Çhengoaylleeaght ny Gaelgey

Ass Wikipedia.
Jump to navigation Jump to search

She çhengey Ellanagh Ghaelgagh Cheltiagh y Ghaelg Vanninagh, as oltey jeh’n chynney çhengey Indo-Oarpagh. Daase ee ass yn Çhenn Yernish as y Yernish Veanagh. Ga dy vel anchaslyssyn eddyr ny cairscreeuyn jeu, ta’n Ghaelg Vanninagh so-hoiggal ec Gaelgeyryn elley. Va Ned Maddrell cummal seose y çhengey echey trooid loayrt rish Gaelgeyryn Yernagh as Albinagh er ny baatyn.[1]Ta faggys-mooinjerys eddyr Gaelg, Yernish as Gaelg Albinagh foast, agh ta troyn er lheh eck chammah. Ta daa abbyrt ec Gaelg: Gaelg Hwoaie as Gaelg Yiass.[2]

Aase ny Gaelgey[reagh | edit source]

Ren Shenn Yernish rheynn as gaase dys ny çhengaghyn Gaelgagh t'ayn nish: Yernish, Gaelg as Gaelg Albinagh. Myr shen, haghyr shiartanse dy chaghlaaghyn bentyn rish sheeanaghtys, jalloo-oaylleeaght as fockle-hasht yn Çhenn Yernish son dy yannoo y Ghaelg Vanninagh t'ayn nish.

Jerraghyn focklyn[reagh | edit source]

Caghlaaghyn bentyn rish jerraghyn focklyn
Shenn Yernish /
Yernish Veanagh
Yernish jeinagh Gaelg Albinagh Gaelg
[-əvʲ]     [-əw]
[-əj]     [-iː]
[-əð] [-ə] (ayns ennymocklyn)

[-əx] (ayns breearyn)

  [-ə] (ayns ennymocklyn)

[-əx] (ayns breearyn)

Kyndagh rish y chovestey sheeanyn cleaoilagh, raad va [əvʲ] jerrey-fockle gyn trimmid (-(a)ibh, -(a)imh rere lettraghey Yernish as Albinagh), ta shen er govestey marish [əw] (-(e)amh) 'sy Ghaelg, as shen screeut myr "-oo" ny "-u(e)". Myr sampleyr, shassoo (Yernish seasamh), credjue (Yernish creideamh), nealloo (Yernish Yeianagh Leah (i) néalaibh, ayns bodjallyn), as erriu (Yernish oraibh)[3].

Raad va [əj] gyn trimmid er jerrey 'ockle 'sy Yernish Veanagh (-(a)idh as -(a)igh), ta shen er ny gaghlaa dys [iː] 'sy Ghaelg. T'eh goll er screeu myr "-ee", myr sampleyr, kionnee (Yernish ceannaigh) as cullee (Gaelg Albinish culaidh)[4]. Ta shen gollrish abbyrtyn twoaiey Yernish, chammah's abbyrtyn jiassey Albinagh.

Raad va [əð] ry-akin ayns Yernish Veanagh (-(e)adh), haink daa chummey Gaelg ass.

  1. Ayns ennymocklyn, haink [ə] assyn, gollrish Yernish jiass, as kuse dy abbyrtyn ny Gaelgey Albinagh as Yernish heear. Myr sampleyr, caggey ['kaːɣə], moylley [ˈmɔlə]; cf. Yernish cogadh as moladh, er nyn vockley magh myr [ˈkɔɡə] as [ˈmˠɔl̪ˠə] ayns Yernish heear ny jiass[5].
  2. Ayns cummaghyn breearyn çheorit roish ennymockyn (agh cha nel roish farenmyn), haink [əð] y ve [əx] ‘sy Ghaelg chammah’s Yernish jiass. Myr sampleyr, voyllagh [ˈvɔləx] ; cf. Yernish mholfadh, [ˈvˠɔl̪ˠhəx][6].

Arraghey corocklyn[reagh | edit source]

Ta kuse dy chorocklyn ny Gaelgey er gaghlaa ass ny cummaghyn v'oc 'sy Çhenn Yernish.

Jannoo /kr gr mr tr/ jeh /kn gn mn tn/[reagh | edit source]

Gollrish abbyrtyn twoaie Yernish, as ymmodee abbyrtyn ny Gaelgey Albinagh, ta ny shenn jeesyn Gaelgagh /kn gn mn tn/ er jeet dy ve /kr gr mr tr/ ‘sy Ghaelg. Myr sampleyr, cosoylaghey Yernish Veanagh cnáid as mná rish craid as mraane ‘sy Ghaelg.[7]

Jannoo [tʃ dʒ] jeh [tʲ dʲ][reagh | edit source]

Ta Gaelg, chammah's Yernish hwoaie as Gaelg Albinagh, er nyannoo affricaidyn [tʃ] as [dʒ] jeh staddyn feeacklagh cleaoilit [tʲ] as [dʲ] ny Shenn Yernish.[8]

Cleaoilaghey[reagh | edit source]

Gollrish Gaelg Albinagh, cha nel cleaoilaghey neuchosoylagh ec corocklyn daa-veillagh Gaelg. Ayns y Yernish, ta ny corocklyn coghooysagh /pˠ bˠ fˠ w mˠ/ neuchosoylagh rish /pʲ bʲ fʲ vʲ mʲ/ 'sy chorys sheeancoryssagh. Agh Gaelg as Gaelg Albinagh, cha nel agh /p b f v m/ oc[9].

Coayl [vʲ] fockle-meanagh[reagh | edit source]

Gollrish Yernish y Vooan, raad va [vʲ] ec mean ny jerrey ‘ockle traa dy row (as shen screeut myr bh ny mh ‘sy lettraghey Yernish), ta shen er coayl ec Gaelg. Ny keayrtyn ta ny breeocklyn oc er jeet dy ve ny s’liurey; ny keayrtyn elley, ta’n fockle er jeant u jeh’n chorockle, as haink shen dy ve ny daaghooaght. Myr sampleyr: Ta geurey Gaelg [ˈɡʲeurə], [ɡʲuːrə] corrym rish geimhreadh ‘sy Yernish ([ˈɟiːɾˠə] rere fockley magh jiass), as ta sleityn corrym rish sléibhte [ˈʃlʲeːtʲə] rere fockley magh jiass).[10]

Sheeanchoryssaghtys ny Gaelgey[reagh | edit source]

Jalloo-oaylleeaght ny Gaelgey[reagh | edit source]

Ta daa cheintys ec y Ghaelg: firrinagh as bwoirrinagh. Ta ennymocklyn goll er yn-filley son earroo (liorish -yn myr meer yerree, son y chooid smoo). Cha nel ad goll er yn-filley son case, er lhimmey jeh possan beg as shenn chummey gienneydagh baghtal oc.

Ta breearyn jannoo cummaghyn liorish ym-loayrtys chammah as yn-filley.

Ceaghley corocklyn toshee[reagh | edit source]

Ayns ram boaylyn, myr sampleyr Doolish, ta fograghyn failt daahengagh. Cur tashtey ayns shoh da'n cheaghley corockle Doolish da Ghoolish.

Myr dagh çhengey Cheltiagh jeinagh, ta ceaghlaghyn corockyn toshee ec y Ghaelg. She obbyraghyn çhengoaylleeagh t'ayn. T'ad caghlaa kied chorockle 'ockle rere yn çhymbyllaght jalloo-oaylleeagh as co-ordrailagh echey[11].

Ta daa obbyr ceaghlagh ec y Ghaelg: boggaghys as stronnaghys.

Ayns Gaelg yn 20oo eash, va'n corys foudaghey (cadjin ayns cooishyn baase çhengey), as nagh row ram Gaelgeyr jannoo ymmyd jeh ceaghlaghyn rere ny shenn reillyn. Nish ta ynsaghey oikoil ayn, as Gaelgeyr dooghyssagh, as lhisin shen cooney beaynaghey yn çhengey.

Ceaghlaghyn 'sy Ghaelg[12]
Corockle gyn ceaghley Boggaghys Stronnaghys
Kied cheim Nah cheim Treeoo cheim
p /p/ ph /f/ ph /f/ ph /f/ b /b/
t, th /t/ h /h/ t, th /t/ t, th /t/ d /d/
çh /tʃ/ h /h/ çh /tʃ/ çh /tʃ/ j /dʒ/
c, k keyl /kʲ/ ch /ç/ ch /ç/ ch /ç/ g /gʲ/
c, k lheean /k/ ch /x/ ch /x/ ch /x/ g /g/
b /b/ v /v/, /w/ v /v/, /w/ v /v/, /w/ m /m/
bw, boo /bw/ w /w/ w /w/ w /w/ mw /mw/
d, dh /d/ gh /ɣ/ d /d/ d /d/ n/n/
j /dʒ/ y /j/ j /dʒ/ j /dʒ/ n'y /nʲ/
g keyl /gʲ/ y, gh /j/ y, gh /j/ y, gh /j/ ng /ŋʲ/
g lheean /g/ gh /ɣ/ gh /ɣ/ gh /ɣ/ ng /ŋ/
f /f/ (dollit) (dollit) (dollit) v /v/
s /s/ h /h/ t/t/ s /s/ s /s/
str /st/ tr /tr/ tr /tr/ str /str/ str /str/
sl /sl/ l /l/ cl /kl/ sl /sl/ sl /sl/
sn /sl/ n, sn /n/, /sn/ sn, n, tn /n/, /sn/, /tn/ sn /sn/ sn /sn/
sh /ʃ/ h /h/ ç /tʃ/ sh /ʃ/ sh /ʃ/
shl /ʃl/ l /l/ shl /ʃl/ shl /ʃl/ shl /ʃl/
m /m/ v /v/ v /v/ v /v/ m /m/
mw, moo /mw/ w /w/ w /w/ w /w/ mw /mw/
qu /kw/ wh /ʍ/ wh /ʍ/ wh /ʍ/ qu /kw/

Boggaghys[reagh | edit source]

Ta tree keimyn boggaghys ayn, as ny reillyn oc beggan anchasley rish y cheilley.

Y chied cheim[reagh | edit source]

Ta boggaghys y chied cheim taghyrt ayns ny çhymbyllaghtyn shoh:

Earrooyn[reagh | edit source]

1. Erreish da daa

2. Erreish da earrooyn reajyssagh as -oo ec y jerrey (treeoo, jeihoo as y lheid)

Gerrymagh[reagh | edit source]

3. Ta cummaghyn gerrymagh boggaghey.

  • BreesheyKys t'ou, Vreeshey?
  • PeddyrPheddyr veen, tar stiagh!
  • DooinneyGura mie ayd, ghooinney!
Shellooderys[reagh | edit source]

4. Ta farenmyn shellooagh cur boggaghys er ny focklyn ny yei:

4.1 Erreish da my as dty.

  • cassshoh my chass

4.2. Erreish da e, dy (dy-e) as ny (ny-e) firrinagh.

4.2.1 Cha nel erreish da ny cummaghyn bwoirrinagh

  • thieshoh e chass (shoh y cass echey)
  • thieshoh e cass (shoh y cass eck)
  • fakint'ee dy 'akin (t'ee fakin eh)
  • fakint'eh dy fakin (t'eh fakin ee)
  • bwoalleyta mee er ny woalley (ta mee er mwoalley eh)
  • bwoalleyta mee er ny bwoalley (ta mee er mwoalley ee)

Ta boggaghys ec enmyn 'sy yienneydagh myrgeddin.

5. Ta boggaghys y chied cheim ec enmyn cair gyn art:

  • Kirreelhong Chirree
  • Juanlioar Yuan

5.1 Cha nel f goll er dolley magh jeh enmyn sleih

  • Fenellathie Fenella, cha nel *thie 'Enella

5.2 Ta boggaghys y nah cheim ec enmyn cair as art oc. Jeeagh er y rheynnag shen.

5.3 Ny keayrtyn, cha nel shin boggaghey enmyn joarree.

Meeryn roie[reagh | edit source]

6. Erreish da ny meeryn roie aa-, mee-, as neu-

7. Erreish da ymmodee marenmyn roie mannagh vel -d ny -n ec y jerrey.

7.1 Ta feer as lane, as adsyn as -d ny -n ec y jerrey, boggaghys ny treeoo cheim nyn yei. Jeeagh er boggaghys ny treeoo cheim

8 ayns marenmyn ny rovreear erreish da ro-, ree-, mie ny kiune

Roie-ocklyn[reagh | edit source]

9. Ayns ennymockle erreish da roie-ocklyn.

9.1 Ayns Gaelg jeianagh, son y chooid smoo, t'ad faagail magh y caghlaa shoh er lhimmey jeh raghyn soit.

  • breegyn vree
  • thalloofo halloo
Bwoirrinys[reagh | edit source]

10. Ayns nah rheynn co-ennymockle erreish da kied 'ockle bwoirrinagh unnaneagh.

  • kiaulleesheshaght-chiaullee
  • kiaulleesheshaghtyn-kiaullee
Boggaghey marenmyn[reagh | edit source]

11. Ayns marenmyn erreish da ennymockle bwoirrinagh.

  • quaaghy rannag whaagh
  • moddeebrishtag voddee

11.1. Ny keayrtyn, myr y nah cheim, cha nel eh caghlaa corocklyn feeacklagh.

  • treogheben treoghe ny ben hreoghe

12. Ny keayrtyn, ayns marenmyn erreish da ennym çhymsagh as yn art (y, yn) roish.

13. Ny keayrtyn, ayns marenmyn erreish da ennymockle unnaneagh firrynagh 'sy yienneydagh

14. Ayns marenmyn ny yei ennymockle yl-rey keyl

  • mooarfir vooarey (ny fir mooarey)
  • caggeefir chaggee
  • treihpeccee hreih
Ceaghley breearyn[reagh | edit source]

15. Ayns ennymocklyn as breearyn erreish da by / b’, cummey chaie ny kianglagh y chopail.

  • mieby vie lhiam

16. Ayns breearyn erreish da ry-

  • geddynry-gheddyn

17. Ayns breearyn erreish da dy as y (rere dys)

  • jannoot'eh orrym shen y yannoo*
  • kionnagheyt'ee goll dy chionnaghey feill

18. Ayns cummaghyn phretereitagh, kianglagh neuchrogheydagh, as conastagh breearyn reiltagh, as ymmodee fir neureiltagh. Jeeagh er y rheynnag "breearyn".

19. Ny keayrtyn, erreish da er creaghney ayns ynnyd stronnaghys cadjin.

Y nah cheim[reagh | edit source]

Ta boggaghys y nah cheim taghyrt ayns ny çhymbyllaghtyn shoh:

Ennymagh[reagh | edit source]

20. Ayns ennymockle bwoirrinagh erreish da'n art kinjagh 'sy chummey ennymagh

  • cailliny chaillin
Gienneydagh[reagh | edit source]

21. Ayns ennymockle neuchair firrynagh unnaneagh 'sy chummey gienneydagh.

  • y dooinney shengleashtan y dooinney shen
  • mwyllindorrys y wyllin
  • shugyrcostys yn çhugyr
Roie-ocklyn as yn art[reagh | edit source]

22. Ta roie-ocklyn marish yn art boggaghey ennymocklyn unnaneagh nyn yei.

  • benec y ven
  • balleyer y valley
  • çhengeylesh y çhengey
  • sollanharrish y tollan
Earrooyn[reagh | edit source]

23. Ta earrooyn reajyssagh boggaghey erreish da'n art

  • queiggooy wheiggoo

Y treeoo cheim[reagh | edit source]

Ta boggaghys y treeoo cheim taghyrt ayns ny çhymbyllaghtyn shoh:

24. Erreish da feer as lane

  • mielane vie, feer vie
  • dorragheyfeer dorraghey
  • sahllaghfeer sahllagh

25. Erreish da marenmyn roie as -d ny -n ec y jerrey oc.

25.1. Ta marenmyn roie elley boggaghey 'sy chied aght. Jeeagh er boggaghys ny kied cheim.

26. Erreish da ny h-earrooyn un as kied/chied.

  • paagy chied phaag
  • daahjeh'n un daah

26.1. Ny keayrtyn, t'ad boggaghey focklyn nagh lhisagh y treeoo cheim boggaghey.

  • dooghysun-ghooghyssagh

Stronnaghys[reagh | edit source]

Ta stronnaghys ry-akin:

1. Erreish da nyn as er nyn

  • fakinta mee er nyn vakin (ta mee er vakin ad)

2. Erreish da dyn raad ta shen çheet jeh dy nyn

  • fakint'ee dyn vakin (t'ee fakin shin)

3. Erreish da er myr cummey chreaghnit breear

  • çheett'ou er jeet

3.1 Ny keayrtyn, as bentyn rish sheeanyn [k] son y chooid smoo, ta boggaghys ayns ynnyd jeh stronnaghys marish er.

  • curt'ou er chur argid dou

4. Erreish da'n art yl-rey ny gienneydagh

  • kiarkBwoaillee ny Giark
  • keyrraghThalloo ny Geyrragh

4.1. Ayns Gaelg jeianagh, son y chooid smoo, t'ad faagail magh y caghlaa shoh er lhimmey jeh enmyn as raghyn soit.

5. Ayns cummaghyn crogheydagh breearyn reiltagh 'syn emshir ry-heet as emshir chianglagh. Jeeagh er y rheynnag "breearyn".

Case[reagh | edit source]

Cha nel case ny red mooar 'sy Ghaelg, agh ta cummaghyn er lheh ec yn chase gerrymagh as yn case gienneydagh.

Gerrymagh[reagh | edit source]

Ta ceaghley toshee corockle da enmyn as focklyn ta jannoo obbyr enmyn. Jeeagh er #Ceaghley corocklyn toshee son ny smoo fys. Cha nel eiyrtys erbee elley er y raa.

Gienneydagh[reagh | edit source]

Ennymocklyn firrinagh[reagh | edit source]

Son ennymocklyn unnaneagh firrinagh (as kuse dy hennymocklyn bwoirrinagh, myrgeddin), ta'n cummey gienneydagh gollrish y fer ennymagh, agh ta boggaghey y nah cheim ec toshiaght yn 'ockle.

  • dooinney > thie yn dooinney
  • cashtal > dorrys y chashtal

Ennymocklyn bwoirrinagh[reagh | edit source]

Ta cummey gienneydagh er lheh ec kuse dy 'ocklyn unnaneagh bwoirrinagh, as cha nel ad jannoo ymmyd jeh ny reillyn cadjin. Son y chooid smoo, ta'n cummey myr shoh:

  • X (ennymagh) > ny Xey (gienneydagh)

Myr sampleyr:

  • çheer > ny çheerey
    • Ree ny çheerey

Focklyn elley, ta'n cummey gienneydagh oc ny smoo anchasley rish y fer ennymagh:

  • moir > ny mayrey
  • lhong > ny lhiungey
  • grian > ny greiney
  • ollagh > thie ollee[13]

Breearyn[reagh | edit source]

Ta daa aght ayn dy yannoo cummaghyn breearyn: yn-filley y breear hene, ny cur ry-cheilley breearyn cadjin as breear coonee (jannoo ny ve). Ayns Gaelg Anmagh Loayrit, va'n cummey ym-loayrtagh ny smoo cadjin.[14]

Cummaghyn çheorit breearyn ny Gaelgey
Emshir Persoon Cummey ym-loayrtagh Cummey yn-filleydagh
Laaragh immeeaght Kied ta mee tilgey
Nah yl-rey ta shiu tilgey
Laaragh chreaghnit Kied ta mee er dilgey[15]
Nah yl-rey ta shiu er dilgey
Pretereitagh Kied ren mee tilgey hilg mee
Nah yl-rey ren shiu tilgey hilg shiu
Chaie immeeaght Kied va mee tilgey
Nah yl-rey va shiu tilgey
Chaie chreaghnit Kied va mee er dilgey[15]
Nah yl-rey va shiu er dilgey
Ry-heet Kied neeym tilgey tilgym
Nah yl-rey nee shiu tilgey tilgee shiu
Ry-heet immeeaght Kied bee'm tilgey
Nah yl-rey bee shiu tilgey
Ry-heet chreaghnit Kied bee'm er dilgey
Nah yl-rey bee shiu er dilgey
Kianglagh Kied yinnin tilgey hilgin
Nah yl-rey yinnagh shiu tilgey hilgagh shiu
Oardreilagh Kied jean tilgey! tilg!
Nah yl-rey jean-jee tilgey! ny

jean-shiu tilgey!

tilg-jee! ny

tilg-shiu!

Roie-ocklyn yn-filleydagh[reagh | edit source]

Gollrish çhengaghyn Celtiagh Ellynagh elley, ta raoie-ocklyn yn-filleydagh ec y Ghaelg: roie-ocklyn ta covestit marish far-ennym. Myr sampleyr, shoh cummaghyn yn roie-ockle ec (ta'n nah chummey ny chummey trome):

Cummaghyn y roie-ockle ec
  Unnaneagh Yl-rey
Kied phersoon aym
ayms
ain
ainyn
Nah phersoon ayd
ayds
eu
euish
Trass persoon Firrinagh echey
echeysyn
oc
ocsyn
Bwoirrinagh eck
ecksh
oc
ocsyn

Imraaghyn[reagh | edit source]

  1. 'The Death of Manx' from newspaper clipping 1950s (6 Mean Fouyir, 1993). Feddynit er 2008-07-06.
  2. Broderick 1984-86, 1:xxvii-xxviii, 160
  3. O'Rahilly 1932, 77-82; Broderick 1984-86, 2:152
  4. O'Rahilly 1932, 57
  5. O'Rahilly 1932, 68; Broderick 1984-86, 2:56, 308
  6. O'Rahilly 1932, 75
  7. O'Rahilly 1932, 22
  8. O'Rahilly 1932, 203
  9. Jackson 1955, 66. Ta Jackson gra dy vel Yernish hwoaie er goayl y tro shoh chammah, agh s'cosoylagh dy nee marrantys t'echey. T'ad gra dy cohassooagh dy vel yn anchaslys shoh ec Yernish Vay Eo as ec Yernish Ullee chammah (cf. Mhac an Fhailigh 1968, 27; Hughes 1994, 621; jeeagh er Ó Baoill 1978, 87 chammah)
  10. O'Rahilly 1932, 24; Broderick 1984-86 3:80-83; Ó Sé 2000:15, 120
  11. Broderick 1984–86, 1:7–21; 1993, 236–39; Thomson 1992, 132–35
  12. Rere Stowell (1998) as Kewley Draskau (2008)
  13. Thomson 1992, 118–19; Broderick 1993, 239–40
  14. Broderick 1984–86, 75–82; 1993, 250, 271; Thomson 1992, 122
  15. 15.0 15.1 Ta'n meer er jeeaghyn gollrish y roie-ockle er ; ny yei shen, ta bun er lheh echey, ass íar (lurg) 'syn Çhenn Yernish Williams, Nicholas (1994). "An Mhanainnis", Stair na Gaeilge in ómós do Pádraig Ó Fiannachta (Yernish). Maanoot: Department of Old Irish, St. Patrick's College, 703–44. ISBN 0-901519-90-1.

Lioaryn[reagh | edit source]

  • Broderick, George (1984). Handbook of Late Spoken Manx Vol. 1: Grammar and Texts. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
  • Broderick, George (1984). Handbook of Late Spoken Manx Vol. 2: Dictionary. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
  • Broderick, George (1986). Handbook of Late Spoken Manx Vol. 3: Phonology. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
  • Broderick, George (1993). "Manx", ayns Ball, Martin: The Celtic Languages. Lunnin: Routledge.
  • Kewley Draskau, Jennifer (2008). Practical Manx. Lerphoyll: Liverpool University Press. ISBN 9781846311314.
  • O'Rahilly, Thomas F. (1932). Irish Dialects Past and Present. Dublin: Browne and Nolan. Er ny aachlou magh 1976, 1988 liorish y Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 0-901282-55-3.
  • Stowell, Brian (1998). Y Coorse Mooar, nah lhieggan.