Gaelg

Ass Wikipedia.
Gow gys: stiureydys, ronsee
Yn Ghaelg[1]
Goll er loayrt ayns Mannin
Earroo loayreyderyn Dooghyssagh: 56[2]
Nah hengey: 1,823 (2.16% jeh'n phobble) (2011) [3]

Marroo ny kied çhengey ayns 1974; er ny haavioghey nish, as mysh keead loayreyderyn mie eck, goaill stiagh paitçhyn as Gaelg ghooghyssagh oc.[4][5][6]

Kynney çhengey Ind-Oarpagh
Staydys oikoil
Çhengey oikoil ayns Flag of the Isle of Man.svg Mannin
Fo stiurey ec Coonseil ny Gaelgey
Coadyn çhengey
ISO 639-1 gv
ISO 639-2 glv
ISO 639-3 glv
Linguasphere 50-AAA-aj

Ta Gaelg ny Gailck (goll er fockley magh myr /gɪlg/) ny çhengey Ghaelgagh ta goll er loayrt ayns Mannin. She sluight Shenn Yernish ee, cosoylagh er lheh rish ny shenn abbyrtyn Yernish Ullee Shiar as Galliooish.

Hooar Ned Maddrell baase ayns 1974, as eshyn ny Ghaelgeyr s'jerree v'ayn, agh dy jeinagh t'ad jannoo eab dy aavioghey y çhengey. She çhengey ynsee ish eck Bunscoill Ghaelgagh, ny bunscoill ayns Balley Keeill Eoin.[7]

Shennaghys[reagh]

Shennaghys leah[reagh]

Ghow Gaelg toshiaght scarrey rish Yernish Veanagh traa ennagh eddyr yn 10oo eash as yn 17oo eash. Eer ayns yn 18oo eash, va’n Ghaelg ny çhengey vio as ee ec cagh ‘syn Ellan, faggys. Agh ayns 1765 hie çhiarnys yn Ellan er creck da Crooin Hostyn liorish yn Isle of Man Purchase Act, er son £70,000. Ren caghlaaghyn politickagh as sheshoil cur er sleih gynsaghey Baarle. Rish yn 19oo eash ren y çhengey leodaghey, as Baarle çheet ayns yn ynnyd eck. Ayns 1848, screeu J.G. Cumming: cha nel monney sleih (veg jeh ny aegid, foddee) gyn Baarle erbee as ayns 1874, er lesh Henry Jenner va mysh 30% y sleih cliaghtit rish loayrt Gaelg (12,340 ayns 41,084). Rere kione-earroo oikoil, ayns 1901 dooyrt 9.1% jeh'n phobble dy row Gaelg oc, agh ec y traa cheddin, cha row monney jeu ny sloo na 50 bleeaney d’eash; ayns 1921 v'eh 1.1%. [8] Fakin dy row keimeeaght imlee er jeet er yn çhengey, as shen kyndagh rish cooishyn er lheh myr Saasilaght ayns ayrn[9], cha row beoyn ec sleih aasit Gaelg y ynsaghey da ny paitçhyn oc; er lhieu, cha beagh ymmyd erbee ec Gaelg cosoylit rish Baarle.

Baase as aavioghey[reagh]

Erreish da leodaghey ymmyd Gaelg rish yn 19oo eash, hug ad bun er Yn Çheshaght Ghailckagh ayns 1899.

Ec mean yn 20oo eash cha row agh beggan loayreyder dooghyssagh er mayrn. Hooar yn fer s'jerree jeu, Ned Maddrell, baase er 27oo Mee ny Nollick, 1974, agh rish y traa shen va aavioghey çhengey scoillaragh skeaylley da ny sleih, as va ram jeu er ngynsaghey Gaelg myr nah hengey. Haink ram cooney da aavioghey ny Gaelgey liorish yn obbyr recortyssagh jeant liorish aahirreyderyn 'sy 20oo eash. Feeu tastey er lheh, hie yn Commishoon Beeal-Arrish Nerin Coimisiún Béaloideasa Éireann er chur dys yn Ellanayns 1948 liorish Eamon de Valera. Chammah as shen, ren Brian Stowell ram obbyr. She ard-jeeaneyder çhengaghyn as loayreyder flaaoil eh, as ta ammys ec sleih er son ny t'eh er nyannoo son aavioghey jeinagh ny Gaelgey.

Ta ny kied Gaelgeyr dooghyssagh (as Baarle oc neesht) rish ymmodee bleeantyn er çheet rish: paitçhyn as Gaelg ec ny ayraghyn as mooiraghyn oc. Ta reiltys Vannin er chur ynsaghey 'sy Ghaelg trooid Bunscoill Ghaelgagh, as ish soit ayns ny va troggal Scoill Juan Noo neayr’s 2003. Chammah as shen, t'ad gynsaghey Gaelg myr naa hengey ec dagh scooill 'syn Ellan, ec Colleish Ellan Vannin as Laare Studeyrys Manninagh. Ta keimyn 'sy Ghaelg ry-gheddin veih Colleish Ellan Vannin as Laare Studeyrys Manninagh. Ta possanyn drama Gaelg ayn neesht, as ta Mooinjer Veggey [10] jannoo ymmyd jeh Gaelg myr yn çhengey ynrickan ayns queig fo-scoillyn t'ad reirey. T'ad reirey yn Bunscoill Ghaelgagh neesht.

Y 21oo eash[reagh]

Ayns kione-earroo 2001, dreggyr 1,689 veih 76,315 (2.2% yn pobble) dy row Gaelg oc, ga dy row jargaght anchasley ec ny sleih shoh, s'cosoylagh.[11] Ta sleih jannoo ymmyd jeh enmyn Gaelg reesht. Ta Tinvaal jannoo ymmyd jeih'n çhengey, as Yn Lhaihder lhaih magh leighyn noa ayns Gaelg as Baarle. Er 14 Jerrey Geuree 2008, ren SIL caghlaa coad ISO ny Gaelgey veih anvio dys bio [12]

Ny Kirree Fo Niaghtey, y chied fillym Gaelg Vanninagh, haink magh eh ayns 1983. Hie eh er cur roish da’n Wheiggoo Feailley Celtiagh as Çhellveeish ayns Cayr Deeth ayns 1984. Ren Shorys Y Creayrie stiurey eh er son Foillan Films, Laksaa, as ta’n fillym bentyn rish shaghadys arrane y theay 18oo eash, Ny Kirree Fo Niaghtey. Ta’n straih çhellveeish Friends and Heroes, goll er caghlaa stiagh ‘sy Ghaelg.[13]

Ga dy vel ymmyd jeant jeh Gaelg ayns fockle arrey liorish sheshaghtyn-dellal ‘syn Ellan, as t’eh ry-akin er screeuyn rheynnagh as stoo soilsheenagh Reiltys Vannin, cha nel ee goll er loayrt son dellal, ny sthie y Reiltys noadyr.

Ta ymmyrkyn coar Gaelg mastey pobble dellal as y Reiltys sheeyney veih cooney dys noidys. Myr myn-hengaghyn elley, foddee Gaelg ve ny bun freggyrt olk veih loayreyderyn Baarle un-hengagh: foddee dy vel aggle orroo dy bee ad faagit mooie ass coloayrtys, ny dy vel ad freayll ymmyrkey 19oo eash mychione y Ghaelg, dy vel ee neughlick as gyn ymmyd erbee.

Ta Coardailys Europagh son Çhengaghyn Ardjynagh as Fo-Hengyn]] cur tastey da'n Ghaelg. Chammah as shen, t'eh fer jeh ny çhengaghyn ardjynagh goaill tastey jeh'n Choonseil Hostyn as Nerin. Ta beggan arganeys ayn kyndagh rish nagh row cultoor Vannin goit stiagh 'syn Columba Initiative

Cha row monney screeuaght Vannin seihllt ry-geddyn nish. Foddee nagh vel Gaelg screeut cummal magh veih roish ny 1600yn, agh va Gaelg currit er yn Lioar Padjer Cadjin as yn Bible [14] ayns ny 17oo as 18oo cheeadyn. Haink rish shaghadey carvalyn, as adsyn arraneyn as carolyn crauee.

Troyn ny Gaelgey[reagh]

Mooinjerys ec çhengaghyn elley[reagh]

Jeeagh er #Rang-oardraghey as abbyrtyn

Cairscreeu[reagh]

Lettraghey ny Gaelgey, anchasley rish Yernish as Gaelg Albinagh, cha nel eh rere bun-ocklaght Gaelgagh. Ta Bretnish as Baarle er cur beggan da (myr shen, ymmyd 'y' as 'w', as cochianglyn myr 'oo' as 'ee'). Myr sampleyr, ayns Yernish beagh ad screeu 'Ellan Vannin' myr Oileán Mhanainn, as ayns Gaelg Albinagh t'eh Eilean Mhanainn; agh ta fockley magh ny tree raaghyn unnane, trooid as trooid.

Shoh sampleyr aashagh.

Ta'n Gaelg feer ghoan çheumooie jeh Ellan Vannin, agh fod pobble ennagh screeu ee ayns çheeryn elley.

Dy beagh Gaelg çhagheydagh er ve bun cairscreeu ny Gaelgey, beagh shin screeu yn raa rere cairscreeu 'Gaelgagh':

Tà'n Ghaelg fìor-ghónn teabh a-muigh de Eilean Mhannain, ach faod pobal eanach scrìobh ì ans tìoran eile.

Cosoylee-shiu ny raaghyn shoh screeut ayns 'Yernish' as 'Gaelg Albinagh':

Tá an Ghaeilge an-ghann (fíor-ghann) taobh amuigh de Oileán Mhannanain, ach féadann daoine [pobal] éigin(each) í a scríobh i dtíortha eile.
Tha a' Ghàidhlig glé-ghann (fìor-ghann) taobh a muigh d'Eilean Mhannanain, ach faodaidh daoine [pobal] igint(each) ì a sgrìobhadh ann an tìrean eile.

My row screeuaght Gaelg er lheh ayn roish Yn Aachummey, cha row eh ry-gheddyn ec y traa ghow sleih toshiaght coyrlaghey dy trome lettyraght cadjin. Er yn fa shoh, traa v'ad geabbey cur lhieu cairscreeu stiagh da'n çhengey, ren ad corys noa. Dy cadjin, t'ad gra dy chroo John Philips eh eh hene. V'eh ny Aspick Sodor as Man (1605-1633) currit ayns Bretin, as hug eh Gaelg er yn Lioar Padjer Cadjin. Aghterbee, t'eh jeeaghyn dy row caslyssyn echey rish coryssyn screeu va ry-akin nish as reesht ayns Nalbin. Myr sampleyr, va Lioar Dean Lios Moir as docamad Fernaig screeut ayns Gaelg Albinagh rere corys casley rish.

Fockle-hasht[reagh]

Gaelg Raa s'faggys
Yernish
Raa s'faggys
Gaelg Albinagh
Raa s'faggys
Bretnish
Raa s'faggys
Baarle
Moghrey mie Maidin mhaith Madainn mhath Bore da Good morning
Fastyr mie Tráthnóna maith Feasgar math Noswaith dda Good evening
Slane lhiat, Slane lhiu Slán leat, Slán libh Slàn leat, Slàn leibh Hwyl fawr Goodbye
Gura mie ayd, Gura mie eu Go raibh maith agat, Go raibh maith agaibh Tapadh leat, Tapadh leibh Diolch (yn fawr) Thank you
baatey bád bàta cwch boat
barroose bus bus bws bus
blaa bláth blàth blodyn flower
booa buwch/bo cow
cabbyl capall capall ceffyl horse
cashtal caisleán, caiseal caisteal castell castle
creg carraig carraig, creag carreg rock
eeast iasc iasg pysgodyn fish
ellan oileán eilean ynys island
gleashtan gluaisteán, carr càr car car
kayt cat cat cath cat
moddey madra, madadh madadh ci dog
shap siopa bùth siop shop
thie tigh, teach taigh house
eean éan eun, ian aderyn bird
jees beirt, dís dithis pâr pair
oik oifig oifis swyddfa office
ushtey uisce uisge dŵr water

Earrooyn[reagh]

Gaelg Raa s’faggys
Yernish
Raa s’faggys
Gaelg Albinagh
Raa s’faggys
Bretnish
Raa s'faggys
Baarle
un / nane aon (a haon) / amháin aon un one
daa / jees dó, dhá / beirt / dís dà / dithis dau/dwy two
tree trí trì tri/tair three
kiare ceathair, ceithre ceithir pedwar/pedair four
queig cúig còig pump five
shey sia chwech six
shiaght seacht seachd saith seven
hoght ocht (a hocht) ochd wyth eight
nuy naoi naoi naw nine
jeih deich deich deg ten
nane jeig aon déag aon deug un ar ddeg eleven
daa yeig dó dhéag dà dheug deuddeg twelve

Çhengoaylleeaght ny Gaelgey[reagh]

Rang-oardraghey as abbyrtyn[reagh]

She çhengey Ellanagh Ghaelgagh Cheltiagh y Ghaelg Vanninagh, as olteyr jeh’n chynney çhengey Ind-Oarpagh. Daase ee ass yn Çhenn Yernish as y Vean Yernish. Ga dy vel anchaslyssyn eddyr ny cairscreeuyn jeu, ta’n Ghaelg Vanninagh ry-hoiggal liorish Gaelgeyr elley. Va Ned Maddrell cummal seose y çhengey trooid loayrt rish Gaelgeyr Yernagh as Albinagh er ny baatyn[15]. Ta faggys-mooinjerys eddyr Gaelg, Yernish as Gaelg Albinagh foast, agh ta troyn er lheh eck chammah. Ta daa abbyrt ec Gaelg: Gaelg Hwoaie as Gaelg Yiass[16].

Sheeanoaylleeaght[reagh]

Corocklyn[reagh]

Shoh myn-heeanyn corocklagh ny Gaelgey: [17]

Myn-heeanyn corocklagh ny Gaelgey
  Daa-veillagh Meill-eeacklagh Feeacklagh Cooyl-eeacklagh Lurg-chooyleeacklagh Cleaoil Cleaoil-choghooysagh Coghooysagh Meill-choghooysagh Sluggidagh
Bleaystagh p b             ɡʲ k ɡ        
Stronnagh   m           n             ŋ        
Screebagh     f v   ð* s z* ʃ ʒ*     ɣʲ x ɣ     h  
Craa               r                        
Faggyssaght                       j           w    
Faggyssaght lhiattagh               l                      

* Cha nel ny sheeanyn shoh nyn myn-heeanyn hene rere Thompson as Broderick, agh ta ny sheeanyn ry-chlastyn er coontey obbraghyn sheeanchoryssagh, as myr shen t’ad er nyn gur ‘sy taabyl. Jeeagh er Çhengoaylleeaght ny Gaelgey son ny smoo fys.

Ta ennalaghey ec ny corocklyn bleastagh neuchronnaneagh /p k/, myr shen, t’ad goll er fockley magh myr [pʰ] as [kʰ].

Breeocklyn[reagh]

Shoh myn-heeanyn breeocklagh ny Gaelgey:[18]

Myn-heeanyn breeocklagh ny Gaelgey
  Giare Liauyr
Toshee Meanagh Cooyl Toshee Meanagh Cooyl
Doont i   u  
Eddyr e ə o  
Foshlit   a      

Ta tasht mooar jeh daaghooaghtyn ec y Ghaelg, as dagh fer ny daaghooaght sheese:

Daaghooaghtyn ny Gaelgey
  Nah veer /i/ Nah veer /u/ Nah veer /ə/
Kied meer doont ui   iə • uə
Kied meer eddyr ei • əi • oi eu • əu  
Kied meer foshlit ai au  

My ta trimmid currit er shillab as /ə/, vees eh goll er fockley magh myr [ø][19].

Trimmid[reagh]

Son y chooid smoo, ta trimmid currit er kied shillab yn ‘ockle ‘sy Ghaelg, agh dy mennick, my vees breeockle liauyr ec y nah hillab, bee y trimmid ersyn. [20] Myr sampleyr:

  • buggane /bəˈɡeːn/
  • tarroogh /t̪aˈruːx/
  • reeoil /riːˈoːl/
  • vondeish /vonˈd̪eːʃ/

Sheeanchoryssaghtys[reagh]

Myr dagh çhengey Celtiagh jeinagh, ta ceaghlaghyn corockle toshee ec Gaelg. She obbyraghyn çhengagh adsyn, caghlaa kied chorockle yn 'ockle rere yn çhymbyllaght jalloo-oaylleeagh as co-ordrailagh echey.[21]

Ceaghley corockle toshee[reagh]
Ayns ram boaylyn, myr sampleyr Doolish, ta fograghyn failt daahengagh. Cur tashtey ayns shoh da'n ceaghley corockle Doolish da Ghoolish.

Ta daa obbyr ceaghley corockle toshee ec y Ghaelg: boggaghys as stronnaghys.

Ceaghlaghyn 'sy Ghaelg
Corockle gyn ceaghley Boggaghys Stronnaghys
Kied cheim Nah cheim
p /p/ ph /f/ ph /f/ b /b/
t, th /t/ h /h/ t, th /t/ d /d/
çh /tʃ/ h /h/ çh /tʃ/ j /dʒ/
c, k keyl /kʲ/ ch /ç/ ch /ç/ g /gʲ/
c, k lheean /k/ ch /x/ ch /x/ g /g/
b /b/ v /v/, /w/ v /v/, /w/ m /m/
bw /bw/ w /w/ w /w/ mw /mw/
d, dh /d/ gh /ɣ/ d /d/ n/n/
j /dʒ/ y /j/ j /dʒ/ n'y /nj/
g keyl /gʲ/ y, gh /j/ y, gh /j/ ng /ŋʲ/
g lheean /g/ gh /ɣ/ gh /ɣ/ ng /ŋ/
f /f/ (dollit) (dollit) v /v/
s /s/ h /h/ t/t/ s /s/
str /str/ tr /tr/ tr /tr/ str /str/
sl /sl/ l /l/ cl /kl/ sl /sl/
sn /sl/ n, sn /n/, /sn/ n, sn /n/, /sn/ sn /sn/
sh /ʃ/ h /h/ ç /tʃ/ sh /ʃ/
m /m/ v /v/, /w/ v /v/, /w/ m /m/
mw /mw/ w /w/ mw /mw/ mw /mw/
qu /kw/ wh /ʍ/ wh /ʍ/ qu /kw/

Imraaghyn[reagh]

  1. Ta Yn Ghailck currit urree ny keayrtyn
  2. Ec y traa t'ayn ta 56 ynseyderyn ec Bunscoill Gaelgagh, dagh fer jeu coontit myr loayreyder dooghyssagh, er y fa dy dod ad loayrt Gaelg voish eash veg
  3. Isle of Man Census Report 2011 (PDF) (Baarle). Rheynn Cooishyn Tarmaynagh, Yn Tashtey (2012). Feddynit er 8 Mean Fouyir 2012.
  4. Anyone here speak Jersey?
  5. Fockle ny ghaa: schoolchildren take charge
  6. Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: glv
  7. Bunscoill Ghaelgagh. Feddynit erash er 2008-09-24.
  8. Fourth International Conference on Minority Languages, Vol. II, Gorter et al, 1990, dg. 59-60.
  9. http://www.isle-of-man.com/manxnotebook/mannin/v9p511.htm
  10. http://www.mooinjerveggey.org.im/
  11. Isle of Man Census Report 2001, Volume 2, Dg. 11
  12. Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: glv (14 Jerrey Geuree, 2008). Feddynit er 2008-07-06.
  13. Friends and Heroes: News (6 Mee ny Nollick, 2007). Feddynit er 2008-07-06.
  14. http://www.gaelg.iofm.net/BIBLICAL/BIBLICAL.html
  15. The Death of Manx' from newspaper clipping 1950s (6 Mean Fouyir, 1993). Feddynit er 2008-07-06.
  16. Broderick 1984-86, 1:xxvii-xxviii, 160
  17. Thomson 1992, 128–29; Broderick 1993, 234
  18. Broderick 1993, 230–33
  19. Broderick 1993, 232–33
  20. Broderick 1993, 236
  21. Broderick 1984–86, 1:7–21; 1993, 236–39; Thomson 1992, 132–35

Lioaryn[reagh]

  • Broderick, George, Handbook of Late Spoken Manx, Ym-lioar. 1: Grammar and Texts, Tübingen, Max Niemeyer Verlag 1984.
  • Broderick, George, Handbook of Late Spoken Manx, Ym-lioar. 2: Dictionary, Tübingen, Max Niemeyer Verlag 1984.
  • Broderick, George, Handbook of Late Spoken Manx, Ym-lioar. 3: Phonology, Tübingen, Max Niemeyer Verlag 1986.
  • Broderick, George, Manx, ayns: Ball, Martin (Hrsg.), The Celtic Languages, London & New York, Routledge 1993.

Kianglaghyn mooie[reagh]