Gaelg

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
Gaelg Vanninagh
Gaelg/Gailck
Goll er loayrt ayns Mannin
Earroo loayreyderyn Dooghyssagh <200
Nah çhengey: 1,823 (2.16% jeh'n phobble) (2011) [1]

Marroo myr kied çhengey ayns 1974; er ny haavioghey nish, as mysh 2000 loayrtee mie eck, goaill stiagh paitçhyn as Gaelg oc myr nyn gied çhengey.[2][3][4]

Kynney çhengey Indo-Oarpagh
Staydys oikoil
Çhengey oikoil ayns Flag of the Isle of Man.svg Mannin
Fo stiurey ec Coonseil ny Gaelgey
Coadyn çhengey
ISO 639-1 gv
ISO 639-2 glv
ISO 639-3 glv
Linguasphere 50-AAA-aj

She Gaelg (graït: /gɪlg/) çhengey Ghaelagh Vannin. Haink y Ghaelg woish Shenn-Yernish, as t'ee cosoylagh rish Yernish as Gaelg ny h-Albey.

Ayns 1974, hooar yn çhenn loayrtagh dooghyssagh s'jerree, Ned Maddrell, baase, agh ny laaghyn t'ayn jiu ta loayrtee dooghyssagh noa ayn. Myr sampleyr, ta ymmoddee paitçhyn ec y Vunscoill Ghaelgagh, raad she yn Ghaelg yn çhengey t'ad gynagh ayn.

Shennaghys[reagh]

Shennaghys leah[reagh]

Ghow Gaelg toshiaght scarrey voish Yernish Veanagh traa ennagh eddyr yn 10oo- as yn 17oo-eash. Eer ayns yn 18oo-eash, va’n Ghaelg yn çhengey s'moo loayrit ayns Mannin. Agh ayns 1765 hie çhiarnys yn Ellan er creck dys Crooin Hostyn trooid yn Isle of Man Purchase Act son £70,000. Ren caghlaaghyn politickagh as sheshoil cur er sleih gynsagh y Vaarle. Tra haink yn 19oo-eash va'n çhengey goll er loayrt ec ny sloo sleih, as haink y Vaarle stiagh myr yn çhengey smoo ayns Mannin. Ayns 1848, ren J.G. Cumming screeu: cha nel monney sleih (veg jeh ny aegid, foddee) gyn Baarle erbee as ayns 1874, er lesh Henry Jenner dy row mysh 30% jeh'n sleih cliaghtit rish loayrt Gaelg (12,340 ass 41,084). Rere kione-earroo oikoil ayns 1901, dooyrt 9.1% jeh'n phobble dy row Gaelg oc, agh ec y traa cheddin, cha row monney jeu ny sloo na 50 bleeaney d’eash; ayns 1921 she 1.1% va'n earroo. [5] Fakin dy row keimeeaght imlee er jeet er yn çhengey, as shen kyndagh rish cooishyn er lheh myr Saasilaght ayns ayrn[6], cha row oyr ec sleih aasit dy ynsaghey Gaelg da nyn baitçhyn; er lhieu ngh beagh ymmyd erbee ec Gaelg cosoylit rish Baarle.

Baase as aavioghey[reagh]

Kyndagh rish yn Gaelg goll magh 'sy 19oo eash, hug adyr Yn Çheshaght Ghailckagh er bun ayns 1899.

Ec mean yn 20oo eash cha row monney loayrtee dooghyssagh er mayrn. Hooar Ned Maddrell, yn fer s'jerree, baase er yn 27oo laa Mee ny Nollick, 1974, agh va sleih elley er n'ynsaghey Gaelg myr nyn naa jengey ny roish shen. Va ram cooney currit dys yn aavioghey trooid ny recortyssyn va jeant 'sy 20oo eash. Er lhieh obbyr Chommishoon Beeal-Arrish Nerin (Yernish: Coimisiún Béaloideasa Éireann) as Eamon de Valera. Chammah as shen, ren Brian Stowell, studeyr Ghoolish y Karagher, ram obbyr.

Ta Gaelgeyryn dooghyssagh noa ayn nish, son dy vel paarantyn ayn as Gaelg oc, as dy vel y Vunscoill Ghaelgagh ayn. Chammah as shen, ta Gaelg goll er ynsaghey myr naa çhengey ec bunnys dagh scoill 'sy çheer, ec Colleish Ellan Vannin as Laare Studeyrys Manninagh. Ta qualleeaghtyn 'sy Ghaelg ry-gheddyn trooid yn Reiltys, ennmyssit yn Teisht Chadjin Ghaelgagh as yn Ard-Teisht Ghaelgagh. Ta possanyn dramey Gaelgagh ayn neesht, as ta Mooinjer Veggey [7] jannoo ymmyd jeh Gaelg myr yn ynrickan çhengey ayns ny queig ro-scoillyn t'ad roie. T'ad co-roie yn Bunscoill Ghaelgagh myrgeddin.

Y 21oo eash[reagh]

Ayns kione-earroo 2001, dreggyr 1,689 ass 76,315 (2.2% yn pobble) dy row Gaelg oc.[8] Ta sleih jannoo ymmyd jeh enmyn Gaelgagh reesht. Ta Tinvaal jannoo ymmyd jeh'n çhengey, as Yn Lhaihder lhaih magh leighyn noa ayns Gaelg as Baarle. Er yn 14oo laa Jerrey Geuree 2008, ren SIL caghlaa coad ISO y Ghaelg voish marroo dys bio [9]

Haink Ny Kirree Fo Niaghtey, yn chied scanaane 'sy Ghaelg, magh ayns 1983. Hie eh er cloie ec yn Wheiggoo Feailley Celtiagh as Çhellveeish ayns Cayr Deeth ayns 1984. Ren Shorys Y Creayrie stiurey eh er son Foillan Films, Laksaa, as ta’n fillym bentyn rish yn arrane y theay Ny Kirree Fo Niaghtey. Ta’n straih çhellveeish Caarjyn as Fenee ry gheddyn ‘sy Ghaelg.[10]

Ta Coardailys Europagh son Çhengaghyn Ardjynagh as Fo-Hengyn cur tastey da'n Ghaelg myr çhengey bio.

Cha nel monney stoo screeuit 'sy Ghaelg, as s'liklee nagh row ee screeuit roish ny 1600yn. Va Gaelg currit er yn Lioar Padjer Cadjin as yn Bible [11] ayns ny 17oo- as 18oo- cheeadyn.

Çhengoaylleeaght y Ghaelg[reagh]

Mooinjerys rish çhengaghyn elley[reagh]

Jeeagh er #Rang-oardraghey as abbyrtyn

Aght-screeuee[reagh]

Cha nel Gaelg goll er lettraghey er yn aght cheddin as Yernish ny Gaelg ny h-Albey, er yn oyr nagh vel ee geiyrt er bun-ocklaght Gaelagh. Ta Bretnish as Baarle er chur beggan da (myr shen, ymmyd 'y' as 'w', as daaghooaghtyn gollrish 'oo' as 'ee'). Myr sampleyr, ayns Yernish yinnagh ad screeu 'Ellan Vannin' myr Oileán Mhanainn, as ayns Gaelg ny h-Albey she Eilean Mhanainn t'ayn; agh ta'd goll er gra bunnys er yn aght cheddin.

Tra hie Gaelg er screeu son y chied cheayrt, beign d'adyr croo aght screeeuee. Dy cadjin, t'adyr gra dy chroo John Philips eh da hene. She Aspick Sodor as Man (1605-1633) v'eshyn as hug eh Gaelg er yn Lioar Padjer Cadjin. Ta kuse dy hampleyryn jeh Gaelg ny h-Albey scruït syn aght shoh. Myr sampleyr, Lioar Dean Lios Moir as docamad Fernaig.Lioar Dean Lios Moir as docamad Fernaig

Fockleyn y Ghaelg[reagh]

Gaelg Raa s'niessey ayns Yernish
Raa s'niessey ayns Gaelg ny h-Albey
Raa s'niessey ayns Bretnish
Moghrey mie Maidin mhaith Madainn mhath Bore da
Fastyr mie Tráthnóna maith Feasgar math Noswaith dda
Slane lhiat, Slane lhiu Slán leat, Slán libh Slàn leat, Slàn leibh Hwyl fawr
Gura mie ayd, Gura mie eu Go raibh maith agat, Go raibh maith agaibh Tapadh leat, Tapadh leibh Diolch
baatey bád bàta cwch
barroose bus bus bws
blaa bláth blàth blodyn
booa buwch/bo
cabbyl capall capall ceffyl
cashtal caisleán, caiseal caisteal castell
creg carraig carraig, creag carreg
eeast iasc iasg pysgodyn
ellan oileán eilean ynys
gleashtan gluaisteán, carr càr car
kayt cat cat cath
moddey madra, madadh madadh ci
shap siopa bùth siop
thie tigh, teach taigh
eean éan eun, ian aderyn
jees beirt, dís dithis dau
oik oifig oifis swyddfa
ushtey uisce uisge dŵr

Earrooyn[reagh]

Gaelg Yernish Gaelg ny h-Albey Bretnish
un / nane aon (a haon) / amháin aon un
daa / jees dó, dhá / beirt / dís dà / dithis dau/dwy
tree trí trì tri/tair
kiare ceathair, ceithre ceithir pedwar/pedair
queig cúig còig pump
shey sia chwech
shiaght seacht seachd saith
hoght ocht (a hocht) ochd wyth
nuy naoi naoi naw
jeih deich deich deg
nane jeig aon déag aon deug un ar ddeg
daa yeig dó dhéag dà dheug deuddeg

Sorçhaghys çhengoayleeagh[reagh]

She çhengey Gaelagh y Ghaelg, as adsyn ooilley nyn jengaghyn Celtiagh Ellanagh, as oltaghyn jeh’n lught-çhengah Indo-Oarpagh. Haink ee woish Shenn Yernish as Yernish Meanagh. Ga dy vel anchaslyssyn eddyr nyn aghtyn screeuee, ta’n Ghaelg ry-hoiggal liorish Gaelgeyryn elley. Ren Ned Maddrell cummal seose e hengey trooid loayrt rish Gaelgeyr Yernagh as Albinagh er baatyn[12]. Ta mooinjerys faagys eddyr Gaelg, Yernish as Gaelg ny h-Albey foast, agh ta troyn er lheh oc. Ta daa foghlaare fo'n ennym Gaelg Vanninagh: Gaelg y Twoaie as Gaelg y Jiass[13].

Sheeanchoryssaghtys[reagh]

Corocklyn[reagh]

Shoh ny foneemyn corocklagh 'sy Ghaelg: [14]

Foneemyn corocklagh y Ghaelg
  Daa-veillagh Meill-eeacklagh Feeacklagh Cooyl-eeacklagh Lurg-chooyleeacklagh Cleaoil Cleaoil-choghooysagh Coghooysagh Meill-choghooysagh Sluggidagh
Bleaystagh p b             ɡʲ k ɡ        
Stronnagh   m           n             ŋ        
Screebagh     f v   ð* s z* ʃ ʒ*     ɣʲ x ɣ     h  
Craa               r                        
Faggyssaght                       j           w    
Faggyssaght lhiattagh               l                      

* Cha nel ny sheeanyn shoh nyn myn-heeanyn hene rere Thompson as Broderick, agh ta ny sheeanyn ry-chlastyn er coontey obbraghyn sheeanchoryssagh, as myr shen t’ad er nyn gur ‘sy taabyl. Jeeagh er Çhengoaylleeaght ny Gaelgey son ny smoo fys.

Ta ennalaghey ec ny corocklyn bleastagh neuchronnaneagh /p k/, myr shen, t’ad goll er fockley magh myr [pʰ] as [kʰ].

Breeocklyn[reagh]

Shoh foneemyn breeocklagh 'sy Ghaelg:[15]

Foneemyn breeocklagh y Ghaelg
  Giare Liauyr
Toshee Meanagh Cooyl Toshee Meanagh Cooyl
Doont i   u  
Eddyr e ə o  
Foshlit   a      

Ta tasht mooar dy ghaaghooaghtyn 'sy Ghaelg, as t'ad er nyn soilsaghey fo:

Daaghooaghtyn ny Gaelgey
  Nah veer /i/ Nah veer /u/ Nah veer /ə/
Kied meer doont ui   iə • uə
Kied meer eddyr ei • əi • oi eu • əu  
Kied meer foshlit ai au  

My ta trimmid currit er shillab as /ə/, t'eh goll er fockley magh myr [ø][16].

Trimmid[reagh]

Son y chooid smoo, ta trimmid currit er y chied shillab jeh fockle ‘sy Ghaelg, agh dy mennick, my vees breeockle liauyr ec y nah hillab, bee y trimmid ersyn. [17] Myr sampleyr:

  • buggane /bʌˈɡɛən/
  • tarroogh /t̪aˈruːx/
  • reeoil /riːˈoːl/
  • vondeish /vonˈd̪eɪʃ/

Sheeanchoryssaghtys[reagh]

Myr dagh çhengey Celtiagh jeinagh, ta ceaghlaghyn corockle toshee ayn 'sy Gaelg. She obbyraghyn çhengagh adsyn, caghlaa kied chorockle yn 'ockle.[18]

Ceaghley corockle toshee[reagh]
Ayns ram boaylyn, myr sampleyr Doolish, ta fograghyn failt daahengagh. Cur tashtey ayns shoh da'n ceaghley corockle Doolish da Ghoolish.

Ta daa sorçh dy cheaghley corockle toshee ayn 'sy Ghaelg: boggaghys as stronnaghys.

Ceaghlaghyn 'sy Ghaelg
Corockle gyn ceaghley Boggaghys Stronnaghys
Kied cheim Nah cheim
p /p/ ph /f/ ph /f/ b /b/
t, th /t/ h /h/ t, th /t/ d /d/
çh /tʃ/ h /h/ çh /tʃ/ j /dʒ/
c, k keyl /kʲ/ ch /ç/ ch /ç/ g /gʲ/
c, k lheean /k/ ch /x/ ch /x/ g /g/
b /b/ v /v/, /w/ v /v/, /w/ m /m/
bw /bw/ w /w/ w /w/ mw /mw/
d, dh /d/ gh /ɣ/ d /d/ n/n/
j /dʒ/ y /j/ j /dʒ/ n'y /nj/
g keyl /gʲ/ y, gh /j/ y, gh /j/ ng /ŋʲ/
g lheean /g/ gh /ɣ/ gh /ɣ/ ng /ŋ/
f /f/ (dollit) (dollit) v /v/
s /s/ h /h/ t/t/ s /s/
str /str/ tr /tr/ tr /tr/ str /str/
sl /sl/ l /l/ cl /kl/ sl /sl/
sn /sl/ n, sn /n/, /sn/ n, sn /n/, /sn/ sn /sn/
sh /ʃ/ h /h/ ç /tʃ/ sh /ʃ/
m /m/ v /v/, /w/ v /v/, /w/ m /m/
mw /mw/ w /w/ mw /mw/ mw /mw/
qu /kw/ wh /ʍ/ wh /ʍ/ qu /kw/

Imraaghyn[reagh]

  1. Isle of Man Census Report 2011 (PDF) (Baarle). Rheynn Cooishyn Tarmaynagh, Yn Tashtey (2012). Feddynit er 8 Mean Fouyir 2012.
  2. Anyone here speak Jersey?
  3. Fockle ny ghaa: schoolchildren take charge
  4. Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: glv
  5. Fourth International Conference on Minority Languages, Vol. II, Gorter et al, 1990, dg. 59-60.
  6. http://www.isle-of-man.com/manxnotebook/mannin/v9p511.htm
  7. http://www.mooinjerveggey.org.im/
  8. Isle of Man Census Report 2001, Volume 2, Dg. 11
  9. Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: glv (14 Jerrey Geuree, 2008). Feddynit er 2008-07-06.
  10. Friends and Heroes: News (6 Mee ny Nollick, 2007). Feddynit er 2008-07-06.
  11. http://www.gaelg.iofm.net/BIBLICAL/BIBLICAL.html
  12. The Death of Manx' from newspaper clipping 1950s (6 Mean Fouyir, 1993). Feddynit er 2008-07-06.
  13. Broderick 1984-86, 1:xxvii-xxviii, 160
  14. Thomson 1992, 128–29; Broderick 1993, 234
  15. Broderick 1993, 230–33
  16. Broderick 1993, 232–33
  17. Broderick 1993, 236
  18. Broderick 1984–86, 1:7–21; 1993, 236–39; Thomson 1992, 132–35

Lioaryn[reagh]

  • Broderick, George, Handbook of Late Spoken Manx, Ym-lioar. 1: Grammar and Texts, Tübingen, Max Niemeyer Verlag 1984.
  • Broderick, George, Handbook of Late Spoken Manx, Ym-lioar. 2: Dictionary, Tübingen, Max Niemeyer Verlag 1984.
  • Broderick, George, Handbook of Late Spoken Manx, Ym-lioar. 3: Phonology, Tübingen, Max Niemeyer Verlag 1986.
  • Broderick, George, Manx, ayns: Ball, Martin (Hrsg.), The Celtic Languages, London & New York, Routledge 1993.

Kianglaghyn mooie[reagh]