Aavioghey ny Gaelgey

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Ta aavioghey ny Gaelgey, ny aavioghey yn Ghaelg, çheet er yn obbraghey dy aavioghey çhengey ta goll er shooyl ayns Mannin ‘sy Ghaelg. She çhengey Cheltiagh ‘sy chrouw Ghaelgagh ee yn Ghaelg, goll rish yn Yernish as y Ghaelg Albinagh ta goll er loayrt ayns Mannin son y chooid smoo,[1] as cosoylagh rish ny çhengaghyn shen, ta'n Ghaelg er ny gholl stiagh ayns paase d'aavioghey. Cha nee obbraghey çhengoaylleeagh ny lomarcan t’ayn ‘syn aavioghey, agh obbraghey ta goaill stiagh begnagh dagh ayrn jeh’n chultoor Gaelgagh lheid as y chiaull Vanninagh hradishoonagh, y daunse Manninagh, as ny skeealyn as y veeal-arrish Vanninagh.[2] Ta coontyssyn ennagh gra dy ren toshiaghey yn aavioghey ‘sy 19oo eash yeianagh lesh cur er bun y Çheshaght Ghailckagh,[3][4] agh s’foddee dy ren toshiaghey yn aavioghey ‘sy 17oo eash yeianagh as 'sy 18oo eash leah lesh çheet magh ny chied teksyn Gaelg, y Vible Chasherick as Coyrle Sodjey, v’er nyn gur magh ec yn aspick Manninagh Thomas Wilson (1663 - 1755), ga nagh row aavioghey yn çhengey er laccal oc agh aght son dy skeayley fys y Chreestiaght harrish yn ellan.[5][6]

Veih’n traa shen gys y 20oo eash yeianagh va ram obbraghyn screeuee currit magh ‘sy Ghaelg, as ad cur sheese er coorseyn crauee, coorseyn dy hennaghys, as coorseyn lettyragh, as ad ny mastey obbraghyn elley. Rere shen, va farraneyn jeh’n çhengey screeuee ayn son dy chooney lesh ny h-aaviogheyderyn cur y çhengey reesht er yn ardan, ga nagh row lettyraght ghooie ayndaue agh çhyndaaghyn crauee as carvallyn.[7]

Jiu, ta staydys oikoil ec y çhengey, ga nagh vel ee coontit myr çhengey oikoil yn ellan,[8] as t’ee goll er n’ynsaghey ayns bunscoillyn, meanscoillyn, as ollooscoillyn ennagh,[9] as t’ee goll er ymmyd ec y reiltys as myr enmyssyn ec shiartanse dy lughtyn-reill ayns Mannin, lheid as Lught-Reill Lectraghys Manninagh as Undinys Eiraght Vannin.

Cooylrey[reagh | edit source]

Shennaghys y Ghaelg[reagh | edit source]

Thomas Wilson (1663–1755), Aspick Sodor as Vannin as cuirreyder magh y chied lioar phrentit, y Choyrle Sodjey, 'sy Ghaelg.

Cosoylagh rish y Ghaelg Albinagh, dirree yn Ghaelg magh ass y Çhenn Yernish va goll er loayrt ayns Nerin, Nalbin as Mannin. Haink y çhengey shen gys yn ellan marish sushtallee as cummaltee veih Nerin as veih'n Ghallioo 'sy 4oo, 'sy 5oo as 'sy 6oo eashyn BNJ.[10][11][12] Ec y traa shen ren y Yernish ymmyd jeh'n abbyrlhit Romanagh son dy screeu sheese y çhengey as ta ny screeuyn shen ry-akin ayns imraaghyn oirragh er çheughyn jeh laue-screeuyn Ladjyn. Ansherbee, cha nel sampleyryn jeh ny laue-screeuyn shen ry-gheddyn ayns Mannin.

Goaill toshiaght 'sy 9oo eash, ren ny Loghlynee soiaghey er yn ellan, as ny yei shen, ren ad cummal 'syn ellan as ghow ad laueyn y chummaght stiagh hucsyn. Ta cleayney ny Loghlynee ry-akin er ny h-undinyssyn politickagh as leighoil, as ta reiltys yn ellan, Tinvaal, bunnit er y whaiyl oc.[13] Ansherbee, gyn y wooise da'n chummaght as y chleayney v'ayn ec ny Loghlynee, cha row cleayney mooar ec y Loghlynish er y Ghaelg. Da'n chooid smoo, ta cleayney yn Loghlynish ry-akin ayns boayl-enmyn ta goaill jerrey lesh y veer yerree -by ("balley") as -aa ("ellan"; -ey y Vaarle), lheid as Colby, Delbee, Sulby, Rhumsaa, as Laksaa.[14] T'eh er credjal ec çhengoaylleeyn as screeudeyryn shennaghys dy row yn Ghaelg myr çhengey ny mayrey ec y vooar-chooid jeh cummaltee yn ellan 'sy lhing shen, as ee goll er loayrt ec ny deiney cadjin myr y chied çhengey, as ec yn lught ooasle Loghlynagh myr y nah hengey.[14]

Hie yn ellan stiagh ayns laueyn ny Norlynee tra va Reeriaght Vannin as ny h-Ellanyn currit er bun 'sy vlein 1079, as hoshee lhing noa jeh neu-chrogheydys, seyr veih ny Gaeil elley, as seyr veih cummaghtyn joarree elley, fo reirey yn ree Gorree Crovan. 'Sy lhing shen va'n Ghaelg shickyr veih cleaynaghyn joarree as bree er y çhengey veih çhengaghyn elley. Agh haink jerrey lesh y çhickyrys shen tra hooar y ree Magnus III baase 'sy vlein 1265. Lurg y baase echey, hie yn reeriaght stiagh ayns laueyn Alistair III ny h-Albey, as harrish y daa cheead-bleeaney shen ny lurg, hie yn ellan eddyr laueyn ny h-Albinee as ny Sostynee. 'Syn eash shen, dirree yn Ghaelg magh ass ny çhengaghyn Gaelgagh elley myr çhengey er lheh.[15]

Lurg y veereiltys shen hie shickyrys er ny lhiasaghey ayns staydys reiragh yn ellan. Veih'n vlein 1334 er y chooid sloo, hie yn ellan stiagh ayns laueyn ny Sostynee. Hug y ree Edard III Hostyn shellooderys yn ellan hug y Chied Eearley Salisbury. Veih'n eash shen, va'n Ghaelg er ny scarrey magh ass ny çhengaghyn Gaelgagh elley ayns Nerin as Nalbin, as va'n ellan nish fo reirey ny Baarleyderyn. Va shellooderys yn ellan giootit gys y lught thie Stanlagh, Eearlaghyn Derby, veih'n vlein 1405 derrey yn vlein 1736. Er feie'n eash shen va'n chooid smoo jeh pobbyl yn ellan foast loayrt y Ghaelg, as va'n Vaarle ec y lught ooasle. Er-yn-oyr nagh row yn Ghaelg ec y lught ooasle, as nagh row ad cummal er yn ellan son y chooid smoo, cha row gialdyneryn-argid ayn son dy chooney lesh cur magh clouyn as lettyraght 'sy Ghaelg. Son dy chooney lesh skeayley yn Chreestiaght er feie'n ellan, va Lioar y Phadjer Chadjin çhyndaait gys y Ghaelg ayns 1610. Roish jerrey'n cheead-bleeaney shen va'n Vible Chasherick çhyndaait gys y Ghaelg, as reesht 'sy vlein 1707, va'n chied lioar phrentit 'sy Ghaelg currit magh - Coyrle Sodjey liorish yn Aspick Wilson. Fo laueyn yn eiyrtyssagh ec Wilson, Mark Hildesley (1695 - 1772), dirree staydys y Ghaelg. Va co-ennaghtyn ec Hildesley rish y Ghaelg, as ren eh shirrey stooghyn ynsee dy ve ry-gheddyn ayns ny scoillyn 'sy Ghaelg, as ren eh yeearree yn Ghaelg dy chur ayn myr aght ynsee ayns ny scoillyn. Va rah ayn 'sy pholasee shen as eh pohlldit ec Aspick York, as beggan er gherrid lurg shen va begnagh dagh scoill gynsaghey trooid y Ghaelg. Ansherbee, ga dy row mooadaghey ayns earroo ny h-obbraghyn va currit magh 'sy Ghaelg 'sy lhing shen, va ymmyd y Ghaelg tuittym.

Failleil y Ghaelg[reagh | edit source]

Earroo Gaelgeyryn ayns Mannin
Blein Un-hengagh Daa-hengagh Earroo yn phobble 'Sy cheead (%)
1871[16] 190 12,340 54,042 23.2
1901[17] 59 4,419 54,752 8.2
1911[18] 31 2,351 52,016 4.6
1921[19] 19 896 60,284 1.5
1931[19] 531 49,308 1.1
1951[10] 355 54,024 0.7
1961[10] 165 47,166 0.3
1971[10] 284 53,228 0.5
1981[10] Gyn feysht Gyn feysht 64,679 G/B
1991[20] 643 69,788 0.9
2001[10] 1,689 76,315 2.2
2011[21] 1,823 84,497 2.2

Lurg baase Hildesley, haink er shassooyn dy ve ny smoo obballagh da'n çhengey, as ren Agglish Hostyn tayrn magh y pohlldey da'n ynsagh trooid y Ghaelg ayns ny scoillyn.[14] 'Sy vlein 1782, cha row yn Ghaelg myr çhengey ynsee ayns dagh scoill faagail magh queig jeu.[22] Va'n ynsagh 'sy Ghaelg currit stiagh reesht ayns ny scoillyn Doonee car ny 1820yn. Ayns 1825 ren yn Aspick Murray cur fys da'n Çheshaght ry hoi Cur er Oaie y Fys Creestiagh, y farrane son cur magh stooghyn crauee 'sy Ghaelg roish shen, nagh row feme ayn ny smoo er stooghyn 'sy çhengey.

Lurg y Çhialg Vooar ayns 1765, va ard-chioneys yn ellan astreeit veih Duic Athol gys y Chrooin Ghoaldagh.[23] Rere coayl y çheet stiagh myr eiyrtys haghyr bishaghey ayns earroo ny deiney boghtey, as va ooashley as ymmyd y Vaarle yrjit ayns Mannin.[24] Va stayd y Ghaelg towlit fo voalley liorish arraghey stiagh veih Nalbin as Sostyn as arraghey magh ny Manninee gys Sostyn, America as çheeraghyn elley. Haink er y Vaarle dy ve ny çhengey valjagh, as hie ee magh er feie'n ellan lesh troggal ny raaidyn noa. Agh by eh çheet stiagh yn turrysid y baggyrt smoo er y Ghaelg. Ayns ny 1830yn haink mysh 20,000 deiney gys yn ellan myr turrysee, agh ayns ny 1890yn haink ny smoo na 250,000 dy hurrysee. Ta shennockle Manninagh veih'n eash shen gra "Tra haink ny skibbyltee boghtey stiagh, hie yn Ghaelg magh". Haink er y Ghaelg dy ve kianglt rish y voghtinys, y vellid, as yn anoayllys, myr y cheilley ec ny Gaelgeyryn pene. Ren ny paraantyn loayrt rish nyn cloan ayns Baarle, ga dy row ad loayrt ayns Gaelg eddyr oc hene myr çhengey roonagh.

Cha nel staydraa oikoil ayn mychione earroo ny Gaelgeyryn ayns Mannin roish y choontey-pobble 'sy vlein 1871. Rere y choontey-pobble shen va 190 Galegeyryn un-hengagh, as 12,340 Gaelgeyryn daa-hengagh ass 54,042 cummaltee yn ellan, t'eh shen 22.8% jeh pobble yn ellan. Agh rere coontey-pobble 'sy vlein 1901 cha row agh 59 Gaelgeyryn un-hengagh as 4,598 Gaelgeyryn daa-hengagh, ny 8.5% jeh pobble yn ellan; 'sy vlein 1911 cha row yn Ghaelg agh ec 4.6% jeh pobble yn ellan.[25] 'Sy vlein 1951 cha row agh 355 Gaelgeyryn ayn,[26] as 'sy vlein 1974 hooar y Gaelgeyr jerrinagh Ned Maddrell baase.[27][28][25]

Ansherbee, dy mennick, tra ta'n loayreyder jerrinagh jeh çhengey erbee er ny gheddyn baase, t'eh er credjal dy vel y çhengey marroo. Cooish elley v'ayn 'sy Ghaelg, as y boayl shen goaill sorçh dy chowrey da aavioghey yn çhengey. Veih'n vlein shen ta ram sheshaghtyn, reagheydyssyn, scoillyn, brastylyn, a.r.e. er cur er bun, as rere coontey-pobble 'sy vlein 2001 va ny smoo na 1,500 loayreyderyn y çhengey ayns Mannin.

Yn Aavioghey[reagh | edit source]

Yn 18oo eash[reagh | edit source]

Cha row gleashaght reaghit ayn ayns aavioghey yn Ghaelg 'sy 18oo eash, agh 'syn eash shen va'n Chreestiaght coontit myr tosheeaght ec y lught ooasle. Ec y traa v'ayn va'n chooid smoo jeh cummaltee yn ellan foast loayrt 'sy Ghaelg. Va ram lioaryn as clouyn currit magh 'sy cheead-bleeaney shen, y chooid smoo jeu currit magh liorish arrymee as shirveishee. B'eh Thomas Wilson yn aspick er yn ellan ec y traa shen, as, son dy chooney lesh ny shirveishee fockle Yee dy skeayley feie'n ellan, ren eh cur magh y lioar Principles and Duties of Christianity ny Coyrle Sodjey 'sy vlein 1707.[6]. 'Sy vlein 1748, liorish cooney veih ny h-ard-viggaryn Curghey as Walker tra v'ad er nyn bryssoonaghey ayns Cashtal Rosien 'sy vlein 1722, ren yn Aspick Williams çhyndaa yn Sushtal Scruit liorish yn Noo Mian va screeuit ec Ean Oliver.[29]

'Sy vlein 1755 hooar Wilson baase as va Aspick noa, Mark Hildesley, reiht da Aspickys Sodor as Vannin,[30] agh cha row jerrey currit er ny clouyn Gaelgagh. 'Sy vlein 1765 va çhyndaa jeh The Book of Common Prayer, ny Lioar ny Padjeryn Cadjin currit magh, ga dy ren yn Aspick John Phillips y chied çhyndaa er 'sy vlein 1610, çhyndaa nagh row currit er clou.[31][32][33][34] 'Sy vlein 1763 va'n chied chooid jeh'n Chonaant Noa currit magh ec y Society for the Propogation of Christian Knowledge fo cleaynaghey yn Aspick Hildesley, as va'n nah chooid currit magh kiare bleeantyn ny lurg. 'Sy vlein 1771 haink y chied ym-lioar jeh'n Çhenn Chonaant magh as yn obbyr v'ayn 'sy çhyndaa shen er ny scarrey eddyr kiare çhyndaaderyn as feed. Haink y nah chooid jeh'n Çhenn Chonaant magh 'sy vlein 1773 as haink y lane Chonaant Noa magh 'sy vlein 1775.[35] Ansherbee, cha vaik Hildesley eiyrtyssyn yn obbyr echey v'er cur magh lurg y vlein 1772, blein vaaish Hildesley.[36] 'Sy traa shen va'n Ghaelg failleil.

'Sy vlein 1766 cha row ayn agh un skeerey nagh row kiarail ynsagh trooid y Ghaelg. Agh 'sy vlein 1782 cha row agh 5 scoillyn feie'n ellan kiarail ynsagh trooid y Ghaelg, as y chooid elley nish kiarail yn ynsagh ayndaue trooid y Ghaelg, gyn y wooise da çhengey ghooie ny cummaltee.[6] Er y laue elley, va mooarane dy stooghyn er ny chur magh feie'n cheead-bleeaney, stooghyn scanshoil, goaill stiagh çhyndaa jeh Paradise Lost (Pargys Caillit) liorish John Milton 'sy vlein 1796,[37] gyn leagh da aavioghey yn çhengey ayns ny keead-bleeantyn elley.

Yn 19oo eash[reagh | edit source]

Logo yn Çheshaght Ghailckagh, sheshaght va currit er bun 'sy vlein 1899 liorish A. W. Moore son freayll as cur er oaie yn Ghaelg.

Ec toshiaght y 19oo eash cha row mooarane scansh currit er staydys y Ghaelg, as v'eh shen ry-akin da'n chooid smoo 'sy chorys ynsee as ayns ny kialteenyn er yn ellan. Cha row ynsagh 'sy Ghaelg ry-gheddyn agh ayns kuse veg dy scoillyn, agh va'n ynsagh 'sy Ghaelg currit stiagh reesht ayns scoillyn Doonee ayns ny 1820yn. Ansherbee, hie yn sorçh d'ynsagh shen er ny lhaggaghey mygeayrt y vlein 1872.[6] Va'n staydys er ny vroojey liorish y Clattys Ynsee 1872 tra va corys dy ynsagh ashoonagh currit er bun. Ga nagh row feme er ny scoillyn jannoo ynsaghey trooid y Vaarle, cha ren ny scoillyn jannoo nyn ynsaghey trooid y Ghaelg, agh trooid y Vaarle.[38][39] Hie yn corys shen er ny niartaghey rere y Clattys Ynsee 1892.

Agh ga nagh row scansh currit er y Ghaelg ayns ny scoillyn as ny kialteenyn ny smoo, cha row lhiettalys currit er cur magh reddyn 'sy Ghaelg, as ad cur cooney da'n aavioghey ayns ny bleeantyn s'anmey. 'Sy vlein 1804 hie A Practical Grammar of the Antient Gael[i]c; or Language of the Isle of Mann, Usually Called Manks ("Lioar Grammeydys ny Gaelgey") er ny chur magh liorish yn Arrymagh John Kelly. Va shalee echey fockleyr tree-hengagh dy chur magh 'sy vlein 1805, agh va'n lioar scrysst ayns aile 'syn oik prental.[40] 'Sy vlein 1822 hie Banglanyn y Chredjue Chreestee magh liorish y Prayer-book and Homily Society[37] as ayns 1835 hie A Dictionary of the Manx Language er ny chur magh liorish Archibald Cregeen (1774 - 1841), fockleyr ta coontit dys y laa t'ayn myr nane jeh ny fockleyryn smoo scanshoil 'sy Ghaelg.[41][40]

'Sy nah lieh jeh'n 19oo eash v'eh so-leayr ec pohllderyn y chultoor Manninagh dy row yn cultoor shen ayns gear-ghaue fo cleayney yn arraghey stiagh veih Sostyn, as ayns Toshiaght Arree 'sy vlein 1858 ren fir jeu cur er bun sheshaght ry hoi cur magh, ny aa-chur magh dagh red bentyn rish shennaghys as cultoor yn ellan fo'n ennym "The Manx Society for Publication of National Documents" ny "The Manx Society".[42][43] Harrish ny 25 bleeantyn va'n çheshaght gobbraghey, ren ee cur magh 33 ym-lioaryn bentyn rish Mannin, as clouyn elley goaill stiagh Recortyssyn Reeaghyn Vannin as ny h-Ellanyn (1859-60),[42] y Fockleyr Manninagh as Baarlagh liorish Juan y Kelly v'er ny reaghey ec yn Arrymagh William Gill (1866),[44] çhaglym jeh shennocklyn, raaghyn, bannagyn, a.r.e fo'n ennym Mona Miscellany (1869),[45] aa-chur magh A Practical Grammar of the Antient Gael[i]c liorish John Kelly (1870), as Coontey-Ghiare jeh Ellan Vannin, ayns Gailck v'er ny chur magh ec y Çheshaght 'sy vlein 1872, agh v'er ny screeu ec Joseph Bridson mygeayrt y vlein 1760.[46] Ansherbee, ayns ny bleeantyn jeianagh jeh'n çheshaght hie ee er ny sheebey, as 'sy vlein 1908 haink jerrey lesh y çheshaght. Va ny lioaryn, clouyn, docamadyn as nyn lheid astreeit gys y Thie Tashtee Manninagh as Treishteilee ny Lhiaghtyn Shenndeeagh.[47]

Agh gyn y wooise da obbyr y Manx Society, va earroo ny Gaelgeyryn foast tuittym, as v'eh shen ry-akin ayns ny staydraa: ny smoo na 12,300 Gaelgeyryn ayns ny 1870yn leah, agh ny sloo na 5,000 Gaelgeyryn ec toshiaght y 20oo eash. Dirree garrey son çheshaght Ghaelgagh car y lhing shen, as fo yerrey va'n Çheshaght Ghailckagh currit er bun 'sy vlein 1899 ry hoi freayltys as ardjaghey yn Ghaelg.[48][49]

Yn 20oo eash[reagh | edit source]

S'foddee yn 20-oo eash dy vrishey sheese ayns daa rheynn 'sy ghleashaght aavioghey. Ren y chied rheynn 'sy ghleashaght shen sheeyney veih bunneeaght y Çheshaght Ghailckagh ayns 1899 gys ny 1920yn tra ren Mona Douglas cur Aeglagh Vannin er bun as tra va Caarjyn Vannin currit er bun.[50] Ren y nah rheynn sheeyney veih ny 1970yn gys y laa t'ayn nish, lesh staydys oikoil ec y Ghaelg, bunscoillyn Gaelgagh, as nyn lheid. Va'n chied rheynn kianglt rish freayltys y Ghaelg myr çhengey ashoonagh as bio yn Ellan as, dy kinjagh, va Gaelgeyryn dooghyssagh ayn ayns ny bleeantyn shen rere ny coontaghyn-pobble. Ansherbee, va'n nah rheynn 'sy ghleashaght aavioghey kianglt rish pohlldal y Ghaelg as yn aalaanaghey eck.

'Sy chied lieh jeh'n 20oo eash va anaase mooar ec ram deiney ayns dagh red Gaelgagh, goaill stiagh y çhengey hene. Son dy chooney lesh yn aavioghey hie First Lessons in Manx liorish Edmund Goodwin er ny chur magh 'sy vlein 1901. 'Sy vlein shen va 59 Gaelgeyryn un-çhengagh foast ayn er yn Ellan, myrane lesh 4,419 Gaelgeyryn elley. Agh v'eh so-leayr ec graihderyn y Ghaelg dy row yn çhengey geddyn baase. Ny deiney nagh row jargal lhiettalys dy chur er eh shen, ren ad stiurey nyn eabyn oc ayns troaghyn Gaelgagh elley lheid as clubyn aegey, kiaull, a.r.e. Ayns 1921 haink y Cohaglym Celtiagh gys yn Ellan marish Douglas Hyde, chied Eaghtyrane Nerin. 'Sy vlein 1924 va'n Chruinnaght Vanninagh Ashoonagh currit er bun ec William Cubbon.[51][52] Ansherbee, gyn y wooise da ny h-eabyn v'ec ny deiney shen 'sy traa shen, cha row Gaelgeyryn un-hengagh da'n chied cheayrt er yn ellan rere y choontey-pobble ayns 1921, as cha row agh 529 Gaelgeyryn ayns 1931.[19]

Eddyr yn obbyr shen ayns ny 1920yn as ny 1970yn cha daghyr monney ayns aavioghey yn çhengey. Va ny kied recortyssyn rheaymyssagh jeant jeh'n çhengey 'sy vlein 1933 liorish yn Olloo Carl J. S. Marstrander veih'n Rheynn Cheltiagh ayns Ollooscoill Oslo,[19] Ren Coimisiún Béaloideasa Éireann ("Commishoon Beeal-Arrish Nerin") (1948) as y Manx Museum Folklife Survey (1949-51) jannoo straih jeh recortyssyn jeh ny Gaelgeyryn jerrinagh.[53] 'Sy vlein 1952 ren Douglas C. Fargher (1926 - 1987) guee er sleih Vannin 'sy phabyr-naight Mona's Herald raad screeu eh:

throw off apathy and disinterestedness and take part in another crusade which can harm no one, but which will strengthen us as individuals and as a nation. We refer to the crusade for maintaining and using the Manx Language. Join an Evening Class, Manxmen, and bring a friend with you.

Fargher as Woods (1952), Mona's Herald

Ga dy dooar y Gaelgeyr jerrinagh, Ned Maddrell, baase 'sy vlein 1974, va'n anaase 'sy Ghaelg er ny vleaystey veih toshiaght ny 1970yn,[54] as 'sy vlein 1976 va Clubyn Gaelgagh currit er bun ayns scoillyn ennagh.[6] 'Sy vlein 1979 hie yn fockleyr Baarle-Gaelg liorish Douglas C. Fargher er ny chur magh, y chied fockleyr Gaelgagh jeh'n 20-oo eash. Myrane lesh y çhengey, va anaase mooar ry-akin ayns kuse vooar dy reddyn Gaelgagh, lheid as y chiaull Vanninagh, y daunse Manninagh as reddyn elley lheid as shen. 'Sy vlein 1977 va Feailley Vanninagh Rhumsaa reaghit ec Mona Douglas, feailley v'er kelloorey dagh red bentyn rish y tradishoon Gaelgagh.[55][56] Va'n feailley aachummit blein ny lurg shen son dy 'reayll tradishoon y Chruinnaght Vanninagh Ashoonagh va currit er bun ayns ny 1920yn. Agh, 'sy chooish shoh, v'ee aachummit myr y Chruinnaght as ee ny feailley queig-laa as Eddyr-Cheltiagh nish.

Hie taghyrtyn bentyn rish y Ghaelg er oaie dy tappee ayns ny 1980yn as ny 1990yn. Va bunneydys yn ynsaghee as y staydys oikoil ec y Ghaelg currit sheese ayns ny 1980yn, as 'sy vlein 1982 va teisht y GCE O Level scruit da'n Ghaelg, ga dy row'n aarlagh jee er n'gheddyn ayns brastylyn fastyragh.[57] Va enney nish ec ny lughtyn-reill as va feme ec ny h-ynseyderyn sheshaght, bing ny corpane oikoil dy chur er bun da femeyn y voodeeys Gaelgagh, lheid as soilsheanyn, fockleyryn, termeeaght noa, a.r.e., dy chur er oaie as er bun. 'Sy vlein 1985 va Coonceil ny Gaelgey, fo-ving jeh Undinys Eiraght Vannin as bing slattyssagh jeh'n Reiltys, currit er bun ry hoi kiarail enmyssyn da rheynnyn reiltyssagh, enmyn straidey, as crooaght focklyn as abbyrtyn noa.[58]

Ayns ny 1990yn hie yn ghleashaght er troa noa, as ynsagh trooid y Ghaelg ayns aignaghyn ec ny paraantyn. Va'n Chied Chesmayd, possan cloie va currit er bun liorish paraantyn son dy chiarail çhymmyltaght raad dy row yn Ghaelg goll er loayrt mastey ny paitçhyn, currit er bun.[59] Son dy chur co-oardraghey 'syn ynnyd ynsee, ren y reiltys cur y chied Manx Language Officer, ny Oaseir Gailckagh, er bun, oik noa fo currym y Rheynn Ynsee, as by eh Brian Stowell y chied oikagh. 'Sy vlein cheddin va'n Ghaelg currit stiagh ayns ny scoillyn da'n chied cheayrt, ga nagh row egin ayn, as 'sy vlein 1997 va'n Teisht Chadjin Ghaelgagh currit ayns ynnyd y GCE O Level (cochorrym rish y GCSE). As, ec jerrey yn villey-bleeaney, ayns 1998 va Phil Gawne, fer mooar ayns skeeal y Ghaelg, pointit myr y Greinneyder, oik noa fo currym Undinys Eiraght Vannin as Eiraght Ashoonagh Vannin.

Staydys yn aavioghey jiu[reagh | edit source]

Ta'n Ghaelg er jeet er turrys liauyr veih toshiaght y failleil eck gys y laa t'ain. Rere y choontey-pobble 'sy vlein 2001 va mysh 2.2% jeh pobble yn ellan jargal loayrt, lhaih ny screeu 'sy Ghaelg.[60] 'Sy vlein 1990 cha row yn Ghaelg loayrit agh ec 0.9% y phobble ayns cosoylaght rish y 2% jeh'n phobble ayns 2001.[60] Myrane lesh y vishaghey ayns earroo ny Gaelgeyryn, ta barel foayroil ayn nish rish y Ghaelg, as rere towse-barel Gallup ayns 1991 ren 36% jeh'n lught freggyrt cur fys dy row barel foayroil oc rish cur stiagh y Ghaelg myr vrastyl reihyssagh ayns ny scoillyn.[61] 'Sy vlein 2001 va'n chied vrastyl lane-Ghaelgagh currit er bun ayns commeeys marish Mooinjer Veggey as Sheshaght ny Paarantyn çheusthie jeh Bunscoill Valley Vac Ottar ayns Doolish.[62] Ayns 2003 ren y Vrastyl Ghaelgagh scughey gys thie noa ayns Balley Keeill Eoin fo ennym noa, y Vunscoill Ghaelgagh.[63] Hoshiaght, cha row agh nuy paitçhyn recortyssit 'sy scoill, agh 'sy vlein 2009 va 65 paitçhyn 'sy scoill, myrane lesh 4 ynseyderyn.[64] Ec y traa t'ayn ta coorseyn ayns Gaelg as trooid y Ghaelg nish ry-gheddyn ayns ram bunscoillyn, meanscoillyn as ayns scoillyn as undinyssyn jeh'n trass cheim, lheid as y Laare-Studeyrys Manninagh ayns Lerphoyll, Sostyn.

'Sy vlein 2003 ren yn Reeriaght Unnaneysit, er son Mannin, shickyraghey y Chaart Oarpagh son Çhengaghyn Ardjynagh ny Mynçhengaghyn. Ta'n Ghaelg nish ry-akin er cowraghyn baayrey as straidey lesh çhyndaaghyn 'sy Vaarle as 'sy Ghaelg. Yn chooid smoo jeh baljyn as baljyn beggey, t'ad goaill shelloo er enmyn Gaelgagh as Baarlagh, as t'ad ry-akin er cowraghyn failt, er barooseyn, as er earrooyn traa baroose. Ta enmyn Gaelgagh ec rheynnyn y reiltys nish as ad ry-akin er cowraghyn, pabreydys as gleashtanyn.

Jeeagh er neesht[reagh | edit source]

Kianglaghyn mooie[reagh | edit source]

Imraaghyn[reagh | edit source]

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