksyn cultooragh as turrysagh myrane lesh ayns enmyssyn postagh.[43]

Ta staydys ard-valley ayns Nerin er ny vriwnyssey rere kaart reeoil ny slattyssagh. She Divlyn, lesh ny smoo na 1 villioon dy chummaltee ayns Ard Ghivlyn Mooar,[44] yn ard-valley smoo er yn ellan. T'ad ny h-ard-valjyn elley na:[Note 1][45]

Foddee Keeill Chennee (22,179 cummaltee), ee dy chur sheese myr ard-valley rere leigh, ga nagh vel ee ny h-ard-valley dy h-oikoil ny smoo. Ta ny smoo cummaltee ayns baljyn ennagh na t'ayn ayns ny h-ard-valjyn ta currit 'sy rolley heose agh cha nel ad er enney myr ard-valjyn er yn oyr nagh vel kaartyn shendeeagh ny staydys slattyssagh oc.

Queiggey Sleih-earroo[Note 1] Eaghtyr(km²)[47] Glooaght (d/km²)[47] Ard-valley smoo
Queiggey Connaghtey 503,083 17,713 28 Galliu
Queiggey Lion 2,292,939 19,801 100 Divlyn
Queiggey Mooan 1,172,170 24,608 48 Corkee
Queiggey Ulley 2,008,333 22,300 90 Beeal Feirshtey

Undinyssyn ooilley-ellanagh[reagh]

Dyn y wooise da'n rheynn pholitickagh, ta ellan Nerin foast gobbraghey myr un unnid ayns ram magheryn ta goaill harrish bingyn reiltysagh. Ta un chorys arraghee, çhellinsh, bree as ushtey ec y daa reiltys. Lesh kuse veg dy limmaghyn ardghooagh, ta'n ellan ny unnid reiragh da reagheydyssyn as sheshaghtyn crauee, cultooragh as spoyrt. Ta un 'wirran eddyrashoonagh ec yn ellan ayns y chooid smoo jeh spoyrtyn, lheid as ayns ruggyr, as ta'n 17-oo Mart er ny chelloorey er feie'n ellan myr feailley tradishoonagh Yernagh Noo Perrick. She limmey da'n chorys ooilley-ellanagh t'ayns y toccer as daa 'wirran eddyrashoonagh ayn.

Ta Conaant Veeal Feirshtey 1998 cour rish co-obbraghey politickagh eddyr y daa reiltys. Ta'n Choonseil Hirveishagh Hwoaie-Yiass, va currit er bun fo conaantyn y Chonaant, ny h-undinys raad dy vel shirveishee reiltysagh veih'n jiass as veih'n twoaie jargal çheet ry-cheilley dys polaaseyn ooilley-ellanagh dy chur er bun as dy chur ayns focklyn ayns daa "ard co-obbraghey" jeig lheid as eirinys, y çhymmyltaght as arraghey. Ta "bingyn cooilleenaght" ooilley-ellanagh ec shey jeh ny h-ardjyn shen. Myr sampleyr, ta sauçhys bee stiurit ec y Food Safety Promotion Board as ta Tourism Ireland geddyn margey da'n ellan er feie. Ta tree parteeghyn politickagh mooarey, Sinn Féin, Partee Glass Nerin as, er y gherrid, Fianna Fáil reaghit er bunneydys ooilley-ellanagh. Cha nel agh soiagyn ec Sinn Féin ayns y daa reiltys, ansherbee.

Dyn y wooise da'n firrinaght dy vel y daa reiltys goaill ymmyd jeh daa argid cadjin er lheh (yn oarey as y punt Sostynagh), ta kuse vooar dy traght gurneilit er bunneydys ooilley-ellanagh. Ta olteynys 'syn Unnaneys Oarpagh lhiggey da shen, dy paartagh. Ta olteynyn veih'n cho-phobble dellal as veih crooderyn polaase geamagh er son "tarmaynys ooilley-ellanagh" er yn oyr dy nod ad goaill vondeishyn ass tarmaynyssyn scaailley as dys cohirreydaght dy hroggal.[48] Ta'n ellan gobbraghey myr margey singil ayns ard lectraghys[49] as ta claareyn ayn dys margey singil dy chur er bun da gas najooragh.[50] Ta pohlldey da ventyryssyn shen çheet dy mennick veih'n reiltys Yernagh as veih parteeghyn politickagh ashoonagh ayns Çhionnal Nerin Hwoaie.[51]

Çheer-oaylleeaght[reagh]

Son ny smoo fys jeeagh-shiu er: Speyr Nerin
Troyn fishigagh Nerin

Ta fainey dy sleityn slystagh cruinnlaghey strahyn rea injil ayns çheshvean yn ellan. She Corrán Tuathail (Baarle: Carrauntoohill) ayns Coontae Cherree y slieau s'yrjey nyn mast'oc, as eh 1,038 m er yrjid.[52] Ta'n thalloo smoo traauoil soit ayns Queiggey Lioin.[53] Foddee ardjyn sheear dy ve sleitagh as creggagh lesh reayrtyssyn glassey. Ta Awin ny Shannon, yn awin s'liurey 'syn ellan as ee 386 km er lhiurid, girree ayns Coontae yn Chavan 'sy neear hwoaie as t'ee roie dys ard-valley Limmeragh 'sy neear meanagh.[54]

Rere y ghlasseraght rank er yn ellan, troar jeh'n speyr vog as fliaghey mennick, ta'n far-ennym "Ellan Sheear-ghlass Nerin" currit urree. Ta speyr vooiragh vog ry-gheddyn ayns Nerin lesh kuse veg dy feeganyn. Ta'n speyr ny speyr ellanagh as honderagh dy cadjin as t'ee scapail veih ny çhiassidyn geyrey ta ry-gheddyn er dowan-lheeadyn cheddin elley er feie ny Cruinney.[55] T'eh shen ny eiyrtys jeh ny geayaghyn fliughey tempreilagh ta baardaghey veih sheear yiass y Cheayn Sheear.

Ta frassaghey tuittym car ny bleeaney agh t'eh eddrym son y chooid smoo, 'sy niar er lheh. Ta'n neear ny s'fliaghey dy meanagh as eh crommey hug sterrymyn ass y Cheayn Sheear, 'syn 'ouyir jeianagh as car meeghyn y gheuree er lheh. T'ad cur geayaghyn jeeillagh lhieu as fliaghey lane ny smoo da ny h-ardjyn shen, myrane lesh sniaghtey as sniaghtey garroo. Ta ny h-ardjyn ayns twoaie Choontae ny Galliu as 'sy niar jeh Coontae Vay Eo recortyssey yn chooid smoo jeh tendreil er yn ellan as ee taghyrt er eddyr queig as jeih laaghyn 'sy vlein ayns ny h-ardjyn shen.[56] Ta'n chooid sloo jeh sniaghtey ry-gheddyn ayns Queiggey Mooan 'sy jiass, as ta'n chooid smoo jeh sniaghtey ry-gheddyn ayns Queiggey Ulley 'sy twoaie.

Ta ny h-ardjyn sthie beggan ny s'çhoe car y tourey as beggan ny s'feayrey car y gheurey. Dy cadjin, ta 40 laaghyn 'sy vlein ny sloo na'n poynt rio 0 °C (32 °F) ec stashoonyn emshir sthie, ayns cosoylaght rish 10 laaghyn ec stashoonyn slystagh. Ta Nerin cleaynit liorish skallaneyn çhiass ny keayrtyn, ayns 1995, 2003 as 2006 er y gherrid. Myrane lesh y chooid elley jeh'n Oarpey, va Nerin fo chleaney jeh emshyr feer feayr car geurey ny bleeaney 2009-2010. Huitt çhiassidyn dys -13 °C (9 °F) ayns buill ennagh as huitt kuse vooar dy niaghtey, seose dys 1 m ayns ardjyn sleitagh.

Ta Corrán Tuathail, y slieau s'yrjey ayns Nerin, ny hoie ayns na Cruacha Dubha.

Ta'n ellan jeant seose jeh queiggaghyn creg-oaylleeagh eigsoylagh. Foddey 'sy neear, mygeayrt Coontae ny Galliu as Coontae Ghoon ny Ghoal, ta co-hroggalys aileagh as ceaghlagh jeh keim eddyr meanagh as ard, jeh cleunys Caledoneedagh ry-akin, cosoylagh rish Gaeltaght ny h-Albey. Harrish Ullee hiar yiass as sheeyney sheear yiass dys y Lhongfort as jiass dys yn Ooive ta queiggey ta jeant seose jeh creggyn Ordoveeshagh as Shillooragh ry-akin, lesh cosoylaghtyn rish Thalloo Ard ny h-Albey. Ny s'odjey da'n jiass, rish coose Choontae Logh Garman, ta ard ta jeant seose jeh imlee hryalagh stiagh dys creggyn ny smoo Ordoveeshagh as Shillooragh ry-akin, cosoylagh rish adsyn t'er ny gheddyn ayns Bretyn.[57][58] 'Sy neear yiass, mygeayrt Bá Bheanntraí as na Cruacha Dubha, ta ard jeh creggyn Devonagh, feer vee-chummit, agh nagh vel ceaghlagh, ry-gheddyn.[59] Ta'n fainey neuchorrymagh shen dy chreg-oaylleeaght "chreg chreoi" coodit liorish lane-choodaghey dy clagh eayil Carboanar harrish çheshvean ny çheerey, as eh shen lhiggey da reayrt çheerey troaragh as rank. Ta'n clyst heear mygeayrt Lios Dún Bhearna - Boirinn - jeant seose jeh troyn karst mie-lhiassit.[60]

Ta ronsaghey da hiddracarboanyn goll er shooyl lurg y chied feddyn magh mooar ayns magher gas Chione Sailey magh veih coose Choontae Chorkee ayns ny 1970yn meanagh.[61][62] Ny s'anmey, 'sy vlein 1999, va tashtyn scanshoil dy ghas najooragh feddynit magh ayns Magher Gas an Choirib magh veih coose Choontae Vay Eo. Ta magher ooil Heilbhic, er ooley dy vel ny smoo na 28 millioonyn dy stoandaghyn (4,500,000 m3), ny ronsaghey noa elley.[63]

Buill anaase[reagh]

Ta tree Buill Eiraght Ghowanagh er yn ellan: Brú na Bóinne, Sceilig Mhichíl as Clochán an Aifir.[64] Ta buill ennagh elley er y rolley treealagh, lheid as Boirinn as Moin Stíobhaird.[65]

Ta buill hurryssagh ennagh elley ayns Nerin goaill stiagh Cashtal Vun Raite, Carraig Phádraig, Aillte an Mhothair, Mainistir na Croise Naofa as Cashtal an Bhlarna.[66] Ta buill vaynaghoil scanshoil hendeeagh goaill stiagh Gleann Dá Loch as Cluain Mhic Nóis, as ad freillt myr Cowrey Ashoonagh ayns Pobblaght Nerin.[67]

She Divlyn y boayl smoo turryssagh[66] as t'eh ny valley da shiartanse jeh ny cleaynyn smoo pobbylagh lheid as Thie Stoyr Guinness as Leabhar Cheanannais.[66] Ta'n neear as y neear yiass, ta goaill stiagh Loghyn Cheeill Airney as Corca Dhuibhne ayns Coontae Cherree as Conamara as Ellanyn Aran ayns Coontae ny Galliu, nyn muill hurryssagh phobbylagh chammah.[66] Ta thieyn steatagh, v'er nyn droggal car y 17-oo, y 18-oo, as y 19-oo eash ayns aghtyn Pallaadagh, noa-Chlassicagh, as noa-Ghothagh, lheid as Caisleán an Bhardaigh, Teach Bhaile an Chaisleáin, Teach Bheanntraí, nyn muill hurryssagh myrgeddin. Ta thieyn ennagh er ny aahroggal myr thieyn oast, lheid as Caisleán Dhrom Ólainn.

Blaanid as beiyn[reagh]

Ta'n feeaih ruy (Cervus elaphus) ny heeintagh smoo ayns Nerin. Va'n fotograf shoh jeant ayns Pairk Ashoonagh Cheeill Airney.

Er yn oyr dy row Nerin scarrit magh veih'n Oarpey vooarheeragh rere yrjidyn marrey va girree lurg yn eash rioee yerrinagh, ta ny sloo sorçhyn dy veiyn as dy lossreeyn ayn na t'ayn 'sy Vretyn Vooar na 'syn Oarpey. Cha nel agh 26 dooieyn dy heeintee çheet ass Nerin er dooghyssaght. Ta dooieyn ennagh, lheid as y shynnagh, yn arkan sonney, as y broc nyn nooieyn feer lhieenar, tra ta dooieyn elley lheid as y mwaah Yernagh, y feeaih ruy as kayt ny miljyn er nyn vakin ny s'anvenkey. Ta beiyn marrey, lheid as y turtyl, y sharkagh, y meeyl mooar as y doraid, ry-akin magh veih'n choose dy mennick. Ta mychione 400 dooieyn dy ushagyn er nyn recortyssey ayns Nerin. Ta kuse vooar jeh ny h-ushagyn shen nyn ushagyn arraghee, goaill stiagh y gollan geayee soailt. Ta'n chooid smoo jeh dooiyn ushag ayns Nerin çheet ass yn Eeslynn, Greenlynn as yn Affrick.

Ta shiartanse dy horçhyn dy oayldyn ry-gheddyn ayns Nerin, goaill stiagh thalloo eirinagh, thalloo keylley foshlit, keylljyn lhean-ghuillagagh sonderagh as mestit, keylljyn dy viljyn-cughlin, curreeyn moaney as sorçhyn eigsoylagh dy oayldyn slystagh. Agh ta'n eirinys stiurey rheynnyn dy ymmyd thallooin ayns Nerin, ansherbee, as y stiurey shen cur caglee er thallooyn er lheh da oayldyn najooragh,[68] da sheeintee feie mooarey er lheh as ad er laccal ny smoo thalloo dauesyn. Er yn oyr nagh vel cragheyder baarelagh ayns Nerin, ta earrooyn dy veiyn, lheid as feeaihee lieh-feie, nagh vel streeanit ec cragheyderyn beggey, lheid as y shynnagh, streeanit ec jeelymyn bleinoil.

Dy h-ard-ghooagh, cha nel aarnieuyn ayns Nerin as cha nel agh un pheisht (y jiolgan leaghyr cadjin) ta çheet ass yn ellan. Ta dooieyn anvio goaill stiagh y feeaih mooar Yernagh, y filliu Yernagh as yn awk vooar. Ta dooieyn dy ushagyn eear-anvio, goaill stiagh yn urley buigh, er nyn gur stiagh reesht lurg jeihaghtyn dy neuveays.

Derrey ny traaghyn mean-eashagh, va Nerin gloo-choodit rish darree, juyssyn as beihyn. Jiu ta keylljyn coodaghey mychione 9% (4,450 km² ny un villioon d'acyryn)[69] eaghtyr Nerin, as ta'n earroo shoh taishbyney dy vel Nerin ny h-ard smoo jee-cheyllit 'syn Oarpey. Ta cooid vooar jeh'n thalloo coodit rish thalloo fassee, as ta ram dooieyn dy lossreeyn feie. Ta aittin (Ulex europaeus), conney frangagh feie, ry-gheddyn dy mennick ayns thallooyn ard, as ta renniee ry-gheddyn dy mennick ayns ny h-ardjyn smoo bog, 'sy neear er lheh. Ta Nerin ny balley da keeadyn dy ghooieyn dy lossreeyn, as fir oc nagh vel ry-gheddyn magh ass yn ellan, as t'ee er ny ve "coloinit" rish faiyryn, lheid as Spartina anglica.[70]

Yn aittin (Ulex europaeus)

Ta'n vlaanid algagh as famlee jeh'n torçh feayr sonderagh. Ta 574 dooieyn jeu 'sy clane as foddee ad dy rang-oardraghey myr shoh:

Ta dooieyn ny s'genney goaill stiagh:[71]

Ta'n ellan er ny ve coloinit liorish algaghyn ennagh, as fir jeu feer fondit. Myr sampleyr:[72]

  • Asparagopsis armara, as y bun echey 'syn Austrail. V'eh recortyssit ayns Nerin da'n chied cheayrt liorish M. De Valera 'sy vlein 1939
  • Colpomenia peregrina, feer lhieenar dy ynnydagh as er ny recortyssey da'n chied cheayrt ayns ny 1930yn
  • Sargassum muticum, feer fodnit ayns shiartanse dy buill er cooseyn y jiass, y neear, as y niar hwoaie

Er oyr y speyr vog ayns Nerin, ta ram dooieyn, goaill stiagh dooieyn fo-ghrianchryssagh lheid as biljyn palm, er ny aase ayns Nerin.

Troar yn eirinys[reagh]

Thalloo fassee glass faggys da Beanntraí.

Ta'n shennaghys foddey dy troarey eirinagh, kianglt rish aghtyn eirinagh noa-emshiragh lheid as ymmyd smaghtaghey noidyn as eoylley, as teaumey veih sollaghar jeeragh stiagh ayns glish, awinyn as loghyn builley er ny h-eggo-choryssyn ushtey oor najooragh as cur broo er bea-neuchaslid ayns Nerin.[73][74]

Ta thalloo dy vagheryn glassey er son lhiassaghey troaryn as troggal ollee cur cagliagh er y thalloo t'er geddyn da soiaghey seose dy ghooieyn feie dooghyssagh. Ansherbee, ta cleighee, ymmydit dy tradishoonagh dy freayll as dy chur creeagh er joaraghyn thallooin, shassoo seose myr thalloo coadee da blaanid feie ghooghyssagh. Ta'n eggo-chorys shen sheeyney magh harrish ny çheerey as t'eh gobbraghey myr moggyl dy chianglaghyn as ad freayll remladyn jeh'n çhenn eggo-chorys v'er ny heeyney magh er feie'n ellan. Ta argidyn coonee fo'n Pholaase Eirinagh Cadjin, as ad cur pohlldey da aghtyn eirinagh va freayll cleighee, goll trooid aachummaghyn. Ayns ny shenn traaghyn, hug y Polaase Eirinagh Cadjin argidyn coonee da aghtyn eirinagh jeeillagh, foddee, as ad cur trimmid er troarey gyn joaraghyn y chur er ymmyd neulhietrimmagh dy eoyllaghyn as dy smaghtyn noidyn myr sampleyr, agh ta ny h-aachummaghyn, t'er çheet magh er y gherrid, jee-chiangley argidyn coonee veih cormidyn troaragh as t'ad er ny chur stiagh shirreydyssyn çhymmyltagh as shirreydyssyn elley.[75]

Ta keylljyn coodaghey mychione 10% dy eaghtyr ny çheerey, as ta'n chooid smoo jeu enmyssit da troarey traghtee.[68] Ta ardjyn keyllagh jeant seose dy cadjin jeh garaghyn dy viljyn un-chultooragh neu-ghooghyssagh, as foddee dy vel eh shen cur er bun oayldyn nagh vel cooie da dooieyn dooghyssagh dy neu-vertebree. Ta remladyn jeh'n cheyll ghooghyssagh ry-akin skahit er feie'n ellan, ayns Pairk Ashoonagh Cheeil Airney er lheh. Ta ardjyn najooragh gymmyrçh cleighee as faalyn dys ro-yndyragh dy lhiettal liorish feeaihee as kirree ta shooyl trood ardjyn neu-lhiassit. Ta'n yndyraght 'syn aght shen cur lhietrimmys er aaghiennaghtyn najooragh ny keylljyn ayns ram ardjyn ny çheerey.[76]

Tarmaynys[reagh]

Cha daink y çhyndaa çhynskylagh dys Nerin da'n chooid smoo. Ta deiney ennagh credjal nagh daink y çhyndaa çhynskylagh dys Nerin dys Nerin er oyr gennid gheayil as yiarn, as ad nyn roie-chonaantyn da çhyndaaghyn çhynskylagh rere reayrt ennagh. Ta cremeyderyn jeh'n reayrt shen cowraghey magh çheeraghyn elley raad nagh row ny cooid shen ayn agh raad haghyr y çhyndaa çhynskylagh as t'ad cur cooishyn elley ayn myr oyryn.[77] Ta screeudeeyryn shennaghys ennagh cowraghey magh yn unnaneys doaltattym lesh y tarmaynys share dy strughtooragh ayns Sostyn. T'ad cowraghey magh dy row leaghyn yiarn as geayil ayns Nerin cha neugheyr as ayns buill ennagh ayns Sostyn – as beggan ny s'inshley er leagh ayns buill ennagh – as er ny bleeantyn jeeragh roish yn unnaneys lesh y Vretyn Vooar, va çhynskylaghey ry-akin ayns Nerin ('sy çhynskyl lieen er lheh).[78] Lesh y chovestey eddyr y daa harmaynys dy doaltattym, rere y reayrt shen, hoshee Nerin gassphurtal bee as obbreeyn dys y 'vooar-heer' ayns ynnyd e çhynskylaghey hene.[79]

Haghyr arraghey magh mooar lurg y Ghortey Mooar ayns ny 1800yn meanagh as darr eh shen derrey ny 1980yn.[80] Ansherbee, haghyr caghlaa mooar ayns tarmaynys Nerin car ny 1990yn, as bishaghey tarmaynagh neuchadjin taghyrt car ny bleeantyn shen ayns Pobblaght Nerin, ayns phenomenon t'er enney myr "Yn Teegyr Celtiagh",[81] as lesh çheet shee ayns Nerin Hwoaie. 'Sy vlein 2005, va Pobblaght Nerin currit 'sy chied ynnyd myr y boayl share er y theihll myr balley cummal, rere scrutaghey "quallid-vea" liorish yn earish-lioar The Economist.[82] Ghow Pobblaght Nerin olteynys ayns cryss yn oarey ayns 1999, tra hannee Nerin Hwoaie lesh y phunt Sostynagh. Hie Pobblaght Nerin as Nerin Hwoaie stiagh ayns goll ergooyl ayns 2008[83][84] as ayns 2009, va'n chormid vee-staartaght ayns Pobblaght Nerin ec 12.5%[85] rere geyre-ghaue argidoil Nerin ayns 2008-2010.

Arraghey[reagh]

Ta queig kied phurtyn aer eddyrashoonagh ayns Nerin: Purt Aer Ghivlyn, Purt Aer Eddyrashoonagh Veeal Feirshtey (An Gearrán Fearnóige), Purt Aer Chorkee, Purt Aer ny Shannon and Purt Aer Eear Nerin (Cnoc Mhuire). Ta Purt Aer Ghivlyn ny purt aer smoo tarrooagh,[86] as 22 villioon dy hroailtee goll trooid y phurt aer dagh blein,[87] as ta terminal as roievollagh noa er ny hroggal ec y traa t'ayn.[88] Ta dagh fer jeu cour shirveishyn aer dys y Vretyn Vooar as yn Oarpey vooar-heeragh, as ta purtyn aer Beeal Feirshtey Eddyrashoonagh, Divlyn as y Çhannon cour shirveishyn harrish yn Atlantagh. Er feie shiartanse dy jeihaghtyn va'n Çhannon ny purt aalhieeney scanshoil da bollee harrish-Atlantagh.[89] Er y gherrid, ta shirveish roie-vynscrutaghey er ny foshley ayn as ee lhiggey da troailtee goll trooid custymyn sthie-arragh Americaanagh roie faagail Nerin. Ta shiartanse dy phuirt aer ny sloo ayn chammah: Purt Aer Chaayr Veeal Feirshtey George Best, Purt Aer Chaayr Ghoirrey, Purt Aer ny Galliu, Purt Aer Cherree (An Fearann Fuar), Purt Aer Shliggee (An Leathros), Purt Aer Phurt Largey as Purt Aer Ghoon ny Ghoal (An Charraig Fhinn). Ta shirveishyn skedjalit veih ny buill ardjynagh shen goll dys buill elley ayns Nerin as 'y Vretyn Vooar son y chooid smoo. Ta lhuingyssyn aer ta bunnit ayns Nerin goaill stiagh Aer Lingus (eear-lhuingys aer ashoonagh Phobblaght Nerin), Ryanair, Aer Arann as CityJet.

Ta ard-phuirt ec Nerin ayns Divlyn, Beeal Feirshtey, Corkee, Ros Láir, Doirrey as Purt Largey. Ta puirt ny sloo ry-gheddyn ayns Inver Mooar, Beeal yn Aah, Droghad Aah, Doon Jialgan, Doon Laoire, Faing, Galliu, Laarney, Limmeragh, Ros Vic Treoin, Shliggagh, An Pointe as Keeill Mantan. Ta 3.6 millioonyn dy hroailtee goll trooid puirt 'sy Phobblaght as ad goll tessen y vooir eddyr Nerin as y Vretyn Vooar dagh blein.[90] Ta'n vooar chooid dy hraght chooid hrome leeideilit liorish y vooir. Ta ny puirt ayns Nerin Hwoaie stiurey 10 millioonyn dy hunnaghyn (11 villioon dy hunnaghyn giare) jeh traght chooid lesh y Vretyn Vooar dagh blein, tra ta ny puirt ayns Pobblaght Nerin stiurey 7.6 millioonyn dy hunnaghyn (8.4 millioonyn dy hunnaghyn giare).

Ta shirveishyn assaig eddyr y Vretyn Vooar as Nerin trooid Mooir Vannin as t'ad goaill stiagh bollee veih Abertawe dys Corkee, veih Abergwaun as Penfro dys Ros Láir, veih Caergybi dys Doon Laoire, veih Stroin Roauyr dys Beeal Feirshtey as veih Machair an Sgithich dys Laarney. Myrane lhieusyn ta kiangley assaig eddyr Lerphoyll as Beeal Feirshtey trooid Doolish ayns Mannin. Ta'n baatey assaig gleashtan smoo, yn MV Ulysses, stiurit ec Irish Ferries er y vollagh eddyr Divlyn as Caergybi. Myrane lesh shen, ta baataghyn assaig goll veih Ros Láir as Corkee dys y Rank.

Raaidyn yiarn, puirt ushtey scanshoil, puirt aeragh, as bayryn gleashtanagh (goaill stiagh adsyn ta begnagh creaghnit) ayns Nerin

Va'n moggyl dy raaidyn yiarn ayns Nerin lhiassit ec ram colughtyn preevaadjagh car y 19-oo eash, as fir oc geddyn argid choonee reiltysagh 'sy 19-oo eash yeianagh. Rosh y moggyl y roshtynys smoo ayns 1920. V'eh coardit dy beagh towse lheanagh jeh 1,600mm (5 tr 3 oar)[91] myr towse stundayrtit er yn ellan, ga dy row keeadyn dy chilometeryn dy raaidyn yiarn lesh towse keyl jeh 914mm (3 tr).[91]

Ta traenyn troailtagh liauyr ayns Pobblaght Nerin stiurit ec Iarnród Éireann as t'ad kiangley yn chooid smoo jeh ny baljyn smoo. Ayns Nerin Hwoaie ta dagh shirveish stiurit ec Northern Ireland Railways. Ayns bishaghey lesh shen, ta fer jeh ny raaidyn yiarn lught çhymnit smoo 'syn Oarpey soit ayns Nerin ta stiurit ec Bord na Móna as ta beggan ny sloo na 1,400 km er lhiurid.[92]

Ayns Divlyn, ta daa voggyl raaidey yiarn kiarail arraghey 'syn ard-valley as ayns yn ard ta cruinnlaghey yn ard-valley. Ta'n Dublin Area Rapid Transit ny yn DART ("Arraghey Tappee Ard Ghivlyn") kiangley çheshvean yn ard-valley rish ny fo-valjyn slystagh. Hoshee corys raaidey yiarn eddrym, y Luas ("Leahys"), gobbraghey ayns 2004 as t'eh gymmyrkey troailtee dys ny fo-valjyn meanagh as heear. Ta shiartanse dy linnaghyn Luas plannit myrane lesh raad yiarn fo-halloo. Ta'n DART stiruit ec Iarnród Éireann as ta'n Luas stiurit ec Veolia fo kiartys dellal veih'n Railway Procurement Agency ("Bing Feddyn Streebee Raaidey Yiarn"). Fo conaantyn plan y reiltys Yernagh, Transport 21, va'n raad yiarn eddyr Corkee as Mainistir na Corann aa-oshlit ayns 2009. Ta aa-oshley yn raad yiarn yn OoiveCluain Saileach as Bollagh Raad Yiarn Sheear coontit mastey obbraghyn ry-heet jeh'n phlan cheddin.[93]

Ta ny shirveishyn ayns Nerin Hwoaie feer ghoan ayns cosoylaght rish y chooid elley jeh Nerin ny rish y Vretyn Vooar. Va moggyl raad yiarn mooar giarrit ayns ny 1950yn as ny 1960yn.[94] Ta shirveishyn roie goaill stiagh bollee fo-valjagh dys Laarney, yn Euar, as Beannchar, myrane lesh shirveishyn dys Doirrey. Ta crouw-linney goll veih Cooil Rhennee dys Port Rois.[95]

Ta gleashtaneyryn ayns Nerin gimman er y chlee. Ta moggyl rheamyssagh dy raaidyn as moggyl lhiassagh dy vayryn gleashtanagh sheeyney magh veih Divlyn as Beeal Feirshtey er lheh. Dy shendeeagh, va'n chooid smoo jeh raaidyn ayns shelloo shellooderyn thallooin as ny s'anmey ren Barrantyssyn Giat Cassee çhaglym keeshyn er son ny raaidyn as ayns y vlein 1800 va 16,100 km dy raaidyn ayns Nerin.[96] Ayns ny bleeantyn caie, chur Reiltys Nerin plan arraghee noa er bun as y plan shen ny halee argidagh smoo ayns corys arraghee Nerin: baihaghey €34 billioonyn veih 2006 derrey 2015. Ta obbyr er shaleeyn raaidey er ny hoshiaghey as ta fir jeu er ny chreaghney.[97]

Va ny kied shirveishyn baroose post ayns Nerin conaantit liorish John Anderson lesh William Bourne ayns 1791 as eh er ny yeeilley er son lhiasaghey stayd ny raaidyn.[98] Va'n corys dy varooseyn post, dy charriadsyn as dy "vianyn" lhiasit ny smoo ec Charles Bianconi, soit ayns Cluain Meala, veih'n vlein 1815 myr roie-haghter y chorys arraghee Yernagh.[99] Jiu, t'ad ny h-ard-cholughtyn baroose na Bus Éireann ayns Pobblaght Nerin as Ulsterbus ayns Nerin Hwoaie, as y daa jeu garral shirveishyn troailtagh rheamyssagh ayns dagh paart jeh'n ellan. Ta Bus Átha Cliath garral shirveishyn baroose da ard Ghivlyn mooar as ta Metro stiurey shirveishyn ayns ard Veeal Feirshtey mooar.

Ta cowraghyn raaidey as caglee vieauid ayns Pobblaght Nerin taishbynit ayns kilometeryn 'syn oor, as ny caglee er nyn caghlaa 'sy vlein 2005. Ta cowraghyn foddeeaght as caglee vieauid ayns Nerin Hwoaie foast goaill ymmyd jeh unnidyn impiroil cosoylagh rish y chooid elley jeh'n Reeriaght Unnaneysit.

Moggylyn bree[reagh]

Er y chooid smoo jeh'n tammylt va ny moggylyn lectraghys ayns Pobblaght Nerin as Nerin Hwoaie scarrit veih nyn geilley. Va'n daa voggyl jeu cummit as troggit dy neuchroghagh lurg y rheynn magh. Agh, myr eiyrtys jeh caghlaaghyn harrish ny bleeantyn jeianagh, t'ad kianglt nish ry-cheilley lesh tree eddyr-chianglaghyn[100] as t'ad kianglt trooid y Vretyn Vooar rish yn Oarpey vooar-heeragh. Ta'n soiaghey ayns Nerin Hwoaie ny smoo co-chast er yn oyr nagh vel colughtyn preevaadjagh kiarail Northern Ireland Electricity (NIE) lesh dy liooar lectraghys. Ayns Pobblaght Nerin, cha ren yn ESB jeianaghey ny stashoonyn lectraghys echey as ta feddynaght stashoonyn lectraghys çheet er 66% de meanagh, nane jeh ny cormidyn s'messey 'syn Oarpey Heear. Ta EirGrid troggal linney ym-skeaylley HVDC eddyr Nerin as y Vretyn Vooar lesh mooadys eck er 500 MW, ny mychione 10% jeh shirreydys mullee.[101]

Stashoon lectraghys an Rinn, Divlyn

Ayns cosoylaght rish y lectraghys, ta'n moggyl rheynn dy ghas najooragh er bunneydys ooilley-ellanagh nish, lesh piob-linney ta kiangley Baile Mhic Ghormáin ayns Coontae ny Mee as Bealach Cláir, Coontae Aontrym.[102] Ta'n chooid smoo jeh'n ghas ayns Nerin çhet stiagh trooid eddyr-chianglaghyn eddyr Twynholm ayns Nalbin as Baile an Lonfoirt, Coontae Aontrym as Loch Sionnaigh, Coontae Ghivlyn. Ta ymmyrkey leodagh çheet ass magher gas Chione Sailley magh veih coose Choontae Chorkee[103][104] as cha nel Magher Gas an Choirib magh veih coose Choontae Vay Eo er ny foshley dys shoh. Ta'n magher ayns Coontae Vay Eo çheet ny whaiyl lesh condaigys ynnydagh mychione briwnys arganeagh dys y gas dy aaghlenney er çheer.

Er y gherrid ta eabyn er ny n'gholl ersooyl ayns Nerin dy ghoaill ymmyd ass bree yn-aanooaghey lheid as bree gheayee. Ta ynnydyn mwyljyn-geayee er nyn droggal ayns coondaeghyn slystagh lheid as Doon ny Ghoal, May Eo, as Aontrym. Ta ynnyd mwyljyn-geayee er ny ve troggit magh veih coose Choontae Cheeill Mantan ec Ynnyd Mwyljyn-Geayee Vullagh Inver Mooar as bee eh ny ynnyd mwyljyn-geayee smoo er y theihll. T'eh er credjal dy nee'n ynnyd mwyljyn-geayee ayns Inver Mooar troarey 10% dy lectraghys Nerin tra t'eh creaghnit. Ta troggalys ynnydyn mwyljyn-geayee er ny ve moalit rere condaigys veih co-phobbylyn ynnydagh, as fir jeu credjal nagh vel ny trubeenyn-geayee dy h-aalin. She Cnoc an Turlaigh jeh chooid yn ESB yn un heyrraad ry hoi tastey bree 'sy steat.[105]

Deiney[reagh]

Ren ny kied deiney cummal ayns Nerin mychione 9,000 bleeantyn er dy henney, agh cha nel mooarane fys er enney ain mychione ny cummaltee henn-chlaghagh ny noalittagh. Ta ronsaghey gien-oaylleeagh 'sy vlein 2004 coyrlaghey dy daink ny kied chummaltee dys yn ellan as ad çheet harrish ny sheelogheyn rish coose y Cheayn Sheears veih'n Spaainey.[7] Rere sheiltynyssyn ny s'leah, haink ad veih'n Oarpey veanagh. Ta recortyssyn shendeeagh as caardyssagh goaill baght er beays dussanyn dy chynneeyn eigsoylagh foddee v'ad feayn-skeealleydagh ny firrinagh, lheid as ny Cruthinee, ny h-Attacotti, ny Conmaicne, ny h-Eóganachta, ny h-Érainn, as ny Soghain, mastey kynneeyn elley. Harrish y 1,000 bleeaney jerrinagh haink ny Loghlynee, ny Normanee, ny h-Albinee, as ny Sostynee as ad cur lesh y phobble dooghyssagh.

Ta'n Chreestiaght ny possan crauee smoo ayns Nerin. She Catoleaghys Raueagh y rheynn chrauee smoo as eh cowraghey 73% jeh pobble yn ellan (as mychione 87%[106] jeh pobble Phobblaght Nerin). Ta'n chooid elley jeh'n phobble nyn gooid jeh rheynnyn Protestoonagh eigsoylagh (mychione 53% jeh pobble Nerin Hwoaie).[107] She Agglish Anglicaanagh Nerin y nah agglish smoo. Ta'n pobble Islamagh ayns Neirn gaase, rere arraghey stiagh son y chooid smoo. Ta pobble beg dy Ewagh ry-gheddyn ayns Nerin chammah. Ta 4% pobble ny Pobblaght jannoo cur sheese orroo hene myr deiney gyn craueeaght.[106] Ta 14% pobble Nerin Hwoaie jannoo y cur sheese cheddin orroo.[107]

Dirree sleih-earroo Nerin dy tappee veih'n 16-oo eash derrey'n 19-oo eash veanagh. Haghyr gonney craaynagh ayns ny 1840yn, as myr eiyrtys, hooar un villioon dy 'leih baase as daag ny smoo na millioon dy 'leih yn ellan jeeragh lurg y ghonney. Harrish y keead-bleeaney eiyrtyssagh huitt sleih-earroo yn ellan dys earroo va lieh chooid jeh'n çhenn earroo, traa va bishaghey tree-filley ayns sleih-earroo ry-akin ayns çheeraghyn Oarpagh elley.

Caslys-çheerey Nerin ta taishbyney glooaght y phobble rere coontae, 2002. Gow tashtey er y ghlooaght 'sy niar as ayns Ullee

Chur arraghey magh ass Nerin lesh sleih-earroo Hostyn, ny Steatyn Unnaneysit, ny Canadey as ny h-Austrail raad ta eebyrtys Yernagh mooar cummal jiu. Va ny cooseyn sheear as jiass jeeillit son y chooid smoo rere yn arraghey magh shen. Roish y Ghortey Mooar, va'n ghlooaght cheddin, begnagh, ayns queiggaghyn Connaghtey, Lion as Mooan as cha row Queiggey Ulley cha glooit as y tree queiggaghyn elley. Jiu, ta'n ghlooaght foddey ny s'trimmey ayns Ullee as Lioin, ayns Divlyn er lheh, na ayns y Vooan as Connaghtey.

Rere raahys aasagh veih'n jeihaght yerrinagh jeh'n 20-oo eash, haink er Nerin dy ve ny boayl da sthie-arraghey. Veih ren yn Unnaneys Oarpagh sheeyney magh dys y Pholynn dy ghoaill stiagh ayns 2004, ta ny Polynnee 'sy chied ynnyd rere earroo sthie-arree (ny smoo na 150,000)[108], as sthie-arree elley er nyn jeet veih'n Litaan, y Phobblaght Çheck, as y Latvey.[109] Ta sthie-arraghey mooar er ny akin ayns Pobblaght Nerin er lheh. Rere coontey-pobble 2006, v'eh recortyssit dy row 420,000 fir whaagh, ny 10% jeh'n sleih-earroo, cummal ayns Pobblaght Nerin.[110] Ta cooid vooar jeh ny sthie-arree neu-Oarpagh jeant seose jeh Sheenee as Naigeeree, myrane lesh deiney ass çheeraghyn Affrickagh elley. T'eh er credjal, ansherbee, dy daag seose dys 50,000 obbreeyn arraghee veih'n Oarpey Hiar roish jerrey ny bleeaney 2008.[111]

Ta'n Vaarle Yernagh er ny loayrt ayns Nerin veih ny Mean Eashyn as, rere arraghey çhengagh car y 19-oo eash, ta'n Vaarle er ny chur stiagh ayns ynnyd y Yernish myr y phreeu-hengey da'n chooid smoo jeh'n phobble.[112] Cha nel y Yernish loayrit dy mennick magh ass y chorys ynsee agh ec mysh 10% sleih-earroo Phobblaght Nerin[113] as ta 38% jeu ta ny smoo na 15 bleeaney d'eash rang-oardit myr "Yernisheyryn". Ayns Nerin Hwoaie, she'n Vaarle y çhengey oikoil de facto, agh ta staydys ec y Yernish as ec yn Ullanish, as ee loayrit çheu yiass veih'n joarey chammah. Ayns ny jeihaghtyn jeianagh, rere'n sthie-arraghey, ta ram çhengaghyn elley er ny çheet stiagh dys Nerin, as ad çheet as yn Aishey as yn Oarpey Veanagh son y chooid smoo.

Cultoor[reagh]

Ta cultoor Nerin jeant seose jeh meeryn cultoor y çhenn sthie-arraghee as cleaynaghyn (lheid as cultoor Gaelgagh) as, er y gherrid, Sostnaghey as Americaanaghey myrane lesh commeeys ayns cultoor ny h-Oarpey. Rere keeal lheeadagh, Ta Nerin coontit myr nane jeh ny hashoonyn Celtiagh 'syn Oarpey, gollrish Nalbin, Bretyn, y Chorn, Mannin as y Vritaan. Ta'n cochiangle shen dy cleaynaghyn cultooagh ry-akin ayns cummaghyn cam ta enmyssit fee Yernagh ny Cruint Cheltiagh. T'ad ry-akin ayns ornaidys ny h-obbraghyn crauee as neuvonnagh mean-eashagh. Ta'n aght shen foast ennoil jiu ayns cliejeeneydys as ellyn ghraafagh,[114] myrane lesh yn aght er lheh jeh kiaull as daunse Yernagh tradishoonagh, as t'ad er ny ve cowreydagh da cultoor "Celtiagh" noa-emshiragh son y chooid smoo.

Va paart mooar ec craueeaght ayns lhiasaghey yn theihll cultooragh 'syn ellan veih ny shenn traaghyn (as veih ny plandailyn 'sy 17-oo eash va'n chraueeaght ny focys da enney politickagh as rheynnyn er yn ellan). Ren eiraght roie-Chreestee Nerin roie ry-cheilley lesh yn Agglish Cheltiagh lurg sushtallaghtyn Noo Perrick 'sy 5-oo eash. Ren ny sushtallaghtyn Yernagh-Albinagh, er nyn doshiaghey ec y vaynagh Yernagh Colum Keeilley Noo, sheeyney reayrt Yernagh ny Creestiaght dys Sostyn phaganagh as dys Impiraght ny Frankee. Hug ny sushtallaghtyn shen çhengey screeuee dys pobble neulettyragh ny h-Oarpey car yn Eash Ghorraghey lurg tuittym ny Raue, as ad cur y far-ennym "ellan ny nooghyn as ny scollagyn" er Nerin. Ayns ny bleeantyn jeianagh, ta thieyn oast Yernagh er nyn ve coontit myr noa-phostyn y chultoor Yernagh er feie ny Cruinney.

Ta'n Abbey Theatre ("Theater ny Mannishter"), va bunnit ayns 1904 ayns Divlyn, ny heater ashoonagh as ta'n Taibhdhearc, va bunnit ayns 1928 ayns Galliu, ny heater Yernish ashoonagh.[115][116] Ta screeuderyn cloie lheid as Seán O'Casey, Brian Friel, Sebastian Barry, Conor McPherson as Billy Roche er enney er feie ny Cruinney.[117]

Ellyn[reagh]

Ta shiartanse dy hengaghyn goll er loayrt ayns Nerin. Ta'n Yernish y phreeu-hengey ghooghyssagh 'syn ellan. Veih'n 19-oo eash yeianagh, haink er y Vaarle dy ve ny preeu-hengey da'n chooid smoo dy 'leih as haink ee stiagh ayns Nerin ayns ny Mean Eashyn. Ta mynlaght vooar foast loayrt ayns Yernish jiu, agh cha nel ee ny kied çhengey agh ec cooid veg jeh'n phobble. Fo bunraght Phobblaght Nerin, ta staydys oikoil ec y daa hengey, agh ta staydys ashoonagh ec y Yernish as t'ee coontit myr y chied hengey. Ayns Nerin Hwoaie, ta'n Vaarle ny preeu-hengey, as ta staydys mynlagh ardjynagh er y Yernish as er y Vaarle Albinagh Ultagh.

Duillag ghaahit veih Leabhar Cheanannais

Ta cohortys mooar jeant ec Nerin ayns lettyraght ny cruinney ayns dagh banglane, 'sy Vaarle er lheh. Ta feeleeaght ayns Yernish coontit myr y feeleeaght ghooghyssagh shinney 'syn Oarpey, as ta ny sampleyryn s'leah çheet ass y 6-oo eash. 'Sy Vaarle, va enney mooar er Jonathan Swift ayns ny traaghyn echey er son e obbraghyn lheid as Gulliver's Travels as A Modest Proposal, as t'eh foast enmyssit dy mennick myr y grinder toshee 'sy Vaarle, as ta enney mooar er Oscar Wilde son ny keeayllidyn echey ta aaraait dy mennick. 'Sy 20-oo eash haink kiare cosneyderyn jeh Aundyr Nobel ayns Lettyraght ass Nerin: George Bernard Shaw, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett as Seamus Heaney. Faagail magh nagh row Aundyr Nobel bronnit er James Joyce, t'eh coontit myr nane jeh ny screeuderyn smoo scanshoil jeh'n 20-oo eash. Ta'n noa-skeeal veih'n vlein 1922 Ulysses coontit myr nane jeh ny h-obbraghyn smoo scanshoil ayns lettyraght yeianagh as ta e heihll kelloorit dagh blein er 16 Mean Souree ayns Divlyn, as y laa shen enmyssit "Bloomsday".[118] Ta lettyraght Yernagh noa-emshiragh kianglt dy mennick rish yn eiraght çheerey eck[119] trooid screeuderyn lheid as John McGahern as feeleeghyn lheid as Seamus Heaney.

James Joyce, nane jeh ny screeuderyn smoo scanshoil jeh'n 20-oo eash

Ayns ny bleeantyn jeianagh, ta kiaull hradishoonagh as daunse Yernagh çheet dy ve ennoil reesht, trooid y phenomenon Riverdance er lheh, cloie theateragh jeh daunse tradishoonagh Yernagh.[120] Ayns ny bleeantyn meanagh jeh'n 20-oo eash, tra va Nerin jeianaghey, huitt y chiaull hradishoonagh ass foayr, ayns ardjyn baljagh er lheh.[121] Car ny 1960yn, as tayrn stiagh ennal veih gleashaght chiaullee çheerey Americaanagh, haghyr aavioghey ayns anaase ayns kiaull hradishoonagh Yernagh, as va'n aavioghey shen stiurit liorish possanyn lheid as The Dubliners, The Chieftains, Emmet Spiceland, The Wolfe Tones, ny Clancy Brothers, Sweeney's Men as fir er lheh lheid as Seán Ó Riada as Christy Moore.[122] Hug possanyn as kiaulleyderyn, goaill stiagh Horslips, Van Morrison, as Thin Lizzy meeryn dy chiaull hradishoonagh stiagh 'sy chiaull chraaee noa-emshiragh as, car ny 1970yn as ny 1980yn, haink er yn anchaslys eddyr kiaulleyderyn tradishoonagh as kiaulleyderyn craaee dy ve millit, as cooid vooar dy 'leih goll harrish ny linnaghyn ayns aghtyn cloie. Ta'n cleayney shoh ry-akin ayns obbyr jeianagh jeh ellyneyryn lheid as Enya, The Saw Doctors, The Corrs, Sinéad O'Connor, Clannad, The Cranberries, Black 47 as The Pogues mastey possanyn elley. Car ny 1990yn, haink fo-horçh dy chiaull veainagh çheerey magh ayns Nerin as ee mestey kiaull veainagh hrome lesh kiaull Yernagh as Celtiagh. V'ad ny possanyn toshee jeh'n fo-horçh shen na Cruachan, Primordial, as Waylander. Ta possanyn kiaullee noa-emshiragh ennagh goaill ny s'gerrey da feaym "tradishoonagh", goaill stiagh Altan, Téada, Danú, Dervish, Lúnasa, as Solas. Ta fir elley goaill stiagh ymmodee dy chultooryn myr co-haaghey dy horçhyn, lheid as yn Afro Celt Sound System as Kíla. Ta'n chooish ry-akin mastey biallyssyn Yernagh gys yn Eurovision Song Contest, co-hirrey kiaullee ooilley-Oarpagh ta cosnit shiaght keayrtyn ec Nerin, ny ny smoo na un çheer elley.[123]

T'ad yn ellyn ghraafagh as y jallooderys Yernagh s'leah na grainnaghyn ta ry-akin ayns buill lheid as Sí an Bhrú[124] as t'ad ry-gheddyn trooid jeantaneyn veih'n Eash Ooha as ny grainnaghyn crauee as laue-screeuyn daahit veih'n eash veanagh. Car y 19-oo as y 20-oo wash, haink tradishoon dooghyssagh lajer jeh daahghey magh, goaill stiagh fir lheid as John Butler Yeats, William Orpen, Jack Yeats as Louis le Brocquy.

Oaylleeaght[reagh]

Chur Robert Boyle Leigh Boyle ayns focklyn

Va'n fallsoonagh as y jeeaghteyr Yernagh Johannes Scotus Eriugena coontit myr nane jeh lught share yn tushtey ayns ny Mean Eashyn. Va'n Reejerey Ernest Henry Shackleton, ronseyder Anglo-Yernagh, nane jeh ny h-ard-phersoonyn ayns ronsaght yn Antarctagh. Ren eh, marish lught y hurrys echey, y chied drappal er Slieau Erebus as ronsaghey magh dy voayl faggyssagh y Phoull Magnaidagh Jiass. Va Robert Boyle ny fallsoonagh najooragh, ny chemmigagh, ny 'ishigagh, ny ynlaghteyr as ny oayllee ooasle jeh'n 17-oo eash. T'eh ammyssit myr nane jeh bunneyderyn ny kemmig noa-emshiragh as ta enney share er son cur ayns focklyn Leigh Boyle.[125] Ghow y fishigagh jeh'n 19-oo eash, John Tyndall, magh eiyrtys Tyndall, sheiltynys ta meenaghey cre'n fa dy vel daah gorrym er y speyr. Ta enney share er yn Ayr Nicholas Joseph Callan, Olloo Fallsoonys Najooragh ayns Colaashtey Vaanoot, son ynlaght y chaslag indughtee, y chaghlaader, as feddyn magh aght leah dy ghalvaanaghey 'sy 19-oo eash.

Ta fishigee Yernagh ard-ghooagh elley goaill stiagh Ernest Walton, cosneyder yn Aundyr Nobel ayns Fishig 'sy vlein 1951. Marish y Reejerey John Douglas Cockcroft, v'eh ny chied ghooiney ren skeiltey çheshvean y vreneen rere saaseyn ellynagh as hug eh contoyrtyssyn da lhiasaghey sheiltynys noa jeh cormid honn.[126] Ta unnid çhiassid absoloidagh, y Kelvin enmyssit ayns onnor William Thomson, ny yn Çhiarn Kelvin. Ren y Reejerey Joseph Larmor, fishigagh as maddaghteyr, noaidyn ayns toiggalaght y lectraghys, niartallaght, çhiass-niartallaght as sheiltynys lectrane dy stoo. V'eh yn obbyr smoo cleaynagh ayn na Aether and Matter, lioar er fishag sheiltynagh va soilshit 'sy vlein 1900.[127]

Chur George Johnstone Stoney stiagh yn enmys lectrane 'sy vlein 1891. V'eh John Stewart Bell noader dy Çhoarym Bell as pabyr bentyn rish feddyn magh anleigh Bell-Jackiw-Adler as v'eh enmyssit son aundyr Nobel.[125] Ta maddaghteyryn ard-ghooagh goaill stiagh lheid as y Reejerey William Rowan Hamilton, as ard-ghoo er son ynlaght y chiarneen. Va cleayney mooar ec Francis Ysidro Edgeworth ayns lhiasaghey tarmaynys noa-chlassicagh, as eh goaill stiagh kishtey Edgeworth. Va John B. Cosgrave ny hur-oayllee ayns sheiltynys earrooee as ghow eh magh ard-earroo lesh 2000 bun-earrooyn 'sy vlein 1999 as earroo Fermat covestagh recortyssit 'sy vlein 2003. Ren John Lighton Synge immeeaght ayns magheryn ennagh dy oaylleeaght, goaill stiagh obbrinaght as saaseyn towse-oaylleeagh ayns conastaght chadjin. Va'n maddaghteyr John Nash myr nane jeh ny scollagyn echey.

Ta hoght ollooscoillyn as ram Undinyssyn Çhaghnoaylleeaght ayns Nerin myrane lesh Undinys Ard-Studeyrys Ghivlyn, va bunnit ayns 1940 marish y fishigagh Erwin Schrödinger myr stiureyder.[128]

Spoyrtyn[reagh]

Jeeagh er neesht: Rolley spoyrteyryn Yernagh

She bluckaneyrys Gaelgagh y spoyrt smoo cadjin ayns Nerin rere cronneyderyn as cassey co-phobbylagh, as t'eh jannoo seose 34% jeh frastylyn spoyrt lane ec taghyrtyn ayns Nerin as harrish mooir, as ta'n immanaght çheet ny yei as ee jannoo seose 23%. Ta soccer 'sy trass ynnyd lesh 16% dy chronneyderyn as ta ruggyr 'sy cherroo ynnyd 8%.[129] She Kione-chloie Bluckaneyrys Ooilley-Nerin y taghyrt spoyrt smoo fakinit ayns feaillere spoyrtoil Nerin.[130] T'ad snaue, golf, aeroabee, soccer, bluckaneyrys Gaelgagh as snooker ny spoyrtyn lesh y commeeys cloie s'yrjey.[131] She soccer y spoyrt smoo cadjin ta goaill stiagh fwirranyn eddyrashoonagh.

Ta ram spoyrtyn elley goll er chloie as fakin, goaill stiagh bluckan bascaidagh, doarneyrys, criggad, eeasteyraght, golf, ratçhal cooyn liauyrey, bluckan laue, hockee, ratçhal cabbil, spoyrtyn gleashagh, lheimyraght chabbil as leddoge.

Spoyrtyn magheragh[reagh]

Çheer Eoin noi Kerree ayns Feniaghtys Bluckaneyrys Shinshyragh Ooilley-Nerin ayns 2005

T'ad yn immanaght, bluckaneyrys Gaelgagh, bluckan laue, as cloie cruinn spoyrtyn ashoonagh Nerin as ad enmyssit ry-cheiley myr cloiaghyn Gaelgagh. Ta cloiaghyn Gaelgagh stiurit rish Cumann Lúthchleas Gael (CLG), faagail magh bluckaneyrys Gaelgagh mreih as cammageeaght (lhieggan mreih jeh'n immanaght), as ad stiurit liorish sheshaghtyn er lheh. Ta kione-cherroo y CLG (as y phreeu-staid) soit ayns Páirc an Chrócaigh ayns twoaie Ghivlyn. Ta ard-chloiaghyn y CLG cloit ayn, goaill stiagh Feniaghtys Bluckaneyrys Shinsharagh Ooilley-Nerin as Feniaghtys Immanaght Shinsharagh Ooilley-Nerin. Car aahroggal staid Bóthar Lansdún, va ruggyr as soccer eddyrashoonagh cloit ayn.[132] Ta dagh cloieder y CLG, myrane lesh ad er y chorrym s'yrjey, nyn ancheirdee nagh vel cur failt er faillee.

Va'n Irish Football Association (IFA) ny reagheydys reirey son soccer harrish yn ellan. Ta'n gamman er ny ve cloit ayns cummey reirit ayns Nerin veih ny 1870yn. She Cliftonville F.C. ass Beeal Feirshtey y club shinney ayns Nerin. V'eh cloit son y chooid smoo, ayns ny kied jeihaghtyn er lheh, mygeayrt Beeal Feirshtey as ayns Queiggey Ulley. Ansherbee, va clubyn ennagh va bunnit çheumooie jeh Beeal Feirshtey credjal dy row yn IFA cur foayr da clubyn Protestoonagh ta bunnit ayns Ullee ayns cooishyn lheid as reih da'n fwirran ashoonagh. Ayns 1921, lurg taghyrt raad, dyn y wooise da gialdyn ny s'leah, scugh yn IFA aa-chloie lieh-yerrinagh 'syn Irish Cup veih Divlyn gys Beeal Feirshtey[133] as, myr eiyrtys, daag clubyn va bunnit ayns Divlyn y çheshaght as chur ad Football Association of the Irish Free State er bun. Jiu, ta'n çheshaght 'sy jiass enmyssit myr Football Association of Ireland (FAI). Dyn y wooise da'n neu-hashtey er y çheshaght veih ny sheshaghtyn ayns h-Ashoonyn Thie, va'n FAI currit er enney ec FIFA ayns 1923 as va'n chied chloie eddyrashoonaght reaghit as cloit ayns 1926 (noi'n Iddaal). Ansherbee, va ny fwirranyn ec daa heshaght yn IFA as yn FAI reiht veih deiney as ooilley Nerin, as hooar sleih ennagh capyn da cloiaghyn as ad cloie er son y daa 'wirran. Ren y daa jeu cur sheese er nyn vwirranyn myr Nerin.

Paul O'Connell roshtyn da'n vluckan car linney-magh noi'n Argenteen ayns 2007

Ayns 1950, ren FIFA gurneil ny sheshaghtyn cloiederyn dy reih veih ny thallooyn er lheh oc as, ayns 1953, ren eh gurneil dy nee "Pobblaght Nerin" yn ennym va currit er fwirran ashoonagh yn FAI, as "Nerin Hwoaie" yn ennym va currit er fwirran yn IFA veih shen magh (lesh lhimmaghyn er lheh). Ghow Nerin Hwoaie ayrn ayns kione-chloiaghyn Cappan y Theihll ayns ny bleeantyn 1958 (as ad er nyn rosh gys ny cloiaghyn kerroo-yerrinagh), 1982 as 1986. Ghow Pobblaght Nerin ayrn ayns kione-chloiaghyn Cappan y Theihll ayns 1990 (as ad er nyn rosh gys ny cloiaghyn kerroo-yerrinagh), ayns 1994 as ayns 2002 as ghow ad ayrn ayns Feniaghtys ny h-Oarpey ayns 1988. Ta anaase mooar Yernagh ayns leegyn soccer Sostynagh as Albinagh.

Ayns neu-chosoylaght rish soccer, ta Nerin cur un 'wirran ashoonagh ruggyr magh er y vagher, as ta'n fwirran as y spoyrt er feie Nerin stiurit ec un heshaght, yn Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU). Ghow fwirran ruggyr Nerin ayrn ayns dagh Cappan Ruggyr y Theihll, as rosh ad gys ny cloiaghyn kerroo-yerrinagh ayns kiare jeu. Va cloiaghyn ruggyr cloit ayns Nerin car Cappanyn y Theihll ayns ny bleeantyn 1991 as 1999. Ta kiare fwirranyn keirdey Yernagh ayn as da dagh fer jeu cloie 'sy Magners League as tree jeu cloie er son Cappan Heineken. Ta ruggyr Yernagh er ny heet dy ve ny smoo cohirreydagh ec corrymyn eddyrashoonagh as queiggagh veih'n vlein 1994 tra haink er y spoyrt dy ve ny spoyrt keirdey. Car y traa shen, ren Ullee (1999[134]), y Vooan (2006[135] and 2008[136]) as Lion (2009[137]) cosney y Cappan Heineken. Ayns bishaghey rish shen, ta fwirran eddyrashoonagh Nerin er gheddyn ny smoo as ny smoo rah ayns Feniaghtys ny Shey Ashoonyn noi ny fwirranyn reiht elley Oarpagh. Haink y rah shen, goaill stiagh Tree-Chrooinyn ayns 2006 as 2007, ry-cheiley lesh greim glen dy varriaghtyn, ta enmyssit Grand Slam, ayns 2009.[138]

Va fwirran criggad Nerin mastey ny h-ashoonyn coheshaghtagh chossyn ayrn ayns Cappan Criggad y Theihll 2007. Chur Nerin y Phakistaan fo haart as ren ad creaghney 'sy nah ynnyd 'sy cho-rheynn, as hooar ad ynnyd ayns keim y Super 8 jeh'n feniaghtys. Ghow y fwirran ayrn 'syn ICC World Twenty20 2009 lurg e cho-varriaght ayns ny qualleeaghtyn, raad ghow ad ayrn ayns keim y Super 8. Myrane lesh shen chossyn Nerin y Whalleeaght da Cappan ICC y Theihll as ad shickyraghey nyn ynnyd ayns Cappan Criggad y Theihll 2011, myrane lesh staydys ODI oikoil derrey 2013.

Ta fwirran ruggyr leeg Nerin jeant seose son y chooid smoo jeh cloieyderyn ta bunnit ayns Sostyn lesh kianglaghyn lught thie Yernagh, as cloiederyn elley çheet magh ass cohirrey ynnydagh ass yn Austrail. Rosh Nerin ny cloiaghyn kerroo-yerrinagh ayns Cappan Ruggyr Leeg y Theihll 2000.

Spoyrtyn elley[reagh]

Ta ratçhal cooyn liauyrey as ratçhal cabbil nyn spoyrtyn ennoil as cadjin ayns Nerin. Ta ram sleih frastyl er staidyn cooyn liauyrey as ta ram cruinnaghtyn ratçhal cabbil goll er taghyrt ayn. Ta ard-ghoo er yn ellan son fuilleeaght as ynsaghey cabbil roie as ta ram cooyn roie er nyn assphurtal magh dagh blein.[139] Ta rheynnag ratçhal cabbil co-ghlooit ayns Coontae Cheeill Darey son y chooid smoo.[140]

Ta roortaghys Yernagh er ny lhiassaghey ayns ny traaghyn jeianagh, as daa voyn ard-ghooagh er nyn gosney ec Sonia O'Sullivan ayns ratçhyn 5,000 meteryn; boyn airhey ec Feniaghtyssyn y Theihll 'sy vlein 1995 as boyn argid ec Cloiaghyn Olympagh sy vlein 2000 ayns Sydney. Chossyn Gillian O'Sullivan boyn argid 'sy ratçh shooill 20k ec Feniaghtyssyn y Theihll ayns 2003, as chossyn cleeader ratçhal Derval O'Rourke boyn airhey ayns Feniaghtyssyn Çheusthie y Theihll 'sy vlein 2006 ayns Moscow. Chossyn Olive Loughnane boyn argid ayns ratçhal shooil 20k ayns Feniaghtyssyn Roortaghys y Theihll ayns Berleen ayns 2009.

Ta doarneyrys reirit ec yn Irish Amateur Boxing Association. Ayns 1992, chossyn Michael Carruth boyn airhey son y doarneyrys ayns Cloiaghyn Olympagh Barcelona as 'sy vlein 2008 chossyn Kenny Egan boyn argid son doarneyrys ayns Cloiaghyn Olympagh ayns Beijing.[141]

Ta golf feer-chadjin ayns Nerin as she çhynskyl mooar t'ayn turrysid ghalf as ee tayrn ny smoo na 240,000 keayrtee golf dagh blein.[142] Va Cappan Ryder 2006 cloit 'sy K Club ayns Coontae Cheeill Darey.[143] Haink er Pádraig Harrington dy ve ny chied Yernagh veih Fred Daly ayns 1947 dys y British Open ayns Càrn Fheusda dy chosney ayns Jerrey Souree 2007.[144] Chossyn eh e ard-ennym ayns Jerrey Souree 2008[145] roish chossyn eh y PGA Championship ayns Luanistyn.[146] Haink er Harrington dy ve ny chied Oarpagh dys y PGA Championship dy chossyn er feie 78 bleeaney as v'eh ny chied chosneyder veih Nerin.

Ta traieyn da markiaght tonn ry-gheddyn er coose heear Nerin, ayns An Leacht as Cooan Ghoon ny Ghoal er lheh, as ad foshlit da'n Cheayn Sheear. Ta cummey funnyl er Cooan Ghooan ny Ghoal as t'eh goaill greim er geayaghyn neear/neear yiass veih'n Cheayn Sheear, as t'ad croo emshyr vie da markiaght tonn, 'sy gheurey er lheh. Ayns ny bleeantyn jeianagh, haink markiaght tonn feniaghtagh ny h-Oarpey dys Bun Dobhráin. Ta thummey scuba çheet dy toshiaght ayns Nerin er oyr ny h-ushtaghyn gilley as earrooyn mooarey dy vioys marrey, rish y choose heear er lheh. Ta ram lhongvrishaghyn ry-akin rish coose Nerin lesh fir jeh ny thunnaghyn lhongvrishaghyn share ry-akin magh veih Cionn Mhálanna as magh veih coose Choontae Chorkee.[147]

Ta Nerin ny kione-jurnaa cadjin as ennoil son eeastagh lesh millaghyn dy loghyn, ny smoo na 14,000 km (8,700 mi) dy awinyn ta gymmyrkey eeastyn as ny smoo na 3,700 km (2,300 km) dy choose. Ta speyr honderagh Nerin cooie da eeastagh spoyrt. Tra ta breckeragh braddan as brick foast ennoil lesh breckeyderyn, hooar eeasteyragh braddan aaniartaghey ayns 2006 lesh dooney eeasteragh lhieen troa braddan. Ta eeasteyragh garroo lhiassaghey dy beayn. Ta eeasteragh marrey lhiassit lesh ram traieyn currit er caslyssyn-çheerey as cowrit,[148] as ta mychione 80 dooieyn dy eeastyn marrey.[149]

Bee as jough[reagh]

Caashey Gubbeen, sampleyr jeh aa-anaase ayns jannoo caashey Yernagh

Ta bee as coagyraght Yernagh goaill cleanaghyn veih ny troaryn ta lhiassit as ny beiyn ta troggit ayns speyr honderagh yn ellan as veih ny coryn sheshoil as politickagh ayns shennaghys Nerin. Myr sampleyr, car yn eash veih ny Mean Eashyn derrey çheet y phraase 'sy 16-oo eash v'eh ny chowrey smoo jeh tarmaynys Nerin na bochillaght ollee, as va earroo ollee ec peiagh corrym rish y stayd sheshoil echey.[150] Er yn oyr shen, cha ren bochillyn buitçheraghey baa va troarey bainney.[150] Er yn oyr shen, va feill vuc as feill vane ny smoo cadjin na feill vart, as ta slissagyn roauyr dy vagoon saillit as eeym hailjey nyn droyn sampleyragh jeh'n vee Yernagh veih ny Mean Eashyn.[150] Va aght dy choyrt folley veih ollagh as dy mestey'n fuill lesh bainney as eeym (cosoylaght son y chooid smoo rish ny Maasai) ry-akin dy mennick[151] as ta putage ghoo, ta jeant seose jeh fuill, grine (oarn son y chooid smoo) as blasstalys, foast ny h-anjeeal undinagh ayns Nerin. Ta dagh fer jeh ny cleanaghyn shen ry-akin ayns y "rolley anjeeal".

Chur çheet stiagh y phraase ayns lieh jerrinagh y 16-oo eash cleayney mooar er y choagyraght Yernagh veih shen magh. Chur boghtinys mooar creeaght ayns aght croit as 'sy 19-oo eash veanagh va'n chooid smoo jeh'n phobbyl gee bee va jeant seose jeh praaseyn as bainney.[152] Dee lught thie sampleyragh, va jeant seose jeh fer, ben, as kiare paitçhyn 18 claghyn (110 kg) dy phraaseyn dagh shiaghtyn.[150] Rere shen, ta lhongaghyn ta coontit myr lhongaghyn ashoonagh cur seose neu-ghalaantaght vunneydagh rish coagyraght, lheid as yn anvroie Yernagh, bagoon as caayl, bacstaí (sorçh dy phannag phraase), ny caayl kionnan, lhongey ta jeant seose jeh praaseyn lahnit as anvroie caayl ny caayl.[150]

Veih'n cherroo jerrinagh jeh'n 20-oo eash, lesh çheet magh reesht yn argid ayns Nerin, ta "Coagyraght Yernagh Noa" er ny heet magh as ee bunnit er mynayrnyn tradishoonagh agh goaill stiagh cleanaghyn eddyrashoonagh.[153][154] Ta'n choagyraght shen bunnit er glassraghyn oorey, eeastyn (braddanyn, brick, ooastyryn, gobyn doo as eastyn shliggagh elley), myrane lesh arranyn soda tradishoonagh as y reamys lheeadagh jeh caashaghyn laue-jeant ta troarit er feie ny çheerey. Ta'n praase foast ny hro bunneydagh jeh'n choagyraght shen as ta ny Yernee gee y chooid smoo jeh praaseyn rere dooiney[150] mastey eederyn 'syn Oarpey. She sampleyr jeh'n choagyraght shen na "Dublin Lawyer": gimmagh ta aarlit ayns ushtey bea as key.[155] Ta bee ardjynagh tradishoonagh ry-gheddyn er feie ny çheerey, lheid as cadal ayns Divlyn ny drisín ayns Corkee, y daa jeu nyn sorçh dy phronnag, ny blaa, arran teaystagh bane ta ry-gheddyn ayns Purt Largey.

Keayrt va Nerin ny çheer smoo scanshoil son troarey ushtey bea, as va 90% jeh ushtey bea 'sy theihll troarit ayn rish toshiaght y 20-oo eash. Ansherbee, myr eiyrtys jeh ny smuggleyderyn alcoal car y veelowalys ayns ny Steatyn Unnaneysit (as ushtey vea jeh drogh-whaalid er ny chreck lesh enmyn "Yernagh" orroo as eh shen jeeilley yn foayr cadjin son cowraghyn Yernagh)[156] as myr eiyrtys jeh ny custymyn er ushtey bea Yernagh harrish yn Impiraght Ghoaldagh car y Chaggey Traghtee Anglo-Yernagh ayns ny 1930yn,[157] huitt creck jeh ushtey bea Yernagh er feie ny cruinney gys 2% rish mean y 20-oo eash.[158] Ayns 1953, rere creear veih'n reiltys Yernagh, v'eh feddynit magh nagh row ushtey bea Yernagh er fys ec 50% jeh iuderyn ushtey bea ayns ny Steatyn Unnaneysit.[159] Ansherbee, va iu yn ushtey bea Yernagh foast ennoil ayns Nerin, as ayns ny jeihaghtyn jeianagh, ta'n ushtey bea Yernagh girree ny smoo scanshoil er feie ny cruinney.[160] Dy cadjin, cha nel ushtey bea Yernagh cha jaaghagh as ushtey bea Albinagh, agh cha nel eh cha millish as ushtey bea Americaanagh ny Canadagh.[160] Ta'n ushtey bea ny vun da liggooryn kay, lheid as Baileys, as ta'n "caffee Yernagh" (jinlag dy chaffee as ushtey bea va cummit, rere rish, ayns stashoon etlan marrey Faing) coontit myr y jinlag Yernagh smoo ennoil, foddee.

Ta bainney ny baa doo, sorçh dy lhune doo, as Guinness er lheh, kianglt rish Nerin dy mennick, agh v'eh kianglt rish Lunnin dy bunneydagh. Ta bainney ny baa doo foast ennoil ayns Nerin, agh t'eh er choayl e foayr veih mean y 20-oo eash da lhune freillagh. Ta lhune ooyl, as Bulmers er lheh (t'er ny chreck çheumooie jeh Pobblaght Nerin myr Magners), ny yough ennoil chammah. Ta'n jough ghlass limonaid yiarg iuit lhee hene as myr mesteyder, lesh ushtey bea er lheh.[161]

Jeeagh er neesht[reagh]

Noteyn[reagh]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ta ny h-earrooyn shoh soilshaghey coontey-pobble 2006 da Pobblaght Nerin as ooley-pobble 2006 da Nerin Hwoaie.

Imraaghyn[reagh]

  1. Islands by Area (Baarle). UN System-Wide Earthwatch. United Nations Environment Programme (1998-02-18). Feddynit er 30-08-2008.
  2. Solnit, Rebecca (1997). Book of Migrations: Some Passages in Ireland. Lunnin: Verso, 100. ISBN 1-85984-186-4. 
  3. V'eh er ooley 'sy vlein 2008 dy row 4,422,100 cummaltee ayns Pobblaght Nerin as 'sy vlein cheddin va 1,775,000 cummaltee ayns Nerin Hwoaie. 'Sy vlein 2009 v'eh oolit dy row 4,459,300 cummaltee ayns Pobblaght Nerin. Cha nel ooley 'sy vlein 2009 da Nerin Hwoaie er ny chur magh dys shoh. Ta ny h-oolaghyn shoh çheet as bingyn staydraaoil reiltyssagh oikoil veih'n daa heer:
  4. Irish-Catholic Immigration to America. Immigration…. Library of Congress (2007-05-07). Feddynit er 2010-01-01.
  5. "Quarterly Economic Commentary" (Spring 2009). Divlyn: Economic and Social Research Institute. 
  6. Heritage Ireland. Céide Fields. Office of Public Works. Feddynit er 2008-10-23.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Oppenheimer, Stephen (2006-10-21). "Myths of British Ancestry". Prospect Magazine. (127). ISSN 1359-5024. 
  8. "How Did Pygmy Shrews Colonize Ireland? Clues from a Phylogenetic Analysis of Mitochondrial Cytochrome B Sequences" (2003-08-07). Proceedings of the Royal Society. Ym-lioar 270 (1524). Royal Society. doi:10.1098/rspb.2003.2406. 
  9. Freeman, Philip (2001). Ireland and the classical world. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 65. ISBN 0-292-72518-3. 
  10. Freeman, Philip (2001). Ireland and the Classical World. Austin: University of Texas Press. 
  11. Hibernia. Roman Empire. United Nations of Roma Victrix. Feddynit er 2008-11-08.
  12. O'Hart, John (1892). Irish Pedigrees: or, The Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation. Divlyn: J. Duffy and Co., 725. 
  13. "Informaworld.com Ptolemy's Map of Ireland: a Modern Decoding" (Mart 2008). Irish Geography. Ym-lioar 14 (1): 49&emdash;69. 
  14. Carson, R.A.G. and O'Kelly, Claire: A catalogue of the Roman coins from Newgrange, Co. Meath and notes on the coins and related finds, pages 35-55. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, volume 77, section C
  15. Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, "Ireland, 400–800", ayns Dáibhí Ó Cróinín (ed.), A New History of Ireland 1: Prehistoric and Early Ireland, Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 182–234.
  16. Clowan:Cite encyclopedia, p.253
  17. Ginnell, Laurence (1894). The Brehon laws: a legal handbook. T Fisher Unwin, 81. 
  18. Clowan:CathEncy
  19. De Paor, Liam (1993). Saint Patrick's World: The Christian Culture of Ireland's Apostolic Age. Divlyn: Four Courts, Dublin, 78, 79. ISBN 1-85182-144-9. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Cahill, Tim (1996). How the Irish Saved Civilization. Anchor Books. ISBN 0385418493. 
  21. (1977) ayns Dowley, Tim, et al.: Eerdman's Handbook to the History of Christianity. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. ISBN 0-8028-3450-7. 
  22. Stokes, Margaret (1888). Early Christian art in Ireland. London: Chapman and Hall, 9, 87, 117. 
  23. Clowan:Citation
  24. Chrisafis, Angelique (2005-01-25). Scion of traitors and warlords: why Bush is coy about his Irish links. World News. The Guardian. Feddynit er 2008-11-08.
  25. Clowan:Cite encyclopedia, p.361
  26. Curtis, Edmund (2002). A History of Ireland from Earliest Times to 1922. York Noa: Routledge, 49. ISBN 0 415 27949 6. 
  27. "Laws that Isolated and Impoverished the Irish". Nebraska Department of Education.
  28. The curse of Cromwell. A Short History of Ireland. BBC Northern Ireland. Feddynit er 2008-11-08.
  29. Laws in Ireland for the Suppression of Popery. University of Minnesota Law School. Feddynit er 2009-01-23.
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 Ó Gráda, Cormac (1989). The Great Irish Famine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 12. ISBN 0 521 55266 4. 
  31. 31.0 31.1 Clowan:Cite
  32. Ward, Alan J. (1994). The Irish Constitutional Tradition: Responsible Government and Modern Ireland, 1782-1992. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 28. ISBN 0-81320-784-3. 
  33. The Irish Potato Famine. Digital History (2008-11-07). Feddynit er 2008-11-08.
  34. Vallely, Paul (2006-04-25). "1841: A window on Victorian Britain - This Britain", The Independent. Feddynit magh er 2009-04-16. 
  35. Quinn, Eamon (2007-08-19). "Ireland Learns to Adapt to a Population Growth Spurt", Europe, New York Times. Feddynit magh er 2008-11-08. 
  36. Kee, Robert (1972). The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism. Lunnin: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 376–400. ISBN 029717987X. 
  37. Kee, Robert (1972). The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 478–530. ISBN 029717987X. 
  38. Morough, Michael (Mee ny Nollick 2000). "History Review": 34–36. 
  39. Kee, Robert (1972). The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism. Lunnin: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 719–748. ISBN 029717987X. 
  40. Gwynn, Stephen (Jerrey Geuree 1934). "Ireland Since the Treaty". Foreign Affairs. Ym-lioar 12. 
  41. Crawford, John (1993). Anglicizing the Government of Ireland: The Irish Privy Council and the Expansion of Tudor Rule 1556-1578. Irish Academic Press. ISBN 0716524988. 
  42. The Gazetteer of British Place Names: Main features of the Gazetteer (Baarle). www.gazetteer.co.uk. Feddynit er 2010-01-23.
  43. NI by County (Baarle). Discover Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland Tourist Board. Feddynit er 2010-01-01.
  44. Central Statistics Office (26 Averil 2007). Census 2006 Volume 1 - Population Classified by Area: Tables 7 and 12 (PDF), Table 12, p.139: Alphabetical list of Towns with their population, 2002 and 2006. Feddynit magh er 2007-09-15. 
  45. Table KS07a: Religion (Numbers). National Research and Statistics Agency. Feddynit er 2010-01-11.
  46. Census 2006PDF (4.22 MB), Reiltys Nerin
  47. 47.0 47.1 Area by Province (Baarle). Principal Statistics. Central Statistics Office. Feddynit er 2010-01-11.

Claare lioaragh[reagh]

Kianglaghyn mooie[reagh]

Commons-logo.svg

Ta tooilley coadanyn mychione Nerin ry-gheddyn ayns Wikimedia Commons.